Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021 Feb;36(2):524-525.
    PMID: 33068035 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.15301
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  2. Abas MN, Tan PC, Azmi N, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2014 Jun;123(6):1272-1279.
    PMID: 24807340 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000242
    OBJECTIVE: To compare ondansetron with metoclopramide in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    METHODS: We enrolled 160 women with hyperemesis gravidarum in a double-blind randomized trial. Participants were randomized to intravenous 4 mg ondansetron or 10 mg metoclopramide every 8 hours for 24 hours. Participants kept an emesis diary for 24 hours; at 24 hours, they expressed their well-being using a 10-point visual numeric rating scale and answered an adverse effects questionnaire. Nausea intensity was evaluated using a 10-point visual numeric rating scale at enrollment and at 8, 16, and 24 hours. Primary analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis.

    RESULTS: Eighty women each were randomized to ondansetron or metoclopramide. Median well-being visual numeric rating scale scores were 9 (range, 5-10) compared with 9 (range, 4-10) (P=.33) and vomiting episodes in the first 24 hours were 1 (range, 0-9) compared with 2 (range, 0-23) (P=.38) for ondansetron compared with metoclopramide, respectively. Repeat-measures analysis of variance of nausea visual numeric rating scale showed no difference between study drugs (P=.22). Reported rates of drowsiness (12.5% compared with 30%; P=.01; number needed to treat to benefit, 6), xerostomia (10.0% compared with 23.8%; P

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/administration & dosage; Antiemetics/adverse effects; Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  3. Tan PC, Khine PP, Vallikkannu N, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2010 May;115(5):975-981.
    PMID: 20410771 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d99290
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of promethazine with those of metoclopramide for hyperemesis gravidarum.

    METHODS: Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were approached when intravenous antiemetic therapy was needed. They were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg promethazine or 10 mg metoclopramide every 8 hours for 24 hours in a double-blind study. Primary outcomes were vomiting episodes by diary and well-being visual numerical rating scale score (10-point scale) in the 24-hour main study period. Participants also filled out an adverse-effects questionnaire at 24 hours and a nausea visual numerical rating scale score at recruitment and at 8, 16, and 24 hours.

    RESULTS: A total of 73 and 76 women, randomized to metoclopramide and promethazine, respectively, were analyzed. Median vomiting episodes were one (range 0-26) compared with two (range 0-26) (P=.81), and well-being visual numerical rating scale scores were 8 (range 1-10) compared with 7 (range 2-10) (P=.24) for metoclopramide and promethazine, respectively. Repeat-measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale scores showed no significant difference between study drugs (F score=0.842, P=.47). Reported drowsiness (58.6% compared with 83.6%, P=.001, number needed to treat to benefit [NNTb] 5), dizziness (34.3% compared with 71.2%, P

