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  1. Flaherty K, Bath PM, Dineen R, Law Z, Scutt P, Pocock S, et al.
    Trials, 2017 Dec 20;18(1):607.
    PMID: 29262841 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-017-2341-5
    RATIONALE: Aside from blood pressure lowering, treatment options for intracerebral haemorrhage remain limited and a proportion of patients will undergo early haematoma expansion with resultant significant morbidity and mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an anti-fibrinolytic drug, has been shown to significantly reduce mortality in patients, who are bleeding following trauma, when given rapidly. TICH-2 is testing whether TXA is effective at improving outcome in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH).

    METHODS AND DESIGN: TICH-2 is a pragmatic, phase III, prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Two thousand adult (aged ≥ 18 years) patients with an acute SICH, within 8 h of stroke onset, will be randomised to receive TXA or the placebo control. The primary outcome is ordinal shift of modified Rankin Scale score at day 90. Analyses will be performed using intention-to-treat.

    RESULTS: This paper and its attached appendices describe the statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the trial and were developed and published prior to database lock and unblinding to treatment allocation. The SAP includes details of analyses to be undertaken and unpopulated tables which will be reported in the primary and key secondary publications. The database will be locked in early 2018, ready for publication of the results later in the same year.

    DISCUSSION: The SAP details the analyses that will be done to avoid bias arising from prior knowledge of the study findings. The trial will determine whether TXA can improve outcome after SICH, which currently has no definitive therapy.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ID: ISRCTN93732214 . Registered on 17 January 2013.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects; Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use*
  2. Ovesen C, Jakobsen JC, Gluud C, Steiner T, Law Z, Flaherty K, et al.
    BMC Res Notes, 2018 Jun 13;11(1):379.
    PMID: 29895329 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-018-3481-8
    OBJECTIVE: We present the statistical analysis plan of a prespecified Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage (TICH)-2 sub-study aiming to investigate, if tranexamic acid has a different effect in intracerebral haemorrhage patients with the spot sign on admission compared to spot sign negative patients. The TICH-2 trial recruited above 2000 participants with intracerebral haemorrhage arriving in hospital within 8 h after symptom onset. They were included irrespective of radiological signs of on-going haematoma expansion. Participants were randomised to tranexamic acid versus matching placebo. In this subgroup analysis, we will include all participants in TICH-2 with a computed tomography angiography on admission allowing adjudication of the participants' spot sign status.

    RESULTS: Primary outcome will be the ability of tranexamic acid to limit absolute haematoma volume on computed tomography at 24 h (± 12 h) after randomisation among spot sign positive and spot sign negative participants, respectively. Within all outcome measures, the effect of tranexamic acid in spot sign positive/negative participants will be compared using tests of interaction. This sub-study will investigate the important clinical hypothesis that spot sign positive patients might benefit more from administration of tranexamic acid compared to spot sign negative patients. Trial registration ISRCTN93732214 ( http://www.isrctn.com ).

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage; Antifibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology*
  3. Law ZK, Meretoja A, Engelter ST, Christensen H, Muresan EM, Glad SB, et al.
    European stroke journal, 2017 Mar;2(1):13-22.
    PMID: 31008298 DOI: 10.1177/2396987316676610
    Purpose: Haematoma expansion is a devastating complication of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) with no established treatment. Tranexamic acid had been an effective haemostatic agent in reducing post-operative and traumatic bleeding. We review current evidence examining the efficacy of tranexamic acid in improving clinical outcome after ICH.

    Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and clinical trial registers for studies using search strategies incorporating the terms 'intracerebral haemorrhage', 'tranexamic acid' and 'antifibrinolytic'. Authors of ongoing clinical trials were contacted for further details.

    Findings: We screened 268 publications and retrieved 17 articles after screening. Unpublished information from three ongoing clinical trials was obtained. We found five completed studies. Of these, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous tranexamic acid to placebo (n = 54) reported no significant difference in death or dependency. Three observational studies (n = 281) suggested less haematoma growth with rapid tranexamic acid infusion. There are six ongoing RCTs (n = 3089) with different clinical exclusions, imaging selection criteria (spot sign and haematoma volume), time window for recruitment and dosing of tranexamic acid.

