Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Abas MN, Tan PC, Azmi N, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2014 Jun;123(6):1272-9.
    PMID: 24807340 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000242
    To compare ondansetron with metoclopramide in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/administration & dosage; Antiemetics/adverse effects; Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  2. Tan PC, Khine PP, Vallikkannu N, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2010 May;115(5):975-81.
    PMID: 20410771 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d99290
    To compare the effects of promethazine with those of metoclopramide for hyperemesis gravidarum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/administration & dosage; Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  3. Chaw SH, Chan L, Lee PK, Bakar JA, Rasiah R, Foo LL
    J Anesth, 2016 12;30(6):1063-1066.
    PMID: 27510560 DOI: 10.1007/s00540-016-2228-8
    We report a case of drug-induced myoclonus possibly related to palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist which was administered as a prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting in a 28-year-old female. The recurrent episodes of myoclonus jerk involving the head, neck and shoulder persisted for a period of 4 days. The patient also exhibited an episode of severe bradycardia leading to hypotension 7 h after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting these adverse events potentially associated with the use of palonosetron.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/adverse effects*; Antiemetics/therapeutic use
  4. Sheshala R, Khan N, Chitneni M, Darwis Y
    Arch. Pharm. Res., 2011 Nov;34(11):1945-56.
    PMID: 22139694 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-011-1115-y
    The aim of this study was to formulate cost effective taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets of ondansetron, a bitter drug using different superdisintegrants by a wet granulation technique. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) as a diluent and disintegrant in addition to aspartame as a sweetener were used in all formulations. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The tablets' hardness was maintained in the range of 2-3 kg and friability was <1% for all batches. All tablet formulations disintegrated rapidly in vitro within 5.83 to 33.0 sec. The optimized formulation containing 15% Polyplasdone XL-10 released more than 90% of drug within 5 min and the release was comparable to that of a commercial product. In human volunteers, optimized formulation was found to have a pleasant taste and mouth feel and they disintegrated in the oral cavity within 12 sec. The stability results were also satisfactory. A pharmacokinetic study with the optimized formulation was performed in comparison with a reference (Zofer MD 8®) and they were found to be bioequivalent. In conclusion, a cost effective ondansetron orally disintegrating tablet was successfully prepared with acceptable hardness, desirable taste and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/analysis; Antiemetics/pharmacokinetics*; Antiemetics/pharmacology; Antiemetics/chemistry*
  5. Loo CC, Thomas E, Tan HM, Sia TH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Sep;52(3):264-8.
    PMID: 10968096
    We have studied the antiemetic efficacy of droperidol alone, and in combination with metoclopramide in first trimester termination of pregnancy in day surgery. The aim was to determine whether the addition of metoclopramide could further reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) but avoid excessive sedation. Group I (control, n = 40) received i.v. droperidol 0.625 mg at induction. Group II (study, n = 40) received i.v. droperidol 0.625 mg and i.v. metoclopramide 10 mg at induction. The incidence of nausea at 1 and 2 hours postoperatively was 23% and 10% in group I, and 5% and nil in group II respectively. The difference in the incidence of nausea was significant at p < 0.05 at one hour but not at two hours postoperatively. No patients vomited. There was no difference in the sedation and pain score between them. We did not observe any significant side effects attributable to either drug. All patients were discharged home within 3 hours. We conclude that in the prevention of PONV, the combination of metoclopramide and droperidol is superior to the use of droperidol alone at one hour but not at two hours postoperatively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  6. Lua PL, Zakaria NS
    J Altern Complement Med, 2012 Jun;18(6):534-40.
    PMID: 22784340 DOI: 10.1089/acm.2010.0862
    The objective of this study was to compile existing scientific evidence regarding the effects of essential oils (EOs) administered via inhalation for the alleviation of nausea and vomiting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  7. Chanthawong S, Lim YH, Subongkot S, Chan A, Andalusia R, Ahmad Bustamam RS, et al.
    Support Care Cancer, 2019 Mar;27(3):1109-1119.
    PMID: 30112718 DOI: 10.1007/s00520-018-4400-1
    PURPOSE: Recent studies suggested that olanzapine, together with dexamethasone and serotonin-3 receptor antagonist (5HT3RA), is effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) following highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). This regimen is particularly useful in Southeast Asia (SEA) countries where resources are limited. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of incorporating olanzapine into standard antiemetic regimens for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving HEC among SEA countries.

