Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Wen MM, El-Salamouni NS, El-Refaie WM, Hazzah HA, Ali MM, Tosi G, et al.
    J Control Release, 2017 01 10;245:95-107.
    PMID: 27889394 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.11.025
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with high prevalence in the rapidly growing elderly population in the developing world. The currently FDA approved drugs for the management of symptomatology of AD are marketed mainly as conventional oral medications. Due to their gastrointestinal side effects and lack of brain targeting, these drugs and dosage regiments hinder patient compliance and lead to treatment discontinuation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (NTDDS) administered by different routes can be considered as promising tools to improve patient compliance and achieve better therapeutic outcomes. Despite extensive research, literature screening revealed that clinical activities involving NTDDS application in research for AD are lagging compared to NTDDS for other diseases such as cancers. The industrial perspectives, processability, and cost/benefit ratio of using NTDDS for AD treatment are usually overlooked. Moreover, active and passive immunization against AD are by far the mostly studied alternative AD therapies because conventional oral drug therapy is not yielding satisfactorily results. NTDDS of approved drugs appear promising to transform this research from 'paper to clinic' and raise hope for AD sufferers and their caretakers. This review summarizes the recent studies conducted on NTDDS for AD treatment, with a primary focus on the industrial perspectives and processability. Additionally, it highlights the ongoing clinical trials for AD management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  2. Ng PY, Chang IS, Koh RY, Chye SM
    Metab Brain Dis, 2020 10;35(7):1049-1066.
    PMID: 32632666 DOI: 10.1007/s11011-020-00591-6
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been a worldwide concern for many years now. This is due to the fact that AD is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects quality of life. Failure of some Phase II/III clinical trials in AD targeting accumulation of β-amyloid in the brain has led to an increase in interest in studying alternative treatments against tubulin-associated unit (Tau) pathology. These alternative treatments include active and passive immunisation. Based on numerous studies, Tau is reported as a potential immunotherapeutic target for tauopathy-related diseases including AD. Accumulation and aggregation of hyperphosphorylated Tau as neuropil threads and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) are pathological hallmarks of AD. Both active and passive immunisation targeting Tau protein have shown the capabilities to decrease or prevent Tau pathology and improve either motor or cognitive impairment in various animal models. In this review, we summarise recent advances in active and passive immunisation targeting pathological Tau protein, and will discuss with data obtained from both animal and human trials. Together, we give a brief overview about problems being encountered in these immunotherapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  3. Ishima Y, Mimono A, Tuan Giam Chuang V, Fukuda T, Kusumoto K, Okuhira K, et al.
    IUBMB Life, 2020 04;72(4):641-651.
    PMID: 31794135 DOI: 10.1002/iub.2203
    Deposition of amyloid protein, particularly Aβ1-42 , is a major contributor to the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, almost no deposition of Aβ in the peripheral tissues could be found. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in the blood, has been reported to inhibit amyloid formation through binding Aβ, which is believed to play an important role in the peripheral clearance of Aβ. We identified the Aβ binding site on HSA and developed HSA mutants with high binding capacities for Aβ using a phage display method. HSA fragment 187-385 (Domain II) was found to exhibit the highest binding capacity for Aβ compared with the other two HSA fragments. To elucidate the sequence that forms the binding site for Aβ on Domain II, a random screening of Domain II display phage biopanning was constructed. A number of mutants with higher Aβ binding capacities than the wild type were identified. These mutants exhibited stronger scavenging abilities than the wild type, as revealed via in vitro equilibrium dialysis of Aβ experiments. These findings provide useful basic data for developing a safer alternative therapy than Aβ vaccines and for application in plasma exchange as well as extracorporeal dialysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy
  4. Das S, Laskar MA, Sarker SD, Choudhury MD, Choudhury PR, Mitra A, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2017 Jul;28(4):324-331.
    PMID: 28168765 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2679
    INTRODUCTION: Prenylated and pyrano-flavonoids of the genus Artocarpus J. R. Forster & G. Forster are well known for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, anti-cholinergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Some of these compounds have also been shown to be effective against Alzheimer's disease.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the in silico study was to establish protocols to predict the most effective flavonoid from prenylated and pyrano-flavonoid classes for AChE inhibition linking to the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    METHODOLOGY: Three flavonoids isolated from Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq. were selected for the study. With these compounds, Lipinski filter, ADME/Tox screening, molecular docking and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) were performed in silico. In vitro activity was evaluated by bioactivity staining based on the Ellman's method.