    Discussion: Despite their heterogeneity, the ongoing trials will provide key evidence on the effects of tranexamic acid on ICH. There are uncertainties of whether patients with negative spot sign, large haematoma, intraventricular haemorrhage, or poor Glasgow Coma Scale should be recruited. The time window for optimal effect of haemostatic therapy in ICH is yet to be established.

    Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a promising haemostatic agent for ICH. We await the results of the trials before definite conclusions can be drawn.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifibrinolytic Agents
  4. Dineen RA, Pszczolkowski S, Flaherty K, Law ZK, Morgan PS, Roberts I, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2018 02 03;8(2):e019930.
    PMID: 29431141 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019930
    OBJECTIVES: To test whether administration of the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) leads to increased prevalence of diffusion-weighted MRI-defined hyperintense ischaemic lesions (primary hypothesis) or reduced perihaematomal oedema volume, perihaematomal diffusion restriction and residual MRI-defined SICH-related tissue damage (secondary hypotheses).

    DESIGN: MRI substudy nested within the double-blind randomised controlled Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage (TICH)-2 trial (ISRCTN93732214).

    SETTING: International multicentre hospital-based study.

    PARTICIPANTS: Eligible adults consented and randomised in the TICH-2 trial who were also able to undergo MRI scanning. To address the primary hypothesis, a sample size of n=280 will allow detection of a 10% relative increase in prevalence of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintense lesions in the TXA group with 5% significance, 80% power and 5% imaging data rejection.

    INTERVENTIONS: TICH-2 MRI substudy participants will undergo MRI scanning using a standardised protocol at day ~5 and day ~90 after randomisation. Clinical assessments, randomisation to TXA or placebo and participant follow-up will be performed as per the TICH-2 trial protocol.

    CONCLUSION: The TICH-2 MRI substudy will test whether TXA increases the incidence of new DWI-defined ischaemic lesions or reduces perihaematomal oedema or final ICH lesion volume in the context of SICH.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The TICH-2 trial obtained ethical approval from East Midlands - Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee (12/EM/0369) and an amendment to allow the TICH-2 MRI sub study was approved in April 2015 (amendment number SA02/15). All findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. The primary outcome results will also be presented at a relevant scientific meeting.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN93732214; Pre-results.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage*
  5. Fuah KW, Lim CTS, Pang DCL, Wong JS
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2018 2 20;29(1):207-209.
    PMID: 29456232 DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.225177
    Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent commonly used to achieve hemostasis. However, there have been a few case reports suggesting that high-dose intravenous TXA has epileptogenic property. In patients with renal impairment, even administering the usual recommended dose of TXA can induce seizure episodes. We present here a patient on hemodialysis who developed seizures after receiving two doses of TXA over 5 h period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage; Antifibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects*
  6. Shah Jahan MY, Shamila MA, Nurul Azlean N, Mohd Amin M, Anandakumar K, Ahmad Ibrahim KB, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 08;74(4):300-306.
    PMID: 31424037
    INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a Global threat and the 5th highest cause of all-cause mortality in Malaysia caused predominantly due to road traffic accidents. Majority of trauma victims are young adults aged between 21-40 years old. In Malaysia, 24 out of 100,000 population die annually due to trauma, rating us amongst the highest in South East Asia. These alarming figures justify aggressive preventive and mitigation strategies. The aim of this paper is to promote the implementation of evidence-based interventions that will reduce the rate of preventable death because of trauma. Tranexamic acid is one of the few interventions in the early management of severe trauma with level-one evidence. Tranexamic acid has been proven to reduce all causes of mortality and mortality due to bleeding. Evidence proves that it is most effective when administered early, particularly within the 1st hour of trauma. This proposed guideline is formulated based upon quality evidence from multicentre studies, clinical practices in other countries and consideration of the local demographic factors with the intent of enabling an easy and simple pathway to administer tranexamic acid early in the care of the severely injured.

