The effects of children’s exposure on high concentration of airborne pollutants at schools often associated with increased rate of absenteeism, low productivities and learning performances, and development of respiratory problems. Recent studies have found that the presence of occupants in the classroom seems to give major effect towards the elevation of concentration of airborne pollutants in indoors. In order to evaluate and further understand on the significance of occupancy factor on IAQ, this study has been designed to determine and compare the level of selected physical (particulate matter (PM)) and chemical (carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature) IAQ parameters and biological contaminants via colony forming unit (CFUm-3 ) for bacteria and fungi inside the selected classrooms during occupied and non-occupied period (first objective). The second objective is to describe the possible sources of airborne pollutants inside the classrooms at the selected primary schools around Kuantan, Pahang. Assessments of physical and chemical IAQ were done by using instruments known as DustMate Environmental Dust Detector and VelociCalc® MultiFunction Ventilation Meter 9565.The data were recorded every 30 minutes for 8 hours during schooldays and weekend at the selected sampling point in the classrooms. For microbial sampling, Surface Air System Indoor Air Quality (SAS IAQ) was used to capture the bacteria and fungi. The data obtained were compared with the established standard reference known as the Industrial Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality (2010) constructed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia. This study has found that some of the IAQ parameters in the selected classrooms were exceeding the established standards during occupied period in schooldays compared to non-occupied period during weekend. Findings of this study provide the insights for future research including the site selection of school, arrangement of the classrooms and numbers of students per class.
Economic losses due to health-related implications of air pollution were huge and incurred significant burdens towards healthcare providers. The objective of this study is to systematically review published literature on the financial implications of air pollution on health in Asia. Four databases: PubMed, Scopus, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), and Web of Science (WoS) were used to identify all the relevant articles. It was limited to all articles that had been published in the respected databases from January 2007 until March 2017. Twenty-four articles were included in this review. Five of the 24 studies (20.8%) reported financial implications of air pollution-related disease through value of statistical life (VOSL) which ranged from USD180 million to USD2.2 billion, six (25%) studies used cost of illness (COI) to evaluate air pollution-related morbidity and found that the cost ranged from USD5.4 million to USD9.1 billion. Another six studies (25%) used a combination of VOSL and COI for both mortality and morbidity valuation and found that the financial implications ranging from USD253 million to USD2.9 billion. Thirteen (54.2%) studies reported healthcare cost associated with both hospital admission and outpatient visit, five (20.1%) on hospital admission only, and one (4.2%) on outpatient visit only. Economic impacts of air pollution can be huge with significant deterioration of health among the Asians.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants/analysis; Air Pollutants/economics; Air Pollution/analysis; Air Pollution/economics*
Pumping air through a soft tissue which acts as a membrane is a relatively easy and quick method to collect and measure radon/thoron and its daughter nuclides in air. Analysis of the activity of the radionuclides can be calculated using an alpha counter which has been calibrated. In this method the activity of radon/thoron cannot be separated from the activity of radionuclides already present in the aerosol or dust particles.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis*; Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis*
Membrane fouling is a major challenge in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and its effective handling is the key to improve their competitiveness. Tilting panel system offers significant improvements for fouling control but is strictly limited to one-sided panel. In this study, we assess a two-way switch tilting panel system that enables two-sided membranes and project its implications on performance and energy footprint. Results show that tilting a panel improves permeance by up to 20% to reach a plateau flux thanks to better contacts between air bubbles and the membrane surface to scour-off the foulant. A plateau permeance could be achieved at aeration rate of as low as 0.90 l min-1, a condition untenable by vertical panel even at twice of the aeration rate. Switching at short periods (<5min) can maintain the hydraulic performance as in no-switch (static system), enables application of a two-sided switching panel. A comparison of vertical panel under 1.80 l min-1 aeration rate with a switching panel at a half of the rate, switched at 1 min period shows ≈10% higher permeance of the later. Since periodic switching consumes a very low energy (0.55% of the total of 0.276 kWh m-3), with reduction of aeration by 50%, the switching tilted panel offers 41% more energy efficient than a referenced full-scale MBR (0.390 kWh m-3). Overall results are very compelling and highly attractive for significant improvements of MBR technologies.
Intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves can serve as useful tools in risk assessment of extreme environmental events. Thus, this study proposes an IDF approach for evaluating the risk of expected occurrences of extreme air pollution as measured by an air pollution index (API). Hourly data of Klang city in Malaysia from 1997 to 2016 are analyzed. For each year, a block maxima size is determined based on four different monsoon seasons. Generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is used as a model to represent the probabilistic behavior of maximum intensity of the API, which is derived from each block. Based on the GEV model, the IDF curves are developed to estimate the extreme pollution intensities that correspond to various duration hours and return periods. Considering the IDF curves, we found that for any duration hour, the magnitude of pollution intensity tends to be high in parallel with increasing return periods. In fact, a high-intensity pollution event that poses a high risk of affecting the environment is less frequent than low-intensity pollution. In conclusion, the IDF curves provide a good basis for decision makers to assess the expected risk of extreme pollution events in the future.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants*; Air Pollution*
Modeling and evaluating the behavior of particulate matter (PM10) is an important step in obtaining valuable information that can serve as a basis for environmental risk management, planning, and controlling the adverse effects of air pollution. This study proposes the use of a Markov chain model as an alternative approach for deriving relevant insights and understanding of PM10 data. Using first- and higher-order Markov chains, we analyzed daily PM10 index data for the city of Klang, Malaysia and found the Markov chain model to fit the PM10 data well. Based on the fitted model, we comprehensively describe the stochastic behaviors in the PM10 index based on the properties of the Markov chain, including its states classification, ergodic properties, long-term behaviors, and mean return times. Overall, this study concludes that the Markov chain model provides a good alternative technique for obtaining valuable information from different perspectives for the analysis of PM10 data.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants/analysis*; Air Pollution/analysis*
Due to the increase of the human population and the rapid industrial growth in the past few decades, air quality monitoring is essential to assess the pollutant levels of an area. However, monitoring air quality in a high-density area like Sunway City, Selangor, Malaysia is challenging due to the limitation of the local monitoring network. To establish a comprehensive data for air pollution in Sunway City, a mobile monitoring campaign was employed around the city area with a duration of approximately 6 months, from September 2018 to March 2019. Measurements of air pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were performed by using mobile air pollution sensors facilitated with a GPS device. In order to acquire a more in-depth understanding on traffic-related air pollution, the measurement period was divided into two different time blocks, which were morning hours (8 a.m.-12 p.m.) and afternoon hours (3 p.m.-7 p.m.). The data set was analysed by splitting Sunway City into different zones and routes to differentiate the conditions of each region. Meteorological variables such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were studied in line with the pollutant concentrations. The air quality in Sunway City was then compared with various air quality standards such as Malaysian Air Quality Standards and World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines to understand the risk of exposure to air pollution by the residence in Sunway City.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants/analysis*; Air Pollution/analysis*
Pollution in Southeast Asia is a major public energy problem and the cause of energy losses. A significant problem with respect to this type of pollution is that it decreases energy yield. In this study, two types of photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays were used to evaluate the effect of air pollution. The performance of two types of solar arrays were analysed in this research, namely, two units of a 1 kWp tracking flat photovoltaic (TFP) and two units of a 1 kWp fixed flat photovoltaic arrays (FFP). Data analysis was conducted on 2,190 samples at 30 min intervals from 01st June 2013, when both arrays were washed, until 30th June 2013. The performance was evaluated by using environmental data (irradiation, temperature, dust thickness, and air pollution index), power output, and energy yield. Multiple regression models were predicted in view of the environmental data and PV array output. Results showed that the fixed flat system was more affected by air pollution than the tracking flat plate. The contribution of this work is that it considers two types of photovoltaic arrays under the Southeast Asian pollution 2013.
Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ) is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN--a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC), base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room's conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution; Air Pollution, Indoor
A month hourly measurement of radon concentration was taken in the bedroom of a two story link house in Kuala Lumpur. The house is a typical urban house in Malaysia, constructed with bricks, concrete and cement plaster. These materials are natural sources of radon in the house. The hourly radon concentration was found to vary from 0 pCiL-1 to 3 pCiL-1. It was found to peak during early morning and to minimize in the evening. The daily average radon concentration varied from 0.2 pCiL-1 to 1.0 pCiL-1.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants, Radioactive; Air Pollution, Radioactive
Indoor air quality has been a major public concern recently. Several health effects are related to this problem.