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/administration & dosage; Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  4. Chaw SH, Chan L, Lee PK, Bakar JA, Rasiah R, Foo LL
    J Anesth, 2016 12;30(6):1063-1066.
    PMID: 27510560 DOI: 10.1007/s00540-016-2228-8
    We report a case of drug-induced myoclonus possibly related to palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist which was administered as a prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting in a 28-year-old female. The recurrent episodes of myoclonus jerk involving the head, neck and shoulder persisted for a period of 4 days. The patient also exhibited an episode of severe bradycardia leading to hypotension 7 h after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting these adverse events potentially associated with the use of palonosetron.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/adverse effects*; Antiemetics/therapeutic use
  5. Sheshala R, Khan N, Chitneni M, Darwis Y
    Arch Pharm Res, 2011 Nov;34(11):1945-56.
    PMID: 22139694 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-011-1115-y
    The aim of this study was to formulate cost effective taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets of ondansetron, a bitter drug using different superdisintegrants by a wet granulation technique. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) as a diluent and disintegrant in addition to aspartame as a sweetener were used in all formulations. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The tablets' hardness was maintained in the range of 2-3 kg and friability was <1% for all batches. All tablet formulations disintegrated rapidly in vitro within 5.83 to 33.0 sec. The optimized formulation containing 15% Polyplasdone XL-10 released more than 90% of drug within 5 min and the release was comparable to that of a commercial product. In human volunteers, optimized formulation was found to have a pleasant taste and mouth feel and they disintegrated in the oral cavity within 12 sec. The stability results were also satisfactory. A pharmacokinetic study with the optimized formulation was performed in comparison with a reference (Zofer MD 8®) and they were found to be bioequivalent. In conclusion, a cost effective ondansetron orally disintegrating tablet was successfully prepared with acceptable hardness, desirable taste and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/analysis; Antiemetics/pharmacokinetics*; Antiemetics/pharmacology; Antiemetics/chemistry*
  6. Lua PL, Zakaria NS
    J Altern Complement Med, 2012 Jun;18(6):534-40.
    PMID: 22784340 DOI: 10.1089/acm.2010.0862
    The objective of this study was to compile existing scientific evidence regarding the effects of essential oils (EOs) administered via inhalation for the alleviation of nausea and vomiting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  7. Loo CC, Thomas E, Tan HM, Sia TH
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Sep;52(3):264-8.
    PMID: 10968096
    We have studied the antiemetic efficacy of droperidol alone, and in combination with metoclopramide in first trimester termination of pregnancy in day surgery. The aim was to determine whether the addition of metoclopramide could further reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) but avoid excessive sedation. Group I (control, n = 40) received i.v. droperidol 0.625 mg at induction. Group II (study, n = 40) received i.v. droperidol 0.625 mg and i.v. metoclopramide 10 mg at induction. The incidence of nausea at 1 and 2 hours postoperatively was 23% and 10% in group I, and 5% and nil in group II respectively. The difference in the incidence of nausea was significant at p < 0.05 at one hour but not at two hours postoperatively. No patients vomited. There was no difference in the sedation and pain score between them. We did not observe any significant side effects attributable to either drug. All patients were discharged home within 3 hours. We conclude that in the prevention of PONV, the combination of metoclopramide and droperidol is superior to the use of droperidol alone at one hour but not at two hours postoperatively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  8. Chanthawong S, Lim YH, Subongkot S, Chan A, Andalusia R, Ahmad Bustamam RS, et al.
    Support Care Cancer, 2019 Mar;27(3):1109-1119.
    PMID: 30112718 DOI: 10.1007/s00520-018-4400-1
    PURPOSE: Recent studies suggested that olanzapine, together with dexamethasone and serotonin-3 receptor antagonist (5HT3RA), is effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) following highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). This regimen is particularly useful in Southeast Asia (SEA) countries where resources are limited. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of incorporating olanzapine into standard antiemetic regimens for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving HEC among SEA countries.

    METHODS: Using a decision tree model, clinical and economic outcomes associated with olanzapine-containing regimen and standard antiemetic regimen (doublet antiemetic regimen: dexamethasone+first generation 5HT3RA) in most SEA countries except in Singapore (triplet antiemetic regimen: dexamethasone+first generation 5HT3RA + aprepitant) for CINV prevention following HEC were evaluated. This analysis was performed in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore, using societal perspective method with 5-day time horizon. Input parameters were derived from literature, network meta-analysis, government documents, and hospital databases. Outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in USD/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of sensitivity analyses including probabilistic sensitivity analysis were also performed.

    RESULTS: Compared to doublet antiemetic regimen, addition of olanzapine resulted in incremental QALY of 0.0022-0.0026 with cost saving of USD 2.98, USD 27.71, and USD 52.20 in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, respectively. Compared to triplet antiemetic regimen, switching aprepitant to olanzapine yields additional 0.0005 QALY with cost saving of USD 60.91 in Singapore. The probability of being cost-effective at a cost-effectiveness threshold of 1 GDP/capita varies from 14.7 to 85.2% across countries.

