Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 173 in total

  1. Mathew S, Zakaria ZA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2015 Jan;99(2):611-22.
    PMID: 25467926 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-014-6242-1
    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food.
  2. Hanafi HR, Zakaria ZA
    Case Rep Obstet Gynecol, 2017;2017:9821213.
    PMID: 29348951 DOI: 10.1155/2017/9821213
    Thoracoschisis is a rare congenital malformation characterized by herniation of the abdominal content through a defect in the thorax. There are previously 12 reported cases, most discussing the postnatal findings and management. Here we describe a case of left thoracoschisis with associated upper limb abnormality which was diagnosed antenatally with the aid of 3D ultrasound.
  3. Lope Pihie AH, Zakaria ZA, Othman F
    PMID: 22474490 DOI: 10.1155/2012/123470
    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway.
  4. Zakaria ZA, Aruleswaran N, Kaur S, Ahmad WA
    Water Sci Technol, 2007;56(8):117-23.
    PMID: 17978439
    Cr(VI) biosorption and bioreduction ability of locally isolated Cr-resistant bacteria was investigated using the shake-flask technique. A mixture of S. epidermidis and B. cereus showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) level at 750 mg/L Cr(VI) followed by S. aureus and Bacillus sp. of 250 mg/L, and A. haemolyticus of 70 mg/L. From the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the treatment of cells with heat-acid resulted in the highest amount of Cr(VI) adsorped (78.25 mg/g dry wt. for S. epidermidis) compared to heat-acetone (67.93 mg/g dry wt. Bacillus sp.), heat only (36.05 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis) or untreated cells (45.40 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis and B. cereus). FTIR analysis showed the involvement of amine groups in Cr(VI) adsorption. In the bioreduction study, A. haemolyticus was able to completely reduce Cr(VI) up to 50 mg/L.
  5. Shafiu Kamba A, Zakaria ZA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:215097.
    PMID: 24734228 DOI: 10.1155/2014/215097
    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanocrystals derived from cockle shells emerge to present a good concert in bone tissue engineering because of their potential to mimic the composition, structure, and properties of native bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response of CaCO3 nanocrystals on hFOB 1.19 and MC3T3 E-1 osteoblast cells in vitro. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed by MTT and BrdU assays, and LDH was measured to determine the effect of CaCO3 nanocrystals on cell membrane integrity. Cellular morphology was examined by SEM and fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that CaCO3 nanocrystals had no toxic effects to some extent. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and protein synthesis were enhanced by the nanocrystals when compared to the control. Cellular interactions were improved, as indicated by SEM and fluorescent microscopy. The production of VEGF and TGF-1 was also affected by the CaCO3 nanocrystals. Therefore, bio-based CaCO3 nanocrystals were shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and improve the osteointegration process.
  6. Mathew S, Abraham TE, Zakaria ZA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Sep;52(9):5790-8.
    PMID: 26344993 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-014-1704-0
    The free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of 16 phenolic compounds including four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives namely ferulic acid, caffeic acid, sinapic acid and p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid and its derivatives namely protocatechuic acid, gallic acid and vanillic acid, benzene derivatives namely vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, veratryl alcohol, veratraldehyde, pyrogallol, guaiacol and two synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) and propyl gallate were evaluated using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)), 2,2'-Azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS(+•)), Hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) and Superoxide radical (O2 (•-)) scavenging assays and reduction potential assay. By