Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 142 in total

  1. Abdullah JM, Zhang J
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Apr 1;13(5):744-8.
    PMID: 23373649
    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is composed of a variety of subunits and combinations and shows a characteristic distribution in the CNS. To date, 20 subunits of the GABA A receptor have been cloned: α1-6, β1-4, γ1-3, δ, π, ε , Θ, and ρ1-3. Oocyte of Xenopus laevis is one of the most frequently used heterologous expression systems, which are used to design and analyze specific combinations of GABA A receptor subunits. In oocytes, a certain GABA A receptor function is studied only by comparing the amplitude of the response to GABA and other drugs by physiological and pharmacological methods. According to the studies on Xenopus laevis oocytes, the α1β2γ2S receptor combination is mostly used. The α1-containing receptors mediate sedative and anticonvulsant acts. The results of studies on oocytes show that PKA, NKCC1, P2X3 receptors, and GABA A receptor-associated protein, etc., are existing systems that show different reactivity to the GABA A receptors. The GABA A receptor subunits contain distinct binding sites for BZDs, neurosteroids, general anesthetics, etc., which are responsible for the numerous functions of the GABA A receptor. A variety of other drugs, such as topiramate, TG41, (+)- and (-)-borneol, apigenin, and 6-methylflavone could also have modulatory effects on the GABA A receptors. Some of the different models and hypotheses on GABA A receptor structure and function have been achieved by using the two-electrode voltage clamp method in oocytes.
  2. Zhang J, Lei F
    Integr Zool, 2010 Sep;5(3):264-71.
    PMID: 21392344 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00212.x
    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution.
  3. Chen W, Zhang J, Geng Z, Zhu D
    Yi Chuan Xue Bao, 1994;21(3):179-87.
    PMID: 7917431
    We report the fact that D. albomicans invaded into Shanghai suddenly in the autumn of 1991. Using 9 restriction enzymes, we analyse the RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 29 isofemale lines belonging to 4 populations of Shanghai, Jiading, Qinpu and Nanhui. We find that all 29 haplotypes are different from each other. Comparing with the populations of Canton, Kunming, Sanhutan (Taiwan), Sumoto (Japan), and Kuala Lumper (Malaysia), we come to the conclusion that D. albomicans caught in Shanghai and areas nearby is from a few of places in the south of China-mainland. This conclusion agrees with the viewpoint that this species is on the speciation stage of migration towards north. We also discuss the mtDNA polymorphism within the species.
  4. Shanmuga Sundara Raj S, Fun HK, Zhang J, Xiong RG, You XZ
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2000 Jun 1;56(Pt 6):E274-5.
    PMID: 15263128
    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C(12)H(10)N(4), the pyridine ring makes a dihedral angle of 1.12 (9) degrees with the mean plane of the complete almost planar and crystallographically centrosymmetric molecule. There are stacks of parallel molecules along the a-axis direction, with alternate stacks having a herring-bone arrangement relative to each other and an interplanar spacing of 3.551 A.
  5. Yu D, Zhang J, Li P, Zheng R, Shao C
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0124825.
    PMID: 25875761 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124825
    he Chinese tiger frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus is widely distributed in southern China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is listed in Appendix II of CITES as the only Class II nationally-protected frog in China. The bred tiger frog known as the Thailand tiger frog, is also identified as H. rugulosus. Our analysis of the Cyt b gene showed high genetic divergence (13.8%) between wild and bred samples of tiger frog. Unexpected genetic divergence of the complete mt genome (14.0%) was also observed between wild and bred samples of tiger frog. Yet, the nuclear genes (NCX1, Rag1, Rhod, Tyr) showed little divergence between them. Despite this and their very similar morphology, the features of the mitochondrial genome including genetic divergence of other genes, different three-dimensional structures of ND5 proteins, and gene rearrangements indicate that H. rugulosus may be a cryptic species complex. Using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses, Hoplobatrachus was resolved as a sister clade to Euphlyctis, and H. rugulosus (BT) as a sister clade to H. rugulosus (WT). We suggest that we should prevent Thailand tiger frogs (bred type) from escaping into wild environments lest they produce hybrids with Chinese tiger frogs (wild type).
  6. Zhong X, Li Y, Zhang J, Han FS
    Org. Lett., 2015 Feb 6;17(3):720-3.
    PMID: 25602274 DOI: 10.1021/ol503734x
    The synthesis of a pentacyclic indole compound corresponding to the core structure of the misassigned indole alkaloid, tronoharine (1), is presented. The key reactions were a formal [3 + 3] cycloaddition of an indol-2-yl carbinol with an azadiene for the construction of the 6/5/6/6 tetracyclic system containing an all-carbon quaternary center and an intramolecular substitution reaction of an amine and a triflate for the creation of the bridged azepine ring. In addition, some other interesting transformations discovered during the synthetic studies are also discussed.