    CONCLUSION: The use of olanzapine as part of standard antiemetic regimen is cost-effective for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving HEC in multiple SEA countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/economics*; Antiemetics/therapeutic use
  9. Ullah I, Subhan F, Alam J, Shahid M, Ayaz M
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:231.
    PMID: 29615907 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00231
    Cannabis sativa
    (CS, familyCannabinaceae) has been reported for its anti-emetic activity against cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. The current study was designed to investigateCSfor potential effectiveness to attenuate cisplatin-induced vomiting in healthy pigeons and to study the impact on neurotransmitters involved centrally and peripherally in the act of vomiting. High-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector was used for the quantification of neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), dopamine (DA) and their metabolites; Di-hydroxy Phenyl Acetic acid (Dopac), Homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5HIAA) centrally in specific brain areas (area postrema and brain stem) while, peripherally in small intestine. Cisplatin (7 mg/kg i.v.) induce emesis without lethality across the 24 h observation period.CShexane fraction (CS-HexFr; 10 mg/kg) attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis ∼ 65.85% (P< 0.05); the reference anti-emetic drug, metoclopramide (MCP; 30 mg/kg), produced ∼43.90% reduction (P< 0.05). At acute time point (3rdh), CS-HexFr decreased (P< 0.001) the concentration of 5HT and 5HIAA in the area postrema, brain stem and intestine, while at 18thh (delayed time point) CS-HexFr attenuated (P< 0.001) the upsurge of 5HT caused by cisplatin in the brain stem and intestine and dopamine in the area postrema.CS-HexFr treatment alone did not alter the basal neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain areas and intestine except 5HIAA and HVA, which were decreased significantly. In conclusion the anti-emetic effect ofCS-HexFr is mediated by anti-serotonergic and anti-dopaminergic components in a blended manner at the two different time points, i.e., 3rdand 18thh in pigeons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  10. Nadia, Hisamuddin, Nadhirah, Kamarudin, Mohd Roslan, Sulaiman, Wan Mastura, Shaik Mossadeq
    MyJurnal
    Zingiberaceae is one of the largest plant families consisting of rhizomes that are commonly used as spice in soups and curries as well as alternative medications in folklore medicine. Zingiber officinale or commonly known as ginger is extensively employed in Asian, Ayurvedic, Chinese, and Arabian folklore medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and various spasm-associated gastric ailments. The past few decades saw rapid advancements in the extraction process of ginger bioactive constituents and validation of their corresponding pharmacodynamic and pharmacotherapeutic activities, and biological properties in vivo and in vitro. Results reported from several biological studies on ginger showed that extracts and compounds from this tuberous rhizome exhibit antiemetic, anticancer, antipyretic, antispasmogenic and antimicrobial activities. This article reviews the effect of Zingiber officinale and its bioactive constituents on isolated organ preparations from several species of animals in view of its potential use as an alternative treatment for muscle spasms and common gastric ailments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  11. Qader AQ, Abdul Hamid H
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Jul;16(7):1907-1911.
    PMID: 34093935 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.04.059
    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon disorder with an unknown incidence, unless it stays in the back of the diagnostician's mind, diagnosis of gastric volvulus, which can have significant morbidity and mortality associated with it, can be easily missed and can present either in the acute or chronic setting with variable symptoms. When it occurs in the acute scenario, patients present with severe epigastric pain and retching without vomiting. Together with inability to pass nasogastric tube, they constitute Borchardt's triad. The presence of a hiatal hernia with persistent vomiting despite initial antiemetic treatment should trigger one to think of gastric volvulus, despite the patient appearing very stable. We report a case which presented in our hospital with abdominal pain and vomiting. As Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy shows hiatal hernia and peptic ulcer. Primary gastric volvulus occurs in the absence of any defect in the diaphragm or adjacent organ pathology and may be caused by weakening of gastric supports. As conclusion; Gastric volvulus is a surgical case, requiring early diagnosis and aggressive management, as a delay results into complications like gangrene and perforation which substantially increase the morbidity and mortality in these patients, and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the best modality for diagnosis of gastric volvulus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  12. Lee WS, Lee SP, Boey CCM
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Mar;54(1):22-5.
    PMID: 10972000
    Two hundred and ninety five children admitted with acute gastroenteritis from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996 to the Paediatric unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, were reviewed. Eighty-nine percent of children received treatment before admission. Information regarding the type of treatment received were available in 152 (52%) cases. Eighty percent of them were prescribed medications, 40% were prescribed glucose-electrolyte mixtures, and 13% were advised a change of formula. Only 18 children (12%) were advised to take glucose-electrolyte mixtures alone. The four most common prescribed drugs were: antibiotics (43%), antipyretics (39%), antidiarrhoeal agents (30%), and antiemetics (24%). The use of antibiotics, antiemetics and antidiarrhoeal drugs for children with acute gastroenteritis among primary care doctors appears to be common. The use of glucose-electrolyte mixtures was uncommon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use
  13. Keat CH, Ghani NA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7701-6.
    PMID: 24460356
    BACKGROUND: In a prospective cohort study of antiemetic therapy conducted in Malaysia, a total of 94 patients received low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with or without granisetron injections as the primary prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This study is a retrospective cost analysis of two antiemetic regimens from the payer perspective.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cost evaluation refers to 2011, the year in which the observation was conducted. Direct costs incurred by hospitals including the drug acquisition, materials and time spent for clinical activities from prescribing to dispensing of home medications were evaluated (MYR 1=$0.32 USD). As reported to be significantly different between two regimens (96.1% vs 81.0%; p=0.017), the complete response rate of acute emesis which was defined as a patient successfully treated without any emesis episode within 24 hours after LEC was used as the main indicator for effectiveness.