virtue of their hydrogen donating ability, phenolic compounds with multiple hydroxyl groups such as protocatechuic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, gallic acid and propyl gallate exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity especially against DPPH(•) and O2 (•-). The hydroxylated cinnamates such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid were in general better scavengers than their benzoic acid counter parts such as vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid. All the phenolic compounds tested exhibited more than 85 % scavenging due to the high reactivity of the hydroxyl radical. Phenolic compounds with multiple hydroxyl groups also exhibited high redox potential. Exploring the radical scavenging and reducing properties of antioxidants especially those which are found naturally in plant sources are of great interest due to their protective roles in biological systems.
  7. Venil CK, Zakaria ZA, Ahmad WA
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2015;62(2):185-90.
    PMID: 25979288 DOI: 10.18388/abp.2014_870
    Flexirubins are the unique type of bacterial pigments produced by the bacteria from the genus Chryseobacterium, which are used in the treatment of chronic skin disease, eczema etc. and may serve as a chemotaxonomic marker. Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, an yellowish-orange pigment producing strain was investigated for maximum production of pigment by optimizing medium composition employing response surface methodology (RSM). Culture conditions affecting pigment production were optimized statistically in shake flask experiments. Lactose, l-tryptophan and KH2PO4 were the most significant variables affecting pigment production. Box Behnken design (BBD) and RSM analysis were adopted to investigate the interactions between variables and determine the optimal values for maximum pigment production. Evaluation of the experimental results signified that the optimum conditions for maximum production of pigment (521.64 mg/L) in 50 L bioreactor were lactose 11.25 g/L, l-tryptophan 6 g/L and KH2PO4 650 ppm. Production under optimized conditions increased to 7.23 fold comparing to its production prior to optimization. Results of this study showed that statistical optimization of medium composition and their interaction effects enable short listing of the significant factors influencing maximum pigment production from Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497. In addition, this is the first report optimizing the process parameters for flexirubin type pigment production from Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497.
  8. Zakaria ZA, Mohammad Razin NS, Abas S
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2020 Nov;46(11):2442-2445.
    PMID: 32808401 DOI: 10.1111/jog.14435
    Inner myometrial laceration is a rarely encountered intrapartum uterine trauma, which usually present as post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). The diagnosis can only be confirmed by direct examination of the uterine cavity but it should be suspected in PPH with good uterine contraction. Discussed here are the characteristics and management of the reported cases including two women managed at our center.
  9. Kamba AS, Ismail M, Ibrahim TA, Zakaria ZA
    PMID: 25392577
    BACKGROUND: Currently, there has been extensive research interest for inorganic nanocrystals such as calcium phosphate, iron oxide, silicone, carbon nanotube and layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system especially in cancer therapy. However, toxicological screening of such particles is paramount importance before use as delivery carrier. In this study we examine the biocompatibility of CaCO3 nanocrystal on NIH 3T3 cell line.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Transmission and field emission scanning electron microscopy (TEM and FESEM) were used for the characterisation of CaCO3 nanocrystals. Cytotoxicity and genotoxic effect of calcium carbonate nanocrystals in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH 3T3 cell line using various bioassays including MTT, and Neutral red/Trypan blue double-staining assays. LDH, BrdU and reactive oxygen species were used for toxicity analysis. Cellular morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscope.