    METHODS: Using a decision tree model, clinical and economic outcomes associated with olanzapine-containing regimen and standard antiemetic regimen (doublet antiemetic regimen: dexamethasone+first generation 5HT3RA) in most SEA countries except in Singapore (triplet antiemetic regimen: dexamethasone+first generation 5HT3RA + aprepitant) for CINV prevention following HEC were evaluated. This analysis was performed in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore, using societal perspective method with 5-day time horizon. Input parameters were derived from literature, network meta-analysis, government documents, and hospital databases. Outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in USD/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of sensitivity analyses including probabilistic sensitivity analysis were also performed.

    RESULTS: Compared to doublet antiemetic regimen, addition of olanzapine resulted in incremental QALY of 0.0022-0.0026 with cost saving of USD 2.98, USD 27.71, and USD 52.20 in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, respectively. Compared to triplet antiemetic regimen, switching aprepitant to olanzapine yields additional 0.0005 QALY with cost saving of USD 60.91 in Singapore. The probability of being cost-effective at a cost-effectiveness threshold of 1 GDP/capita varies from 14.7 to 85.2% across countries.

    CONCLUSION: The use of olanzapine as part of standard antiemetic regimen is cost-effective for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving HEC in multiple SEA countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/economics*; Antiemetics/therapeutic use
  8. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  9. Guarino A, Lo Vecchio A, Dias JA, Berkley JA, Boey C, Bruzzese D, et al.
    PMID: 29901556 DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002053
    OBJECTIVES: Despite a substantial consistency in recommendations for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), a high variability in clinical practice and a high rate of inappropriate medical interventions persist in both developing and developed countries.Aim of this study was to develop a set of clinical recommendations for the management of non-severely malnourished children with AGE to be applied worldwide.

    METHODS: The Federation of International Societies of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (FISPGHAN) Working Group (WG) selected care protocols on the management of acute diarrhea in infants and children aged between 1 month and 18 years. The WG used a 3-step approach consisting of: 1) systematic review and comparison of published guidelines, 2) agreement on draft recommendations using Delphi methodology and 3) external peer-review and validation of recommendations.

    RESULTS: A core of recommendations including definition, diagnosis, nutritional management and active treatment of AGE were developed with an overall agreement of 91% (range 80 to 96%). Twenty-eight world experts in pediatric gastroenterology and emergency medicine successively validated the set of 23 recommendations with an agreement of 87% (range 83 to 95%). Recommendations on the use of anti-diarrheal drugs and antiemetics received the lowest level of agreement and need to be tailored at local level. Oral rehydration and probiotics were the only treatments recommended.

    CONCLUSIONS: Universal recommendations to assist health-care practitioners in managing children with AGE may improve practitioners' compliance with guidelines, reduce inappropriate interventions and significantly impact clinical outcome and health-care associated costs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  10. Lee WS, Lee SP, Boey CCM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Mar;54(1):22-5.
    PMID: 10972000
    Two hundred and ninety five children admitted with acute gastroenteritis from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996 to the Paediatric unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, were reviewed. Eighty-nine percent of children received treatment before admission. Information regarding the type of treatment received were available in 152 (52%) cases. Eighty percent of them were prescribed medications, 40% were prescribed glucose-electrolyte mixtures, and 13% were advised a change of formula. Only 18 children (12%) were advised to take glucose-electrolyte mixtures alone. The four most common prescribed drugs were: antibiotics (43%), antipyretics (39%), antidiarrhoeal agents (30%), and antiemetics (24%). The use of antibiotics, antiemetics and antidiarrhoeal drugs for children with acute gastroenteritis among primary care doctors appears to be common. The use of glucose-electrolyte mixtures was uncommon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use
  11. Keat CH, Ghani NA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(12):7701-6.
    PMID: 24460356
    BACKGROUND: In a prospective cohort study of antiemetic therapy conducted in Malaysia, a total of 94 patients received low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with or without granisetron injections as the primary prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This study is a retrospective cost analysis of two antiemetic regimens from the payer perspective.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cost evaluation refers to 2011, the year in which the observation was conducted. Direct costs incurred by hospitals including the drug acquisition, materials and time spent for clinical activities from prescribing to dispensing of home medications were evaluated (MYR 1=$0.32 USD). As reported to be significantly different between two regimens (96.1% vs 81.0%; p=0.017), the complete response rate of acute emesis which was defined as a patient successfully treated without any emesis episode within 24 hours after LEC was used as the main indicator for effectiveness.