  7. Zhou L, Wang P, Zhang J, Heng BC, Tong GQ
    Zygote, 2016 Feb;24(1):89-97.
    PMID: 25672483 DOI: 10.1017/S0967199414000768
    ING2 (inhibitor of growth protein-2) is a member of the ING-gene family and participates in diverse cellular processes involving tumor suppression, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and cellular senescence. As a subunit of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex co-repressor complex, ING2 binds to H3K4me3 to regulate chromatin modification and gene expression. Additionally, ING2 recruits histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity for gene repression, which is independent of the HDAC class I or II pathway. However, the physiological function of ING2 in mouse preimplantation embryo development has not yet been characterized previously. The expression, localization and function of ING2 during preimplantation development were investigated in this study. We showed increasing expression of ING2 within the nucleus from the 4-cell embryo stage onwards; and that down-regulation of ING2 expression by endoribonuclease-prepared small interfering RNA (esiRNA) microinjection results in developmental arrest during the morula to blastocyst transition. Embryonic cells microinjected with ING2-specific esiRNA exhibited decreased blastulation rate compared to the negative control. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism indicated that down-regulation of ING2 significantly increased expression of p21, whilst decreasing expression of HDAC1. These results suggest that ING2 may play a crucial role in the process of preimplantation embryo development through chromatin regulation.
  8. Mohsin M, Zhang J, Saidur R, Sun H, Sait SM
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Aug;26(22):22494-22511.
    PMID: 31161545 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05564-6
    In this study, we proposed integrated tools to evaluate the wind power potential, economic viability, and prioritize 15 proposed sites for the installation of wind farms. Initially, we used modified Weibull distribution model coupled with power law to assess the wind power potential. Secondly, we employed value cost method to estimate per unit cost ($/kWh) of proposed sites. Lastly, we used Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (F-TOPSIS) to rank the best alternatives. The results indicate that Pakistan has enormous wind power potential that cost varies from 0.06 $/kWh to 0.58 $/kWh; thus, sites S12, S13, S14, and S15 are considered as the most economic viable locations for the installation of wind power project, while remaining sites are considered to be less important, due to other complexities. The further analysis using Fuzzy-TOPSIS method reveals that site S13 is the most optimal location followed by S12, S14, and S14 for the development of wind power project. We proposed that government should formulate wind power policy for the implementation of wind power projects in order to meet energy demand of the country.
  9. He L, Gong H, Zhang J, Zhong C, Huang Y, Zhang C, et al.
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Jul;23(4):531-41.
    PMID: 27298588 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.02.021
    The effects of differences in smoke concentration and exposure duration in Sprague Dawley rats to determine variation in type and severity of the testis apoptosis were evaluated. The daily dosages were 10, 20 and 30 non-filter cigarettes for a period of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Mainstream smoke exposure suppressed body weight gain in all regimens. A dose-related increase in plasma nicotine concentration was observed in smoke-exposed groups for 4, 6, 8 and 12 week regimens. Histopathological examination of the exposed groups showed disturbances in the stages of spermatogenesis, tubules atrophying and these appeared to be dose-related. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 immunostaining was detected both in Sertoli cells and germ cells in smoke-exposure groups. An increase in TUNEL-positive cells of testicular cells was observed after 6 weeks of cigarette exposure. The results indicate that cigarette exposure concentration and duration have interaction effect to induce apoptosis in the rat testes.
  10. Ab Malik N, Zhang J, Lam OL, Jin L, McGrath C
    J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2017 Jan;24(1):209-217.
    PMID: 27274013 DOI: 10.1093/jamia/ocw045
    Computer-aided learning (CAL) offers enormous potential in disseminating oral health care information to patients and caregivers. The effectiveness of CAL, however, remains unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to systematically review published evidence on the effectiveness of CAL in disseminating oral health care information to patients and caregivers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured comprehensive search was undertaken among 7 electronic databases (PUBMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, WEB of SCIENCE, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO) to identify relevant studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included in this review. Papers were screened by 2 independent reviewers, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected for further assessment.