    RESULTS: The outcome of the analyses revealed a clear rod-shaped aragonite polymorph of calcium carbonate nanocrystal. The analysed cytotoxic and genotoxicity of CaCO3 nanocrystal on NIH 3T3 cells using different bioassays revealed no significance differences as compared to control. A slight decrease in cell viability was noticed when the cells were exposed to higher concentrations of 200 to 400 µg/ml, while increase in ROS generation and LDH released at 200 and 400 µg/ml was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study has shown that CaCO3 nanocrystal is biocompatible and non toxic to NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. The analysed results offer a promising potential of CaCO3 nanocrystal for the development of intracellular drugs, genes and other macromolecule delivery systems.

  10. Venil CK, Nordin N, Zakaria ZA, Ahmad WA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 2014 Sep;64(Pt 9):3153-9.
    PMID: 24958763 DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.063594-0
    A bacterial strain, designated UTM-3(T), isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Artocarpus integer (cempedak) in Malaysia was studied to determine its taxonomic position. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming rods, devoid of flagella and gliding motility, that formed yellow-pigmented colonies on nutrient agar and contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain UTM-3(T) with those of the most closely related species showed that the strain constituted a distinct phyletic line within the genus Chryseobacterium with the highest sequence similarities to Chryseobacterium lactis NCTC 11390(T), Chryseobacterium viscerum 687B-08(T), Chryseobacterium tructae 1084-08(T), Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae CC-VM-7(T), Chryseobacterium oncorhynchi 701B-08(T), Chryseobacterium vietnamense GIMN1.005(T), Chryseobacterium bernardetii NCTC 13530(T), Chryseobacterium nakagawai NCTC 13529(T), Chryseobacterium gallinarum LMG 27808(T), Chryseobacterium culicis R4-1A(T), Chryseobacterium flavum CW-E2(T), Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense CW9(T), Chryseobacterium ureilyticum CCUG 52546(T), Chryseobacterium indologenes NBRC 14944(T), Chryseobacterium gleum CCUG 14555(T), Chryseobacterium jejuense JS17-8(T), Chryseobacterium oranimense H8(T) and Chryseobacterium joostei LMG 18212(T). The major whole-cell fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 1ω9c, followed by summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7t) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, and the polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine and several unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content strain UTM-3(T) was 34.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium artocarpi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UTM-3(T) ( = CECT 8497(T) = KCTC 32509(T)).
  11. Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Suppaiah V, Ahmad S, Jamaludin F
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Feb 12;151(3):1184-1193.
    PMID: 24380736 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.045
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae) is locally known as kerukup siam. Its leaves, flowers, barks and roots have been used traditionally in East Asia and South America to treat various diseases including ulcer-related diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism(s) of gastroprotective effect of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura leaves (MEMC) using the pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration in rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five groups of rats (n=6) were administered orally once daily for 7 days with 8% Tween 80 (negative control), 100 mg/kg ranitidine (positive control), or MEMC (100, 250 or 500 mg/kg), followed by the ulcer induction via ligation of the pyloric part of the rat's stomach. This was followed by the macroscopic analysis of the stomach, evaluation of gastric content parameters, and quantification of mucus content. The antioxidant (measured using the superoxide anion and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays), anti-inflammatory (evaluated using the in vitro lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase assays), phytoconstituents and HPLC analysis of MEMC were also carried out.

    RESULTS: The MEMC significantly (p<0.05) reduced gastric lesion in this model. Furthermore, the extract also significantly (p<0.01) reduced the volume of gastric content whereas the total acidity was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg MEMC. Moreover, the mucus content increased significantly (p<0.01) in MEMC-treated rats. The extract also showed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in all assays tested, and demonstrated the presence of high tannins and saponins followed by flavonoids.

    CONCLUSION: The MEMC exerted gastroprotective effect via several mechanisms including the anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities could be attributed to the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids (e.g. rutin, quercitrin, fisetin and dihydroquercetin).