    RESULTS: Antiemetic drug acquisition cost per patient was 40.7 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen than for the standard regimen (MYR 64.3 vs 1.58). When both the costs for materials and clinical activities were included, the total cost per patient was 8.68 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen (MYR 73.5 vs 8.47). Considering the complete response rates, the mean cost per successfully treated patient in granisetron group was 7.31 times higher (MYR 76.5 vs 10.5). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with granisetron-based regimen, relative to the standard regimen, was MYR 430.7. It was found to be most sensitive to the change of antiemetic effects of granisetron-based regimen.

    CONCLUSIONS: While providing a better efficacy in acute emesis control, the low incidence of acute emesis and high ICER makes use of granisetron as primary prophylaxis in LEC controversial.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  14. Keat CH, Phua G, Abdul Kassim MS, Poh WK, Sriraman M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(1):469-73.
    PMID: 23534775
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the risk of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among patients receiving low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with and without granisetron injection as the primary prophylaxis in addition to dexamethasone and metochlopramide.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-centre, prospective cohort study. A total of 96 patients receiving LEC (52 with and 42 without granisetron) were randomly selected from the full patient list generated using the e-Hospital Information System (e-His). The rates of complete control (no CINV from days 1 to 5) and complete response (no nausea or vomiting in both acute and delayed phases) were identified through patient diaries which were adapted from the MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT). Selected covariates including gender, age, active alcohol consumption, morning sickness and previous chemotherapy history were controlled using the multiple logistic regression analyses.

    RESULTS: Both groups showed significant difference with LEC regimens (p<0.001). No differences were found in age, gender, ethnic group and other baseline characteristics. The granisetron group indicated a higher complete response rate in acute emesis (adjusted OR: 0.1; 95%CI 0.02-0.85; p=0.034) than did the non-granisetron group. Both groups showed similar complete control and complete response rates for acute nausea, delayed nausea and delayed emesis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Granisetron injection used as the primary prophylaxis in LEC demonstrated limited roles in CINV control. Optimization of the guideline-recommended antiemetic regimens may serve as a less costly alternative to protect patients from uncontrolled acute emesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  15. Hassan BA, Yusoff ZB
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2010;11(6):1523-7.
    PMID: 21338191
    INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most important worries of cancer patients. Although not life-threatening, it has a great negative impact on quality of life (QOL).