    RESULTS: A total of 2915 papers were screened, and full texts of 53 potentially relevant papers (κ = 0.885) were retrieved. A total of 5 studies that met the inclusion criteria (1 RCT, 1 quasi-experimental study, and 3 post-intervention studies) were identified. Outcome measures included knowledge, attitude, behavior, and oral health. Significant improvements in clinical oral health parameters (P 

  11. Wang J, Vijaykrishna D, Duan L, Bahl J, Zhang JX, Webster RG, et al.
    J. Virol., 2008 Apr;82(7):3405-14.
    PMID: 18216109 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02468-07
    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave 1 H5N1 viruses, we recently conducted further sequencing and analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73 H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to the clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (clade 2.1). Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses were genotype Z and shared high similarity (>/=99%) with their corresponding descendant viruses in most gene segments. These results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia during 2002 and 2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan to Indonesia remains unclear.
  12. Liu W, Zhang J, Hashim JH, Jalaludin J, Hashim Z, Goldstein BD
    Environ. Health Perspect., 2003 Sep;111(12):1454-60.
    PMID: 12948883
    Burning mosquito coils indoors generates smoke that can control mosquitoes effectively. This practice is currently used in numerous households in Asia, Africa, and South America. However, the smoke may contain pollutants of health concern. We conducted the present study to characterize the emissions from four common brands of mosquito coils from China and two common brands from Malaysia. We used mass balance equations to determine emission rates of fine particles (particulate matter < 2.5 microm in diameter; PM(2.5)), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aldehydes, and ketones. Having applied these measured emission rates to predict indoor concentrations under realistic room conditions, we found that pollutant concentrations resulting from burning mosquito coils could substantially exceed health-based air quality standards or guidelines. Under the same combustion conditions, the tested Malaysian mosquito coils generated more measured pollutants than did the tested Chinese mosquito coils. We also identified a large suite of volatile organic compounds, including carcinogens and suspected carcinogens, in the coil smoke. In a set of experiments conducted in a room, we examined the size distribution of particulate matter contained in the coil smoke and found that the particles were ultrafine and fine. The findings from the present study suggest that exposure to the smoke of mosquito coils similar to the tested ones can pose significant acute and chronic health risks. For example, burning one mosquito coil would release the same amount of PM(2.5) mass as burning 75-137 cigarettes. The emission of formaldehyde from burning one coil can be as high as that released from burning 51 cigarettes.
  13. Zhang J, Chu R, Chen Y, Jiang H, Zhang Y, Huang NM, et al.
    Nanotechnology, 2018 Jan 19.
    PMID: 29350621 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aaa94c
    Binder-free nickle cobaltite on carbon nanofiber (NiCo2O4@CNF) anode for lithium ion batteries was prepared via a two-step procedure of electrospinning and electrodeposition. The CNF was obtained by annealing the electrospun poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) in the nitrogen (N2). The NiCo2O4 nanostructures were then grown on the CNF by electrodeposition, followed by annealing in the air. Experimental results showed vertically aligned NiCo2O4 nanosheets were uniformly grown on the surface of CNF, forming an interconnected network. The NiCo2O4@CNF possessed considerable lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. It exhibited a high reversible capacity of 778 mAhg-1 after 300 cycles at a current density of 0.25 C (1 C = 890 mAg-1) with an average capacity loss rate of 0.05% per cycle. The NiCo2O4@CNF had considerable rate capacities, delivering a capacity of 350 mAhg-1 at a current density of 2.0 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance could be mainly attributed to these following reasons. (1) The nanoscale structure of NiCo2O4 could not only shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions and electrons but also increase the specific surface area, providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions. (2) The CNF with considerable mechanical strength and electrical conductivity could function as anchor the NiCo2O4 nanostructure and ensure an efficient electron transfer. (3) The porous structure resulted in high specific surface area and effective buffer the volume changes during the repeated charge-discharge processes. Compared with the conventional hydrothermal method, the electrodeposition could significantly simplify the preparation of NiCo2O4, with shorter preparation period and lower energy consumption. This work provided an alternative strategy to obtain high performance anode for the lithium ion batteries.