Findings from several studies have shown MVAC system as the main contributor for IAQ problem. Good practice of
maintenance and servicing is important to maintain MVAC system, especially the filter. Good air filtration for MVAC
system is needed to make sure adequate air is received by the occupants. This paper illustrated a recent study of air
filtration for MVAC system especially for several industries that used MVAC system in their premises. This paper also
proposed an air filtration study for a better air quality. Several Acts and Regulations related to Safety and Health were
identified to create the framework for the proposed study. Air filtration technique was used in this preliminary study
to set up guidelines to create safe and clean indoor spaces for workers and occupants.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution; Air Pollution, Indoor
This study examines the three-way linkage relationships between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia, covering the 1975-2015 period. An autoregressive distributed lag approach was employed to achieve the objective of the study and gauged by dynamic ordinary least squares. Additionally, vector error correction model, variance decompositions and impulse response functions were employed to further examine the relationship between the interest variables. The findings show that economic growth is neither influenced by energy consumption nor by CO2 emission. Energy consumption is revealed to be an increasing function of CO2 emission. Whereas, CO2 emission positively and significantly depends on energy consumption and economic growth. This implies that CO2 emission increases with an increase in both energy consumption and economic growth. Conclusively, the main drivers of CO2 emission in Malaysia are proven to be energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, renewable energy sources ought to be considered by policy makers to curb emission from the current non-renewable sources. Wind and biomass can be explored as they are viable sources. Energy efficiency and savings should equally be emphasised and encouraged by policy makers. Lastly, growth-related policies that target emission reduction are also recommended.
Recent findings of an unexpected slowdown in the decline of CFC-11 mixing ratios in the atmosphere have led to the conclusion that global CFC-11 emissions have increased over the past decade and have been attributed in part to eastern China. This study independently assesses these findings by evaluating enhancements of CFC-11 mixing ratios in air samples collected in Taiwan between 2014 and 2018. Using the NAME (Numerical Atmospheric Modeling Environment) particle dispersion model, we find the likely source of the enhanced CFC-11 observed in Taiwan to be East China. Other halogenated trace gases were also measured, and there were positive interspecies correlations between CFC-11 and CHCl3, CCl4, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, CH2Cl2, and HCFC-22, indicating co-location of the emissions of these compounds. These correlations in combination with published emission estimates of CH2Cl2 and HCFC-22 from China, and of CHCl3 and CCl4 from eastern China, are used to estimate CFC-11 emissions. Within the uncertainties, these estimates do not differ for eastern China and the whole of China, so we combine them to derive a mean estimate that we term as being from "(eastern) China". For 2014-2018, we estimate an emission of 19 ± 5 Gg year-1 (gigagrams per year) of CFC-11 from (eastern) China, approximately one-quarter of global emissions. Comparing this to previously reported CFC-11 emissions estimated for earlier years, we estimate CFC-11 emissions from (eastern) China to have increased by 7 ± 5 Gg year-1 from the 2008-2011 average to the 2014-2018 average, which is 50 ± 40% of the estimated increase in global CFC-11 emissions and is consistent with the emission increases attributed to this region in an earlier study.
A preliminary study has been conducted in a new constructed 8 stories building (2 level of Hostels facility, 3 level of Training Room, 2 Level of Offices and 1 level of Exhibition Halls and Rooms) in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The Hostels facility is a floor tile and furnished with build in locker and use split air conditioning system while the Training Room and Exhibition Rooms used floor tile. The Offices and Exhibition Hall are carpeted furnished. All these spaces were using centralized air conditioning systems. A pre-commissioning assessment on 5 chemical parameters of indoor air pollutants such Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), Formaldehyde, Respirable Particulates (PM!
Matched MeSH terms: Air Conditioning; Air Pollutants; Air Pollution, Indoor
Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The chemical composition and morphology of the solid particulates suspended in rainwater were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dataset was further interpreted using enrichment factors (EF), statistical analysis, and a back trajectory (BT) model to find the possible sources of the particulates and pollutants. The results show a drop in rainwater pH from near neutral (pH 6.54) to acidic (
Matched MeSH terms: Air Movements; Air Pollutants*
Seasonal haze episodes and the associated inimical health impacts have become a regular crisis among the ASEAN countries. Even though many emerging experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the plausible health effects of the predominating toxic pollutants of haze, the consistency among the reported findings by these studies is poorly understood. By addressing such gap, this review aimed to critically highlight the evidence of physical and psychological health impacts of haze from the available literature in ASEAN countries. Systematic literature survey from six electronic databases across the environmental and medical disciplines was performed, and 20 peer-reviewed studies out of 384 retrieved articles were selected. The evidence pertaining to the health impacts of haze based on field survey, laboratory tests, modelling and time-series analysis were extracted for expert judgement. In specific, no generalization can be made on the reported physical symptoms as no specific symptoms recorded in all the reviewed studies except for throat discomfort. Consistent evidence was found for the increase in respiratory morbidity, especially for asthma, whilst the children and the elderly are deemed to be the vulnerable groups of the haze-induced respiratory ailments. A consensual conclusion on the association between the cardiovascular morbidity and haze is unfeasible as the available studies are scanty and geographically limited albeit of some reported increased cases. A number of modelling and simulation studies demonstrated elevating respiratory mortality rates due to seasonal haze exposures over the years. Besides, evidence on cancer risk is inconsistent where industrial and vehicular emissions are also expected to play more notable roles than mere haze exposure. There are insufficient regional studies to examine the association between the mental health and haze. Limited toxicological studies in ASEAN countries often impede a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanism of haze-induced toxic pollutants on human physiology. Therefore, the lack of consistent evidence among the reported haze-induced health effects as highlighted in this review calls for more intensive longitudinal and toxicological studies with greater statistical power to disseminate more reliable and congruent findings to empower the institutional health planning among the ASEAN countries.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants/analysis*; Air Pollutants/toxicity