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of CINV (i.e., acute and delayed) on breast cancer patients QOL and to discern opinions related with antiemetic guidelines used dependent on the three main races in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian).

    METHODS: In this longitudinal prospective observational study, 158 breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy were interviewed and valid questionnaires (MANE and ONEM) were used to report the impact of CINV on their QOL within the first 24 hours and after 3 to 5 days of chemotherapy treatment.

    RESULTS: The main result was that delayed CINV has an impact on QOL greater than acute CINV. The impact of nausea was reportedly higher than that of vomiting. Also differences in race i.e., genetic polymorphisms (pharmacogenomics) influenced the utility of antiemetic treatments and patients opinions.

    CONCLUSION: Based on the results of our study a new guideline for antiemetic treatment should be used to reduce the impact of CINV on QOL, taking into account variation in genetic polymorphisms among the three races in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  16. Sharma S, Abdullah N
    Singapore Med J, 2000 Apr;41(4):147-50.
    PMID: 11063177
    Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving one hundred ASA I-II patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/administration & dosage*
  17. Abdelaziz DH, Boraii S, Cheema E, Elnaem MH, Omar T, Abdelraouf A, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2021 Aug;140:111725.
    PMID: 34015580 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111725
    BACKGROUND: Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a major challenge. Ondansetron blocks sodium channels and may have local anesthetic properties.

    AIMS: To investigate the effect of intraperitoneal administration of ondansetron for postoperative pain management as an adjuvant to intravenous acetaminophen in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    METHODS: Patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups (n = 25 each) to receive either intraperitoneal ondansetron or saline injected in the gall bladder bed at the end of the procedure. The primary outcome was the difference in pain from baseline to 24-h post-operative assessed by comparing the area under the curve of visual analog score between the two groups.