  14. Chu RX, Lin J, Wu CQ, Zheng J, Chen YL, Zhang J, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2017 Jun 23.
    PMID: 28644506 DOI: 10.1039/c7nr02423a
    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted great attention owing to their excellent electrochemical properties, such as the high discharge voltage of 2.3 V, specific capacity of 1675 mA h g(-1) and energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1). The widely used slurry made electrodes of Li-S batteries are plagued by the serious shuttle effect and insulating nature of sulfur. Herein, a reduced graphene oxide coated porous carbon nanofiber flexible paper (rGO@S-PCNP) was fabricated and directly used as an additive-free cathode for Li-S batteries. The results show that the rGO@S-PCNP is certified to be effective at relieving the shuttle effect and improving the conductivity, thus achieving high electrochemical performance. The rGO@S-PCNP composite with a sulfur content of 58.4 wt% delivers a high discharge capacity of 623.7 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles at 0.1 C (1 C = 1675 mA g(-1)) with the average Coulombic efficiency of 97.1%. The excellent cyclability and high Coulombic efficiency indicate that the as-prepared rGO@S-PCNP composite paper can be a promising cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries, and is envisioned to have great potential in high energy density flexible power devices. This facile strategy brings great significance for large-scale industrial fabrication of flexible lithium-sulfur batteries.
  15. Zhang J, Chu R, Chen Y, Jiang H, Zeng Y, Zhang Y, et al.
    Nanotechnology, 2018 Dec 20.
    PMID: 30572323 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aafa25
    Carbon-coated nickel cobaltate on nickel foam (C@NCO@NF) with stable pseudocapacitive lithium storage capacity was prepared via a two-step strategy. NiCo hydroxide were initially grown on Ni foam via electrodeposition. Subsequent glucose soaking and annealing converted the intermediate into C@NCO@NF. Carbon coating could significantly improve cycling stability and rate performance of the binder-free anode. The C@NCO@NF electrode could stably deliver a reversible capacity of 513 mAh∙g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 500 mA∙g-1. It could even stably cycle at a high current density of 5000 mA∙g-1 for 3000 times, with a reversible capacity of 115 mAh∙g-1. Kinetic analysis revealed that surface-controlled pseudo-capacitance play a dominate role in the lithium ion storage. Improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergetic effect of pseudo-capacitance and carbon coating.
  16. Chen Y, Ge D, Zhang J, Chu R, Zheng J, Wu C, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2018 Sep 20;10(36):17378-17387.
    PMID: 30203824 DOI: 10.1039/c8nr01195h
    Tin-based materials have been intensively studied as attractive candidates for high-capacity and long-cycle-life anodes in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their low cost and high energy density. However, they all suffer from severe structural decay during the lithium ion insertion/extraction process, which results in deterioration in the overall performance of the batteries. To mitigate this problem, we have synthesized a Mo-doped SnO2 nanostructure via a facile hydrothermal method, which then fragmented into ultrafine particles after dozens of cycles. The fracture-resistant size and ample contact with Super-P and Li2O greatly improved the electrochemical kinetics and cyclability to deliver a reversible capacity of 670 mA h g-1 after 700 cycles, which demonstrated the potential suitability of Mo-doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a long-cycle-life anode material. Then, the compounds were uniformly dispersed in carbon nanofibers and reduced in situ to prepare a free-standing anode via electrospinning and carbonization. When used directly as an anode in LIBs (without a polymeric binder or conductive agent, as well as a current collector), the nanofiber membrane anode delivered comparable cycling performance and capacity to that of a slurry-coated electrode.
  17. Lew B, Chistopolskaya K, Liu Y, Talib MA, Mitina O, Zhang J
    Crisis, 2019 Apr 02.
    PMID: 30935245 DOI: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000604
    BACKGROUND: According to the strain theory of suicide, strains, resulting from conflicting and competing pressures in an individual's life, are hypothesized to precede suicide. But social support is an important factor that can mitigate strains and lessen their input in suicidal behavior.

    AIMS: This study was designed to assess the moderating role of social support in the relation between strain and suicidality.