  12. Shafiu Kamba A, Ismail M, Tengku Ibrahim TA, Zakaria ZA
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:587451.
    PMID: 24324966 DOI: 10.1155/2013/587451
    The synthesised biobased calcium carbonate nanocrystals had demonstrated to be an effective carrier for delivery of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The use of these nanocrystals displayed high levels of selectivity and specificity in achieving effective cancer cell death without nonspecific toxicity. These results confirmed that DOX was intercalated into calcium carbonate nanocrystals at high loading and encapsulation efficiency (4.8 and 96%, resp.). The CaCO₃/DOX nanocrystals are relatively stable at neutral pH (7.4), resulting in slow release, but the nanocrystals progressively dissociated in acidic pH (4.8) regimes, triggering faster release of DOX. The CaCO₃/DOX nanocrystals exhibited high uptake by MDA MB231 breast cancer cells and a promising potential delivery of DOX to target cells. In vitro chemosensitivity using MTT, modified neutral red/trypan blue assay, and LDH on MDA MB231 breast cancer cells revealed that CaCO₃/DOX nanocrystals are more sensitive and gave a greater reduction in cell growth than free DOX. Our findings suggest that CaCO₃ nanocrystals hold tremendous promise in the areas of controlled drug delivery and targeted cancer therapy.
  13. Ching SM, Zakaria ZA, Paimin F, Jalalian M
    PMID: 23802882 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-148
    BACKGROUND: Limited study on the use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly in primary -care settings. This study seeks to understand the prevalence, types, expenditures, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of CAM use among patients with DM visiting outpatient primary care clinics.
    METHODS: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 240 diabetic patients. CAM is defined as a group of diverse medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional Western medicine. Data analysis was done using SPSS v. 19 and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of CAM use.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of CAM use was 62.5 percent. Female were 1.8 times more likely than male in using CAM. Malays (75%) were the most frequent users, followed Indians (18%) and Chinese (6%). Biological therapy (50.0%) were the most widely used, followed by manipulative-body based systems (9.2%), energy system (8.8%), alternative medicine systems (4.6%) and mind-body system (1.7%). In biological therapy, a total of 30.4 percent, 24.2 percent, 13.3 percent, and 7.9 percent of diabetic patients consumed bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia), followed by Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth), garlic (Allium Sativum), and Sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus Nutans Lindau) respectively. The mean of the expenditure on CAM usage was RM 52.8 ± 101.9 (US $16.9 ± 32.5) per month. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, being Muslim (OR 5.258, 95 percent CI 2.952-9.368) had significant positive association with CAM use.
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CAM use was high among diabetics. Islam faith is predictor for CAM use among Type 2 DM patients. The most-common herbs used were bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia) and Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus, Benth). Further studies on the anti-glycemic activity of the isolated compound may be needed in the future.
  14. Teh LK, Hashim H, Zakaria ZA, Salleh MZ
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2012 Aug;136(2):249-59.
    PMID: 22960892
    Genetic polymorphisms of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) have been associated with a wide variation of responses among patients prescribed with irinotecan. Lack of this enzyme is known to be associated with a high incidence of severe toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of three different variants of UGT1A1 (UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28), which are associated with reduced enzyme activity and increased irinotecan toxicity, in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians).
  15. Teh LK, Zahri MK, Zakaria ZA, Ismail R, Salleh MZ
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2010 Dec;35(6):723-8.
    PMID: 21054465 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01146.x
    CYP2C8 is involved in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase pathway. Arachidonic acid metabolites such as epoxyeicosatrienenoic acids and hydroxyeicosatetrenoic acids, produced may have a role in hypertension. We aimed to develop a medium through-put method for screening samples of known and new mutations of CYP2C8 using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC).
  16. Zakaria ZA, Patahuddin H, Mohamad AS, Israf DA, Sulaiman MR
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Mar 2;128(1):42-8.
    PMID: 20035852 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.021
    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used by the Malays to treat headaches, toothaches, coughs, asthma and fever.

    Aim of the study: In order to establish the pharmacological properties of the leaf of this plant, studies were performed on anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Materials and methods: The aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (AEPS) was prepared in the doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. Anti-nociceptive activity of AEPS was evaluated by abdominal constriction and hot-plate tests. AEPS was also pre-challenged with 5mg/kg naloxone to determine the involvement of opioid receptors. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay.

    Results: Subcutaneous administration of AEPS exhibited anti-nociceptive activity (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in the abdominal constriction and hot-plate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone completely (P<0.05) diminished the extract anti-nociceptive activity in both tests. The AEPS, at all doses used, exerted significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in a dose-dependent manner.