    RESULTS: The derived area under response curve of visual analog scores in the ondansetron group (735.8 ± 418.3) was 33.97% lower than (p = 0.005) that calculated for the control group (1114.4 ± 423.9). The need for rescue analgesia was significantly lower in the ondansetron (16%) versus in the control group (54.17%) (p = 0.005), indicating better pain control. The correlation between the time for unassisted mobilization and the area under response curve of visual analog scores signified the positive analgesic influence of ondansetron (rs =0.315, p = 0.028). The frequency of nausea and vomiting was significantly lower in patients who received ondansetron than that reported in the control group (p = 0.023 (8 h), and 0.016 (24 h) respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: The added positive impact of ondansetron on postoperative pain control alongside its anti-emetic effect made it a unique novel option for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics/therapeutic use*
  18. Pei, Lin Lua, Noor Salihah Zakaria, Nik Mazlan Mamat
    MyJurnal
    Objective: Despite the availability of modern anti-emetics, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) symptoms remain distressing to a high number of cancer patients. This study intended to (1) describe the incidence of CINV and antiemetic usage; (2) assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and correlate its components with Global Health Status; (3) evaluate HRQoL status in relation to CINV among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in two government hospitals located in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia (Terengganu, Kelantan). The Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis Follow-up (MANE-FU) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were administered. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were employed (SPSS 16). Results: Respondents included 41 female patients (age = 49 ± 9.6 years; Malay = 92.7%; no family history of breast cancer = 68.3% and on moderately emetogenic chemotherapy = 97.6%). Majority of patients experienced nausea during or after chemotherapy (90.2%) and rated it as ‘severe’. Most patients had taken anti-emetic
    (87.8%) and considered it ‘somewhat useful’. The median score for Global Health Status was 50 (IqR= 16.7). Emotional Functioning, Fatigue and Pain correlated fairly with HRQoL (rs= +0.435; -0.417; -0.387 respectively). Patients with ‘a lot’ and ‘moderate’ nausea displayed significantly more fatigue compared to those with little nausea (p=0.029). Those who experienced vomiting reported worse HRQoL profile compared to those who did not (p=0.011). Conclusion: These findings generally ascertained that CINV remains poorly controlled and significantly interferes with HRQoL, providing rooms for improvements in therapeutic intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  19. Yoshida, Teruaki, Zarinah Waheed, Mohd Yusof Ibrahim, Mohammad Illzam Elahee, Shahjee Hussain, Sharifa Mariam Uma Abdullah, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Food related disease or food poisoning is prevalent worldwide and is associated with high mortality. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, enterotoxins, mycotoxins, chemicals, histamine poisoning (scombroid) ciguatera and harmful algal bloom (HAB). Illness can also result by red tide while breathing in the aerosolized brevitoxins (i.e. PbTx or Ptychodiscus toxins). Bacterial toxin food poisoning can affect within 1-6 hours and 8-16 hours, and illness can be with or without bloody diarrhea. The common symptoms of food poisoning include abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnosis includes examination of leftover food, food preparation environment, food handlers, feces, vomitus, serum and blood. Treatment involves oral rehydration, antiemetic, and anti-peristaltic drugs. Antimicrobial agents may be needed in the treatment of shigellosis, cholera, lifesaving invasive salmonellosis and typhoid fever. Proper care in handling and cooking is important to prevent any food borne diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
  20. Barden A, Phillips M, Mas E, Hill LM, Mowat I, Loh PS, et al.
    PMID: 32084530 DOI: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2020.106427
    BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone is commonly given as an antiemetic during surgical procedures. It has immunosuppressive effects and can affect key enzymes involved in the synthesis of specialised lipid mediators of inflammation resolution (SPM) that direct inflammation resolution and have anti-nociceptive actions. This study examined the effect of dexamethasone on plasma SPM, and the relationship between SPM and perceived pain in women undergoing surgery.

    METHODS: Plasma SPM were measured in samples obtained from two double-blind controlled interventions. The first, included 51 women mean age 53 ± 1.5 years, undergoing breast surgery allocated to either intravenous saline, or dexamethasone (4 mg or 8 mg) after induction of anaesthesia. The second study included 31 women of mean age 44 ± 0.5 years undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery that were allocated to either saline, or dexamethasone (4 mg). SPM (18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, RvE2, RvD1 17R-RvD1 and RvD2) were measured in plasma collected prior to induction of anaesthesia and at 24 h, and 6 weeks post-surgery. Pain was assessed using a verbal analogue scale at discharge from the post-anaesthesia recovery unit. The data from each study was combined to examine the effect of dexamethasone on plasma SPM. The relationship between pain score and SPM was examined using ordinal logistic regression.

    RESULTS: The SPM 18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, RvE2, RvD1 17R-RvD1 and RvD2 were detectable in all plasma samples. There was no significant difference in any SPM due to dexamethasone over the duration of the study. There was a fall in 17-HDHA between baseline and 24 h in both the dexamethasone and saline groups (P = 0.003) but no change in the downstream SPM (RvD1, 17R-RvD1 and RvD2) or 18-HEPE and RvE2. Pain score was negatively related to levels of RvE2 measured prior to induction of anaesthesia (rho = -0.2991, P = 0.006) and positively related to BMI (rho = 0.279, P = 0.011). In ordinal logistic regression the odds ratio for RvE2 was 0.931 (CI 0.880, 0.986; P = 0.014); after adjusting for the effect of BMI indicating that an increase in RvE2 of 1 pg/ml would result in a 6.9 % fall in pain score. Allocation to a dexamethasone group did not influence the pain score or the relationship between RvE2 and pain score.

    CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone administered as an anti-emetic does not affect plasma SPM levels. An elevated RvE2 level prior to surgery is predictive of a lower perceived pain score post-anaesthesia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiemetics
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