    RESULTS: Antiemetic drug acquisition cost per patient was 40.7 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen than for the standard regimen (MYR 64.3 vs 1.58). When both the costs for materials and clinical activities were included, the total cost per patient was 8.68 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen (MYR 73.5 vs 8.47). Considering the complete response rates, the mean cost per successfully treated patient in granisetron group was 7.31 times higher (MYR 76.5 vs 10.5). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with granisetron-based regimen, relative to the standard regimen, was MYR 430.7. It was found to be most sensitive to the change of antiemetic effects of granisetron-based regimen.

    CONCLUSIONS: While providing a better efficacy in acute emesis control, the low incidence of acute emesis and high ICER makes use of granisetron as primary prophylaxis in LEC controversial.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  12. Keat CH, Phua G, Abdul Kassim MS, Poh WK, Sriraman M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):469-73.
    PMID: 23534775
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the risk of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among patients receiving low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with and without granisetron injection as the primary prophylaxis in addition to dexamethasone and metochlopramide.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-centre, prospective cohort study. A total of 96 patients receiving LEC (52 with and 42 without granisetron) were randomly selected from the full patient list generated using the e-Hospital Information System (e-His). The rates of complete control (no CINV from days 1 to 5) and complete response (no nausea or vomiting in both acute and delayed phases) were identified through patient diaries which were adapted from the MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT). Selected covariates including gender, age, active alcohol consumption, morning sickness and previous chemotherapy history were controlled using the multiple logistic regression analyses.

    RESULTS: Both groups showed significant difference with LEC regimens (p<0.001). No differences were found in age, gender, ethnic group and other baseline characteristics. The granisetron group indicated a higher complete response rate in acute emesis (adjusted OR: 0.1; 95%CI 0.02-0.85; p=0.034) than did the non-granisetron group. Both groups showed similar complete control and complete response rates for acute nausea, delayed nausea and delayed emesis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Granisetron injection used as the primary prophylaxis in LEC demonstrated limited roles in CINV control. Optimization of the guideline-recommended antiemetic regimens may serve as a less costly alternative to protect patients from uncontrolled acute emesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  13. Sharma S, Abdullah N
    Singapore Med J, 2000 Apr;41(4):147-50.
    PMID: 11063177
    Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving one hundred ASA I-II patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/administration & dosage*
  14. Hassan BA, Yusoff ZB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(6):1523-7.
    PMID: 21338191
    INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most important worries of cancer patients. Although not life-threatening, it has a great negative impact on quality of life (QOL).

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of CINV (i.e., acute and delayed) on breast cancer patients QOL and to discern opinions related with antiemetic guidelines used dependent on the three main races in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian).

    METHODS: In this longitudinal prospective observational study, 158 breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy were interviewed and valid questionnaires (MANE and ONEM) were used to report the impact of CINV on their QOL within the first 24 hours and after 3 to 5 days of chemotherapy treatment.

    RESULTS: The main result was that delayed CINV has an impact on QOL greater than acute CINV. The impact of nausea was reportedly higher than that of vomiting. Also differences in race i.e., genetic polymorphisms (pharmacogenomics) influenced the utility of antiemetic treatments and patients opinions.