The Three Gorges Dam's construction and industrial transfer have resulted in a new air pollution pattern with the potential to threaten the reservoir eco-environment. To assess the impact of socioeconomic factors on the pattern of air quality vairation and economical risks, concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM10, industry genres, and meteorological conditions were selected in the Three Gorges Reservoir of Chongqing (TGRC) during 2006-2015. Results showed that air quality had improved to some extent, but atmospheric NO2 showed an increased trend during 2011-2015. Spatially, higher atmospheric NO2 extended to the surrounding area. The primary industry, especially for agriculture, had shown to be responsible for the remarkable increase of atmospheric NO2 (p air pollutant reductions, but construction industries had inhibited the improvement of regional air quality. In the tertiary industry, the cargo industry at ports had significantly decreased atmospheric NO2 as a result of eliminating the obsoleted small ships. Contrarily, the highway transportation had brought more air pollutants. The relative humidity was shown to be the main meteorological factor, which had an extremely remarkable relation with atmospheric SO2 (p air quality improvement difficult, and atmospheric SO2, NO2, and PM10 deposition would aggravate regional soil and water acidification and reactivate heavy metal in soil and sediment, further to pose a high level of ecological risk in the TGRC and other countries with reservoirs in the world.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants; Air Pollution*
Airborne bacteria are significant biotic constituents of bioaerosol. Bacteria at high concentrations in the air can compromise indoor air quality (IAQ) and result in many diseases. In tropical environments like Malaysia that extensively utilize air-conditioning systems, this is particularly significant due to continuous recirculation of indoor air and the potential implications for human health. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of airborne bacteria on IAQ in Malaysia. This study was prompted by a need for reliable baseline data on airborne bacteria in the indoor environment of tropical equatorial Malaysia, that may be used as a reference for further investigations on the potential role played by airborne bacteria as an agent of disease in this region. It was further necessitated due to the threat of bioterrorism with the potentiality of release of exotic pathogenic microorganisms into indoor or outdoor air. Before scientists can detect the latter, a gauge of the common microorganisms in indoor (as well as outdoor) air needs to be ascertained, hence the expediency of this study. Bacterial counts from the broad-based and targeted study were generally in the order of 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU) per m(3) of air. The most prevalent airborne bacteria found in the broad-based study that encompassed all five levels of the building were Gram-positive cocci (67.73%), followed by Gram-positive rods (24.26%) and Gram-negative rods (7.10%). Gram-negative cocci were rarely detected (0.71%). Amongst the genera identified, Kytococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Leifsonia sp., Bacillus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. predominated in indoor air. The most dominant bacterial species were Kytococcus sedentarius, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. The opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also discovered at a high percentage in the cafeteria. The bacteria isolated in this study have been increasingly documented to cause opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised patients, sometimes with fatal outcomes. Furthermore, some of them are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Hence, we propose that indoor reservoirs of these bacteria and their associated clinical and more subtle health effects, if any, be investigated further.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Microbiology*; Air Pollution, Indoor*
Rural background stations provide insight into seasonal variations in pollutant concentrations and allow for comparisons to be made with stations closer to anthropogenic emissions. In Malaysia, the designated background station is located in Jerantut, Pahang. A fifteen-year data set focusing on ten major air pollutants and four meteorological variables from this station were analysed. Diurnal, monthly and yearly pollutant concentrations were derived from hourly continuous monitoring data. Statistical methods employed included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. Although only one of the yearly concentrations of the pollutants studied exceeded national and World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline standards, namely PM10, seven of the pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, THC and CH4) showed a positive upward trend over the 15-year period. High concentrations of PM10 were recorded during severe haze episodes in this region. Whilst, monthly concentrations of most air pollutants, such as: PM10, O3, NOx, NO2, CO and NmHC were recorded at higher concentrations between June and September, during the southwest monsoon. Such results correspond with the mid-range transport of pollutants from more urbanised and industrial areas. Diurnal patterns, rationed between major air pollutants and sensitivity analysis, indicate the influence of local traffic emissions on air quality at the Jerantut background station. Although the pollutant concentrations have not shown a rapid increase, an alternative background station will need to be assigned within the next decade if development projects in the surrounding area are not halted.
Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollutants/analysis*; Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data*