    Conclusions: The AEPS exhibits opioid-mediated anti-nociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels, as well as anti-inflammatory activity, which confirmed the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of pain- and inflammatory-related ailments.
  17. Somchit N, Ngee CS, Yaakob A, Ahmad Z, Zakaria ZA
    J Toxicol, 2009;2009:912320.
    PMID: 20130764 DOI: 10.1155/2009/912320
    Itraconazole and fluconazole have been reported to induce hepatotoxicity in patients. The present study was designed to investigate the role of cytochrome P450 inhibitors, SKF 525A, and curcumin pretreatment on the cytotoxicity of antifungal drugs fluconazole and itraconazole. For 3 consecutive days, female rats were administered daily SKF 525A or curcumin (5 and 25 mg/kg). Control rats received an equivalent amount of dosed vehicle. The animals were anaesthetized 24 hours after receiving the last dose for liver perfusion. Hepatocytes were then exposed to various concentrations of antifungal drugs. In vitro incubation of hepatocytes with itraconazole revealed significantly lower viability when compared to fluconazole as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. The cytotoxicity of itraconazole was enhanced when incubated with hepatocytes pretreated with SKF 525A. SKF 525A had no effects on the cytotoxicity of fluconazole. Curcumin failed to either increase or decrease the cytotoxicity of both antifungal drugs. ATP levels also showed significant decrease in both itraconazole and fluconazole incubated hepatocytes. However, SKF 525A pretreated hepatocytes had significantly lower ATP levels after itraconazole incubations. Collectively, these results confirm the involvement of cytochrome P450 in the cytoprotection in itraconazole induced hepatocyte toxicity. Differences of the effects of SKF 525A on the cytotoxicity induced by itraconazole and fluconazole may be due to the differences on the metabolism of each antifungal drug in vivo.
  18. Zakaria ZA, Zakaria Z, Surif S, Ahmad WA
    J Hazard Mater, 2007 Sep 5;148(1-2):164-71.
    PMID: 17368716
    Acinetobacter haemolyticus, a Gram-negative aerobic locally isolated bacterium, immobilized on wood-husk showed the ability to detoxify Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Wood-husk, a natural cellulose-based support material, packed in an upward-flow column was used as support material for bacterial attachment. Around 97% of the Cr(VI) in wastewater containing 15 mg L(-1) of Cr(VI) was reduced at a flow rate of 8.0 mL min(-1). The wastewater containing Cr(VI) was added with liquid pineapple wastewater as nutrient source for the bacteria. Electron microscopic examinations of the wood-husk after 42 days of column operation showed gradual colonization of the wood-husk by bacterial biofilm. The use of 0.1% (v/v) formaldehyde as a disinfecting agent inhibited growth of bacteria present in the final wastewater discharge. This finding is important in view of the ethical code regarding possible introduction of exogenous bacterial species into the environment.
  19. Zakaria ZA, Zakaria Z, Surif S, Ahmad WA
    J Hazard Mater, 2007 Jul 19;146(1-2):30-8.
    PMID: 17188812
    Possible application of a locally isolated environmental isolate, Acinetobacter haemolyticus to remediate Cr(VI) contamination in water system was demonstrated. Cr(VI) reduction by A. haemolyticus seems to favour the lower concentrations (10-30 mg/L). However, incomplete Cr(VI) reduction occurred at 70-100 mg/L Cr(VI). Initial specific reduction rate increased with Cr(VI) concentrations. Cr(VI) reduction was not affected by 1 or 10 mM sodium azide (metabolic inhibitor), 10 mM of PO(4)3-, SO4(2-), SO(3)2-, NO3- or 30 mg/L of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) ions. However, heat treatment caused significant dropped in Cr(VI) reduction to less than 20% only. A. haemolyticus cells loses its shape and size after exposure to 10 and 50 mg Cr(VI)/L as revealed from TEM examination. The presence of electron-dense particles in the cytoplasmic region of the bacteria suggested deposition of chromium in the cells.
  20. Taher M, Tg Zakaria TM, Susanti D, Zakaria ZA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016;16(1):135.
    PMID: 27208974 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1118-9
    Various parts of Garcinia mangostana Linn., including its pericarp, have been traditionally used to treat a variety of ailments. In an attempt to establish its medicinal value, the present study was carried out to determine the hypoglycaemic potential of G. mangostana pericarp ethanolic extract (GME) using the streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats.
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