    CONCLUSION: Based on the results of our study a new guideline for antiemetic treatment should be used to reduce the impact of CINV on QOL, taking into account variation in genetic polymorphisms among the three races in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  15. Pei, Lin Lua, Noor Salihah Zakaria, Nik Mazlan Mamat
    Objective: Despite the availability of modern anti-emetics, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) symptoms remain distressing to a high number of cancer patients. This study intended to (1) describe the incidence of CINV and antiemetic usage; (2) assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and correlate its components with Global Health Status; (3) evaluate HRQoL status in relation to CINV among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in two government hospitals located in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia (Terengganu, Kelantan). The Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis Follow-up (MANE-FU) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were administered. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were employed (SPSS 16). Results: Respondents included 41 female patients (age = 49 ± 9.6 years; Malay = 92.7%; no family history of breast cancer = 68.3% and on moderately emetogenic chemotherapy = 97.6%). Majority of patients experienced nausea during or after chemotherapy (90.2%) and rated it as ‘severe’. Most patients had taken anti-emetic
    (87.8%) and considered it ‘somewhat useful’. The median score for Global Health Status was 50 (IqR= 16.7). Emotional Functioning, Fatigue and Pain correlated fairly with HRQoL (rs= +0.435; -0.417; -0.387 respectively). Patients with ‘a lot’ and ‘moderate’ nausea displayed significantly more fatigue compared to those with little nausea (p=0.029). Those who experienced vomiting reported worse HRQoL profile compared to those who did not (p=0.011). Conclusion: These findings generally ascertained that CINV remains poorly controlled and significantly interferes with HRQoL, providing rooms for improvements in therapeutic intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  16. Yoshida, Teruaki, Zarinah Waheed, Mohd Yusof Ibrahim, Mohammad Illzam Elahee, Shahjee Hussain, Sharifa Mariam Uma Abdullah, et al.
    Food related disease or food poisoning is prevalent worldwide and is associated with high mortality. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, enterotoxins, mycotoxins, chemicals, histamine poisoning (scombroid) ciguatera and harmful algal bloom (HAB). Illness can also result by red tide while breathing in the aerosolized brevitoxins (i.e. PbTx or Ptychodiscus toxins). Bacterial toxin food poisoning can affect within 1-6 hours and 8-16 hours, and illness can be with or without bloody diarrhea. The common symptoms of food poisoning include abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnosis includes examination of leftover food, food preparation environment, food handlers, feces, vomitus, serum and blood. Treatment involves oral rehydration, antiemetic, and anti-peristaltic drugs. Antimicrobial agents may be needed in the treatment of shigellosis, cholera, lifesaving invasive salmonellosis and typhoid fever. Proper care in handling and cooking is important to prevent any food borne diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  17. Loke, Mi Mi, Chong, Kah Hui, Noor Salihah Zakaria, Hayati Mohd Yusof
    Malays J Nutr, 2017;23(2):227-238.
    Introduction: Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) is becoming increasingly popular among cancer patients worldwide. While health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relation to cancer outcomes has attracted global attention, there are few studies on CHM use and HRQoL among cancer patients in Malaysia. This study attempted to determine the association between use of CHM, including the types, reasons, and beliefs, and HRQoL among Malaysian cancer patients.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 cancer patients (60 male and 60 female) recruited from government oncology clinics in Johor state. A purposive non-probability sampling was applied to recruit respondents.
    Results: Use of CHM was reported by about half of the patients (49.2%). Common types of CHM used included Chinese herbal extracts (27.5%), Sabah snake grass (12.2%), and ginger (11.5%). The median score for overall belief in CHM significantly differed between
    CHM users (71.7%) and non-users (65.0%) (p<0.001). The HRQoL was generally reported as ‘good’ with high scores for overall functioning scales and low scores for symptom scales. However, no significant difference in HRQoL between CHM users and non-users was noted. ‘Social Functioning’ scores between both groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) with respect to sex, with females scoring higher than males. No significant association was noted between CHM use and socio-demographic characteristics except for sex.
    Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of self-prescription of CHM among the cancer patients studied. Nonetheless use of CHM did not show any significant difference in terms of quality of life among CHM users.
    Study site: Oncology clinics, Hospital Sultan Ismail (Johor Bahru) and Hospital Sultanah Nora Ismail (Batu Pahat), Johor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  18. Zaini S, Guan NC, Sulaiman AH, Zainal NZ, Huri HZ, Shamsudin SH
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1431-1455.
    PMID: 29484993 DOI: 10.2174/1389450119666180226125026
    Cancer patients are commonly associated with various physical and psychological symptoms. In palliative setting, the aims are to relieve those symptoms, improve quality of life, and increase medication adherence among cancer patients. Antidepressants are generally accepted for the treatment of depression among patients with or without cancer. Some other potential benefits of the antidepressants have been reported in cancer patients.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review the use of antidepressants for physical and psychological symptoms in cancer patients.