    RESULTS: In the Lipinski filter and ADME/Tox screening, all test compounds produced positive results, but in the target fishing, only one flavonoid could successfully target AChE. Molecular docking was performed on this flavonoid, and this compound gained the score as -13.5762. From the QSAR analysis the IC50 was found to be 1659.59 nM. Again, 100 derivatives were generated from the parent compound and docking was performed. The derivative compound 20 was the best scorer, i.e. -31.6392 and IC50 was predicted as 6.025 nM.

    CONCLUSION: Results indicated that flavonoids could be efficient inhibitors of AChE and thus, could be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  5. Warrier S, Marimuthu R, Sekhar S, Bhuvanalakshmi G, Arfuso F, Das AK, et al.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2016 06;75:104-11.
    PMID: 27063405 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2016.04.002
    The extracellular ligand, Wnt, and its receptors are involved in sign al transduction and play an important role in axis formation and neural development. In neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), a decrease of the intracellular Wnt effector, β-catenin, has been linked to amyloid-β-peptide-induced neurotoxicity. Despite this knowledge, targeting Wnt inhibitors as potential biomarkers has not been explored, and harnessing Wnt activators as therapeutic candidates remains largely not investigated. A wide acting family of Wnt mediators, secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), has not been probed so far as molecular indicators of disease occurrence and progression of Alzheimer's. Unlike the effect of the Dickkopf (DKK) family of Wnt antagonists on AD, the sFRP molecules have a more pleiotropic impact on the Wnt signaling cascade and probably have a far-reaching involvement in neurodegeneration. The role of sFRPs has been poorly described in AD, and in this review, we analyze the present status of the role of sFRPs on neurodegeneration, their likely involvement, and potential implications in treatment modalities of AD. This information would provide valuable clues for the development of potential therapeutic targets for aberrant neurodegenerative disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  6. Fong Yen W, Basri M, Ahmad M, Ismail M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:495271.
    PMID: 25853145 DOI: 10.1155/2015/495271
    Galantamine hydrobromide is formulated in tablets and capsules prescribed through oral delivery for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, oral delivery of drugs can cause severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects. In this work, galantamine hydrobromide was formulated in gel drug reservoir which was then fabricated in the transdermal patch. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug release from the donor chamber to receptor chamber of Franz diffusion cell was affected by the amount of polymer, amount of neutralizer, amount of drug, types of permeation enhancer, and amount of permeation enhancer. Visual observations of the gels showed that all formulated gels are translucent, homogeneous, smooth, and stable. These gels have pH in the suitable range for skin. The gel also showed high drug content uniformity. Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  7. Paudel YN, Angelopoulou E, Piperi C, Othman I, Aamir K, Shaikh MF
    Cells, 2020 02 07;9(2).
    PMID: 32046119 DOI: 10.3390/cells9020383
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia, with accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) as defining pathological features. AD presents a serious global health concern with no cure to date, reflecting the complexity of its pathogenesis. Recent evidence indicates that neuroinflammation serves as the link between amyloid deposition, Tau pathology, and neurodegeneration. The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an initiator and activator of neuroinflammatory responses, has been involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. HMGB1 is a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein that exerts its biological activity mainly through binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). RAGE and TLR4 are key components of the innate immune system that both bind to HMGB1. Targeting of HMGB1, RAGE, and TLR4 in experimental AD models has demonstrated beneficial effects in halting AD progression by suppressing neuroinflammation, reducing Aβ load and production, improving spatial learning, and inhibiting microglial stimulation. Herein, we discuss the contribution of HMGB1 and its receptor signaling in neuroinflammation and AD pathogenesis, providing evidence of its beneficial effects upon therapeutic targeting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  8. Ali MA, Ismail R, Choon TS, Yoon YK, Wei AC, Pandian S, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2010 Dec 1;20(23):7064-6.
    PMID: 20951037 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.09.108
    Series of pyrolidine analogues were synthesized and examined as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Among the compounds, compounds 4k and 6k were the most potent inhibitors of the series. Compound 4k, showed potent inhibitory activity against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) 0.10 μmol/L. Pyrolidine analogues might be potential acetyl cholinesterase agents for AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy
  9. Islam MA, Khandker SS, Alam F, Khalil MI, Kamal MA, Gan SH
    Curr Top Med Chem, 2017;17(12):1408-1428.