    CONCLUSION: The guideline highlights select pre-hospital criteria's and the methods for drug administration. The authors recognise that some variants may be present amongst certain institutions necessitating minor adaptations, nevertheless the core principles of advocating tranexamic acid early in the course of pre-hospital trauma should be adhered to.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage*; Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
  7. Sprigg N, Flaherty K, Appleton JP, Al-Shahi Salman R, Bereczki D, Beridze M, et al.
    Lancet, 2018 05 26;391(10135):2107-2115.
    PMID: 29778325 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31033-X
    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid can prevent death due to bleeding after trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether tranexamic acid reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcome in adults with stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage.

    METHODS: We did an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial in adults with intracerebral haemorrhage from acute stroke units at 124 hospital sites in 12 countries. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid bolus followed by an 8 h infusion of 1 g tranexamic acid or a matching placebo, within 8 h of symptom onset. Randomisation was done centrally in real time via a secure website, with stratification by country and minimisation on key prognostic factors. Treatment allocation was concealed from patients, outcome assessors, and all other health-care workers involved in the trial. The primary outcome was functional status at day 90, measured by shift in the modified Rankin Scale, using ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for stratification and minimisation criteria. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN93732214.

    FINDINGS: We recruited 2325 participants between March 1, 2013, and Sept 30, 2017. 1161 patients received tranexamic acid and 1164 received placebo; the treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The primary outcome was assessed for 2307 (99%) participants. The primary outcome, functional status at day 90, did not differ significantly between the groups (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·76-1·03, p=0·11). Although there were fewer deaths by day 7 in the tranexamic acid group (101 [9%] deaths in the tranexamic acid group vs 123 [11%] deaths in the placebo group; aOR 0·73, 0·53-0·99, p=0·0406), there was no difference in case fatality at 90 days (250 [22%] vs 249 [21%]; adjusted hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·77-1·10, p=0·37). Fewer patients had serious adverse events after tranexamic acid than after placebo by days 2 (379 [33%] patients vs 417 [36%] patients), 7 (456 [39%] vs 497 [43%]), and 90 (521 [45%] vs 556 [48%]).

    INTERPRETATION: Functional status 90 days after intracerebral haemorrhage did not differ significantly between patients who received tranexamic acid and those who received placebo, despite a reduction in early deaths and serious adverse events. Larger randomised trials are needed to confirm or refute a clinically significant treatment effect.

    FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme and Swiss Heart Foundation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use*
  8. Sprigg N, Flaherty K, Appleton JP, Al-Shahi Salman R, Bereczki D, Beridze M, et al.
    PMID: 31322116 DOI: 10.3310/hta23350
    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding after trauma and postpartum haemorrhage.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess if tranexamic acid is safe, reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcomes in adults with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH).

    DESIGN: The TICH-2 (Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage) study was a pragmatic, Phase III, prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    SETTING: Acute stroke services at 124 hospitals in 12 countries (Denmark, Georgia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK).

    PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with ICH within 8 hours of onset.

    EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Exclusion criteria were ICH secondary to anticoagulation, thrombolysis, trauma or a known underlying structural abnormality; patients for whom tranexamic acid was thought to be contraindicated; prestroke dependence (i.e. patients with a modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score > 4); life expectancy  4.5 hours after stroke onset. Pragmatic inclusion criteria led to a heterogeneous population of participants, some of whom had very large strokes. Although 12 countries enrolled participants, the majority (82.1%) were from the UK.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid did not affect a patient's functional status at 90 days after ICH, despite there being significant modest reductions in early death (by 7 days), haematoma expansion and SAEs, which is consistent with an antifibrinolytic effect. Tranexamic acid was safe, with no increase in thromboembolic events.

    FUTURE WORK: Future work should focus on enrolling and treating patients early after stroke and identify which participants are most likely to benefit from haemostatic therapy. Large randomised trials are needed.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN93732214.

    FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 35. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The project was also funded by the Pragmatic Trials, UK, funding call and the Swiss Heart Foundation in Switzerland.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use*
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