    RESULTS: Our findings showed the mixed result of positive and negative findings in various symptoms associated with cancer patients. These studies are categorised according to the hierarchy of evidence from high to low level, namely randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, case series, case reports, as well as other type of publications. The majority of antidepressants used in cancer patients seem to be beneficial for the treatment of depression, anxiety, hot flashes and other symptoms such as sexual dysfunction, fatigue, nicotine dependence, vasomotor symptoms, executive functions, sleep problems, pruritus, as well as for hypochondriasis. While fluoxetine was found to be associated with the reduction of antiemetic property in ondansetron, mirtazapine was identified to be a good alternative in treating nausea and cachexia among cancer patients.

    CONCLUSION: More research studies with adequate statistical power are warranted to validate the use of antidepressants among cancer patients in treating these physical and psychological symptoms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  19. Ng YJ, Lo YL, Lee WS
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Feb;34(1):55-60.
    PMID: 19125903 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00985.x
    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common illness among infants and children contributing to significant mortality and morbidity. As such, appropriate treatment received prior to hospital admission is of utmost importance. This retrospective observational study aimed to determine preadmission management in paediatric patients prior to hospital admission. Two hundred and twenty-two case notes of paediatric AGE patients were reviewed over a 12-month period. One hundred and fifty-four patients received medications prior to admission with 143 (92.9%) patients received known classes of medications. Antipyretic agents were the most commonly prescribed (69.2%), followed by antibiotics (38.5%), anti-emetics (35.7%), oral rehydration salts (29.4%) and antidiarrhoeals (28.0%). The mean duration of stay in hospital was slightly shorter in patients, who received prior medications than those who did not (2.22 vs. 2.32 days respectively). Seventy per cent of children admitted for AGE were treated suboptimally prior to hospital admission with oral rehydration salts being largely under-utilized, despite their proven efficacy and safety. Sex, race and age had no influence on the type of preadmission treatment. A greater effort should be made to educate the general public in the appropriate treatment of AGE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use
  20. Hassan BA, Yusoff ZB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):185-91.
    PMID: 21517255
    INTRODUCTION: Nausea and vomiting are recognized as two separate and distinct conditions with a wide spectrum of etiologies either directly associated with cancer itself or its treatment. According to the new ranking of chemotherapy side effects, nausea is the number one or the most disturbing side effects while vomiting is the third and sometimes the fifth. The introduction of 5-HT3-recptor antagonists in the early of 1990s has revolutionized the treatment of nausea and vomiting, these agents remaining the mainstay of antiemetic therapy today. Ethnic variation (due to genetic polymorphisms) may lead to diversity in antiemetic treatment pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, in terms of distribution, elimination, disposition and clinical effects. The aim of the present study was to clarify genetic polymorphism effects in the three main races in Malaysia i.e., Malay, Chinese and Indian, on the clinical antiemetic effects of granisetron.

    METHODS: In this longitudinal prospective observational study, 158 breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy were monitored for nausea and vomiting in the first 24 hours after chemotherapy administration. The patients were then followed up again after 3 to 5 days of chemotherapy.

    RESULTS: Genetic polymorphisms in the three races in Malaysia have significant effect on granisetron clinical antiemetic action because each is characterized by variant CYP3A4 enzymatic action.

    CONCLUSION: According to the result, different type of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as tropisetron and dolasetron which are predominantly metabolized by CYP2D6, should be used especially for Chinese breast cancer patients.

    Study site: Hospital Pulau Pinang
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
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