    PMID: 28049401 DOI: 10.2174/1568026617666170103163054
    Alzheimer's disease (AD), which largely affects the elderly, has become a global burden. Patients with AD have both short- and long-term memory impairments. The neuronal loss in AD occurs due to abnormally folded amyloid beta proteins and aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in the brain. Eventually, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are formed, which subsequently disintegrate the neuronal transport system. There are several factors which are involved in AD pathogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation and the presence of metal ions. The modern therapies utilized for AD treatment have many adverse effects, driving the quest for more safe and effective medications. Many dietary components, including different types of fruits, vegetables, spices, and marine products as well as a Mediterranean diet, are a good source of antioxidants and have anti-inflammatory properties, with many showing substantial potential against AD pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the potential of these foods for treating AD and opportunities for developing disease-targeted drugs from active compounds extracted from natural dietary products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  10. Md S, Gan SY, Haw YH, Ho CL, Wong S, Choudhury H
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Oct 15;118(Pt A):1211-1219.
    PMID: 30001606 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.06.190
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasingly prevalent neurological disorder of the central nervous system. There is growing evidence that amyloidogenesis is a pathological hallmark for AD; this leads to the formation of senile plaques. Naringenin is a bioflavonoid which has neuroprotective effects through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its clinical usage is limited due to its inefficient transport across biological membranes. In the present study, a naringenin nanoemulsion was prepared and its neuroprotective effects were tested against β-amyloid induced neurotoxicity in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). The optimised, naringenin-loaded nanoemulsion formulation had a droplet size of 113.83 ± 3.35 nm and around 50 nm, as assessed respectively by photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The preparation showed a low polydispersity index (0.312 ± 0.003), a high zeta potential (12.4 ± 1.05) and a high percentage transmittance (97.01%). The neuroprotective activity of naringenin nanoemulsions was determined by assessing their ability to protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against the neurotoxic effect of beta amyloid (Aβ). Aβ-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-secretase (BACE), total tau and phosphorylated tau (pT231) was also determined. The naringenin loaded nanoemulsion significantly alleviated the direct neurotoxic effects of Aβ on SH-SY5Y cells; this was associated with a down-regulation of APP and BACE expression, indicating reduced amyloidogenesis. Furthermore, it decreased the levels of phosphorylated tau in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Aβ. These results suggest that a naringenin-loaded nanoemulsion could be a promising agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  11. Kongpakwattana K, Dilokthornsakul P, Dejthevaporn C, Pattanaprateep O, Chaiyakunapruk N
    J Med Econ, 2019 Jan;22(1):26-34.
    PMID: 30303420 DOI: 10.1080/13696998.2018.1534739
    Aims: Due to the lack of studies evaluating compliance or persistence with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) treatment outside High-Income Countries (HICs), this study aimed to assess compliance, persistence, and factors associated with non-compliance and non-persistence by utilizing existing "real-world" information from multiregional hospital databases in Thailand.Materials and methods: Study subjects were retrospectively identified from databases of five hospitals located in different regions across Thailand. AD patients aged ≥60 years who were newly-prescribed with donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, or memantine between 2013 and 2017 were eligible for analysis. The Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) was used as a proxy for compliance, while the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was employed to estimate persistence. Logistic and Cox regressions were used to assess determinants of non-compliance and non-persistence, adjusted for age and gender.Results: Among 698 eligible patients, mean (SD) MPR was 0.83 (0.25), with 70.3% of the patients compliant to the treatment (having MPR ≥ 0.80). Half of the patients discontinued their treatment (having a treatment gap >30 days) within 177 days with a 1-year persistence probability of 21.1%. The patients treated in the university-affiliated hospital were more likely to be both non-compliant (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.21-2.42) and non-persistent (HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.12-1.58). In addition, non-compliance was higher for those prescribed with single AD treatment (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.35-4.69), while non-persistence was higher for those unable to reimburse for AD treatment (HR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.11-1.62).Limitations: By using retrospective databases, a difficulty in validating whether the medications are actually taken after being refilled may over-estimate the levels of compliance and persistence. Meanwhile, possible random coding errors may under-estimate the strength of association findings.Conclusions: This study reveals the situation of compliance and persistence on AD treatment for the first time outside HICs. The determinants of non-compliance and non-persistence underline key areas for improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  12. Tadokoro K, Ohta Y, Inufusa H, Loon AFN, Abe K
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Mar 13;21(6).