    METHODS: A sample of 1,051 employees were recruited in Beijing, the capital of China, through an online survey. Moderation analysis was performed using SPSS PROCESS Macro. Social support was measured with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and strains were assessed with the Psychological Strains Scale.

    RESULTS: Psychological strains are a good predictor of suicidality, and social support, a basic need for each human being, moderates and decreases the effects of psychological strains on suicidality.

    LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional survey limited the extent to which conclusions about causal relationships can be drawn. Furthermore, the results may not be generalized to the whole of China because of its diversity.

    CONCLUSION: Social support has a tendency to mitigate the effects of psychological strains on suicidality.

  18. Zhang J, Ming C, Zhang W, Okechukwu PN, Morak-Młodawska B, Pluta K, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:3045-3063.
    PMID: 29123378 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S144415
    The asymptomatic properties and high treatment resistance of ovarian cancer result in poor treatment outcomes and high mortality rates. Although the fundamental chemotherapy provides promising anticancer activities, it is associated with severe side effects. The derivative of phenothiazine, namely, 10H-3,6-diazaphenothiazine (PTZ), was synthesized and reported with ideal anticancer effects in a previous paper. In this study, detailed anticancer properties of PTZ was examined on A2780 ovarian cancer cells by investigating the cytotoxicity profiles, mechanism of apoptosis, and cell invasion. Research outcomes revealed PTZ-induced dose-dependent inhibition on A2780 cancer cells (IC50 =0.62 µM), with significant less cytotoxicity toward HEK293 normal kidney cells and H9C2 normal heart cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) suggests PTZ-induced cell death through oxidative damage. The RT2 Profiler PCR Array on apoptosis pathway demonstrated PTZ-induced apoptosis via intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) and extrinsic (cell death receptor-dependent) pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB and subsequent inhibition of (BIRC6-XIAP) complex activities reduced the invasion rate of A2780 cancer cells penetrating through the Matrigel™ Invasion Chamber. Lastly, the cell cycle analysis hypothesizes that the compound is cytostatic and significantly arrests cell proliferation at G2/M phase. Hence, the exploration of the underlying anticancer mechanism of PTZ suggested its usage as promising chemotherapeutic agent.
  19. Zhang J, Mohamad FH, Wong JH, Mohamad H, Ismail AH, Mohamed Yusoff AA, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):101-113.
    PMID: 29599640 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.12
    Background: Bamboo shoot has been used as a treatment for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine for generations to treat neuronal disorders such as convulsive, dizziness and headaches. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-hba) is a non-flavonoid phenol found abundantly inDendrocalamus aspershoots (bamboo), fruits (strawberries and apples) and flowers. Kv1.4 is a rapidly inactivatingShaker-related member of the voltage-gated potassium channels with two inactivation mechanisms; the fast N-type and slow C-type. It plays vital roles in repolarisation, hyperpolarisation and signaling the restoration of resting membrane potential through the regulation of the movement of K+across the cellular membrane.

    Methods: Chemical compounds fromDendrocalamus asperbamboo shoots were purified and identified as major palmitic acids mixed with other minor fatty acids, palmitic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, lauric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and cholest-4-ene-3-one. The response of synthetic 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was tested on Kv1.4 potassium channel which was injected into viable oocytes that was extracted fromXenopus laevis. The current were detected by the two-microelectrode voltage clamp, holding potential starting from -80 mV with 20 mV step-up until +80 mV. Readings of treatments with 0.1% DMSO, 4-hba concentrations and K channel blockers were taken at +60 mV. The ratio of tail/peak amplitude is the index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channels withn≥ 6 (number of oocytes tested). The decreases of the ratios of five different concentrations (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) were compared with 0.1% DMSO as the control.

    Results: All concentration showed statistically significant results withP< 0.05 except for 100 μM. The normalised current of the 4-hba concentrations were compared with potassium channel blockers (TEA and 4-AP) and all groups showed statistically significant results. This study also showed that time taken for each concentration to affect Kv1.4 does not play any significant roles.

    Conclusion: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was found to be able to enhance the inactivation of Kv1.4 by lowering the membrane potential so that the abnormal neuronal firing can be inhibited. With IC50 slightly higher than 10 μM, increasing concentrations (100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) had shown to exhibit toxicity effects. The best concentration from this study is 10 μM with Hill slope of 0.1799.

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