    PMID: 32183152 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21061974
    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) from its prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment. There is an interplay between oxidative stress and the amyloid β (Aβ) cascade via various mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glycoxidation, deoxyribonucleotide acid damage, altered antioxidant defense, impaired amyloid clearance, inflammation and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Based on findings that indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in AD, oxidative stress has been considered as a therapeutic target of AD. In spite of favorable preclinical study outcomes, previous antioxidative components, including a single antioxidative supplement such as vitamin C, vitamin E or their mixtures, did not clearly show any therapeutic effect on cognitive decline in AD. However, novel antioxidative supplements can be beneficial for AD patients. In this review, we summarize the interplay between oxidative stress and the Aβ cascade, and introduce novel antioxidative supplements expected to prevent cognitive decline in AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  13. Pandey M, Choudhury H, Verma RK, Chawla V, Bhattamisra SK, Gorain B, et al.
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2020;19(9):648-662.
    PMID: 32819251 DOI: 10.2174/1871527319999200819095620
    Alzheimer Association Report (2019) stated that the 6th primary cause of death in the USA is Alzheimer's Disease (AD), which leads to behaviour and cognitive impairment. Nearly 5.8 million peoples of all ages in the USA have suffered from this disease, including 5.6 million elderly populations. The statistics of the progression of this disease is similar to the global scenario. Still, the treatment of AD is limited to a few conventional oral drugs, which often fail to deliver an adequate amount of the drug in the brain. The reduction in the therapeutic efficacy of an anti-AD drug is due to poor solubility, existence to the blood-brain barrier and low permeability. In this context, nasal drug delivery emerges as a promising route for the delivery of large and small molecular drugs for the treatment of AD. This promising pathway delivers the drug directly into the brain via an olfactory route, which leads to the low systemic side effect, enhanced bioavailability, and higher therapeutic efficacy. However, few setbacks, such as mucociliary clearance and poor drug mucosal permeation, limit its translation from the laboratory to the clinic. The above stated limitation could be overcome by the adaption of nanoparticle as a drug delivery carrier, which may lead to prolong delivery of drugs with better permeability and high efficacy. This review highlights the latest work on the development of promising Nanoparticles (NPs) via the intranasal route for the treatment of AD. Additionally, the current update in this article will draw the attention of the researcher working on these fields and facing challenges in practical applicability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  14. Vanessa VV, Mah SH
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(17):2507-2529.
    PMID: 33583373 DOI: 10.2174/1389557521666210212152514
    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results in progressive and irreversible central nervous system impairment, which has become one of the severe issues recently. The most successful approach of Alzheimer's treatment is the administration of cholinesterase inhibitors to prevent the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and subsequently improve cholinergic postsynaptic transmission. This review highlights a class of heterocycles, namely xanthone, and its remarkable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Naturally occurring xanthones, including oxygenated, prenylated, pyrano, and glycosylated xanthones, exhibited promising inhibition effects towards acetylcholinesterase. Interestingly, synthetic xanthone derivatives with complex substituents such as alkyl, pyrrolidine, piperidine, and morpholine have shown greater acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities. The structure-activity relationship of xanthones revealed that the type and position of the substituent(s) attached to the xanthone moiety influenced acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities where hydrophobic moiety will lead to an improved activity by contributing to the π-π interactions, as well as the hydroxy substituent(s) by forming hydrogen-bond interactions. Thus, further studies, including quantitative structure-activity relationship, in vivo and clinical validation studies are crucial for the development of xanthones into novel anti-Alzheimer's disease drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  15. Lai SSM, Ng KY, Koh RY, Chok KC, Chye SM
    Metab Brain Dis, 2021 08;36(6):1087-1100.
    PMID: 33881723 DOI: 10.1007/s11011-021-00737-0
    The endosomal-lysosomal system mediates the process of protein degradation through endocytic pathway. This system consists of early endosomes, late endosomes, recycling endosomes and lysosomes. Each component in the endosomal-lysosomal system plays individual crucial role and they work concordantly to ensure protein degradation can be carried out functionally. Dysregulation in the endosomal-lysosomal system can contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD endosomal-lysosomal abnormalities are the earliest pathological features to note and hence it is important to understand the involvement of endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. In-depth understanding of this dysfunction can allow development of new therapeutic intervention to prevent and treat AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  16. Tang CT, Belani LK, Das S, Jaafar MZ
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(1):43-6.
    PMID: 23455743 DOI: 10.7417/T.2013.1511
    Dementia is a common symptom observed in many psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of senile dementia seen in the general population. Multiple factors like oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation may be related to the neurodegenerative states. Many drugs like cholinesterase have been used for treatment but the progression of the disease still poses a challenge to the clinician. During recent times, herbs have gained much popularity as supplements because of the cost effectiveness, easy availability and fewer side effects. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may help in the prevention of mortality and morbidity concerned with any neurodegenerative disease. Understanding the cellular and molecular biology of the mode of the action of herbal products may be beneficial for researchers and clinicians. The present review article attempts to look into the potential herbal extracts which may act as an antioxidant in combating dementia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy
  17. Prodhan AHMSU, Cavestro C, Kamal MA, Islam MA
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2021;20(8):736-754.
    PMID: 34348635 DOI: 10.2174/1871527320666210804155617
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by sleep, behavioral, memory, and cognitive deteriorations. Sleep disturbance (SD) is a major disease burden in AD, which has a reciprocal relationship with AD pathophysiology. It aggravates memory, behavioral, and cognitive complications in AD. Different studies have found that melatonin hormone levels reduce even in the pre-clinical stages of AD. Melatonin is the primary sleep-regulating hormone and a potent antioxidant with neuroprotective roles. The decrease in melatonin levels can thus promote SD and AD neuropathology. Exogenous melatonin has the potential to alleviate neuropathology and SD in AD by different mechanisms. Various studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of exogenous melatonin to treat SD in AD. Though most of the studies suggest that melatonin is useful to ameliorate SD in AD, the remaining studies show opposite results. The timing, dosage, and duration of melatonin administration along with disease condition, genetic, environmental, and some other factors can be responsible for the discrepancies between the studies. More extensive trials with longer durations and higher dosage forms and studies including bright light therapy and melatonin agonists (ramelteon, agomelatine, and tasimelteon) should be performed to determine the efficacy of melatonin to treat SD in AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  18. Prakash A, Kalra J, Mani V, Ramasamy K, Majeed AB
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2015 Jan;15(1):53-71.
    PMID: 25495260 DOI: 10.1586/14737175.2015.988709
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common CNS disorder occurring worldwide. There is neither proven effective prevention for AD nor a cure for patients with this disorder. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop safer and more efficacious drugs to help combat the tremendous increase in disease progression. The present review is an attempt at discussing the treatment strategies and drugs under clinical trials governing the modulation of neurotransmitter. Therefore, looking at neurotransmitter abnormalities, there is an urge for developing the pharmacological approaches aimed at correcting those abnormalities and dysfunctioning. In addition, this review also discusses the drugs that are in Phase III trials for the treatment of AD. Despite advances in treatment strategies aimed at correcting neurotransmitter abnormalities, there exists a need for the development of drug therapies focusing on the attempts to remove the pathogenomic protein deposits, thus combating the disease progression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  19. Bahrani H, Mohamad J, Paydar MJ, Rothan HA
    Curr Alzheimer Res, 2014 Feb;11(2):206-14.
    PMID: 24479629
    Aquilaria subintegra, locally known as "Gaharu", belongs to the Thymelaeceae family. This plant's leaves have been claimed to be effective for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Malay traditional practitioner in Malaysia. In this research, the chloroform extracts of the leaves and stem of A. subintegra were tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids compounds in the extracts. Analysis of the stem chloroform extracts with LCMS/MS displayed that it contains kaempferol 3,4,7-trimethyl ether. The AChE inhibitory activity of leaves and stem chloroform extracts and kaempferol were 80%, 93% and 85.8%, respectively. The Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) exhibited low to moderate toxicity of the chloroform extract from leaves (LC50=531.18 ± 49.53 μg/ml), the stem chloroform extract (LC50=407.34 ± 68.05 μg/ml) and kaempferol (LC50=762.41 ± 45.09 μg/ml). The extracts and kaempferol were not cytotoxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and human normal hepatic cell line (WRL-68). The effect of leaf and stem chloroform extracts and kaempferol were determined in the Radial Arm Maze (RAM) after administration by oral gavage to ICR male and female mice with valium-impaired memory. Administration of kaempferol to the mice significantly reduced the number of repeated entries into the arms of maze in males and females. In conclusion, the inhibition of AChE by leaf and stem chloroform extracts of A. subintegra could be due to the presence of kaempferol. This extract is safe for use as a natural AChE inhibitor as an alternative to berberine for the treatment of AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*
  20. Tang KS
    Life Sci, 2019 Sep 15;233:116695.
    PMID: 31351082 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116695
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with memory and cognitive decline in the older adults. Scopolamine is commonly used as a behavioral model in studying cognitive disorders including AD. Many studies have also concurrently examined the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the behavioral modifications by scopolamine treatment. Nonetheless, the scopolamine model has not become a standard tool in the early assessment of drugs. Furthermore, the use of scopolamine as a pharmacological model to study AD remains debatable. This report reviews the scopolamine-induced cellular and molecular changes and discusses how these changes relate to AD pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy
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