Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 351 in total

  1. Yang Y, Aghbashlo M, Gupta VK, Amiri H, Pan J, Tabatabaei M, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2023 May 01;236:123954.
    PMID: 36898453 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.123954
    Large amounts of agricultural waste, especially marine product waste, are produced annually. These wastes can be used to produce compounds with high-added value. Chitosan is one such valuable product that can be obtained from crustacean wastes. Various biological activities of chitosan and its derivatives, especially antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer properties, have been confirmed by many studies. The unique characteristics of chitosan, especially chitosan nanocarriers, have led to the expansion of using chitosan in various sectors, especially in biomedical sciences and food industries. On the other hand, essential oils, known as volatile and aromatic compounds of plants, have attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Like chitosan, essential oils have various biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer. In recent years, one of the ways to improve the biological properties of chitosan is to use essential oils encapsulated in chitosan nanocarriers. Among the various biological activities of chitosan nanocarriers containing essential oils, most studies conducted in recent years have been in the field of antimicrobial activity. It was documented that the antimicrobial activity was increased by reducing the size of chitosan particles in the nanoscale. In addition, the antimicrobial activity was intensified when essential oils were in the structure of chitosan nanoparticles. Essential oils can increase the antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles with synergistic effects. Using essential oils in the structure of chitosan nanocarriers can also improve the other biological properties (antioxidant and anticancer activities) of chitosan and increase the application fields of chitosan. Of course, using essential oils in chitosan nanocarriers for commercial use requires more studies, including stability during storage and effectiveness in real environments. This review aims to overview recent studies on the biological effects of essential oils encapsulated in chitosan nanocarriers, with notes on their biological mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  2. Ashrafi A, Ahari H, Asadi G, Nafchi AM
    J Food Sci, 2024 Apr;89(4):2158-2173.
    PMID: 38488727 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.17019
    During the frying of foods, undesirable reactions such as protein denaturation, acrylamide formation, and so on occur in the product, which has confirmed carcinogenic effects. The use of antioxidants has been proposed as an effective solution to reduce the formation of these compounds during the process. The current study aimed to assess the impact of an edible coating holding within chia seed gum (CSG) and Rosa canina L. extract (RCE) nanoemulsions on the physicochemical properties, oil uptake, acrylamide formation, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) content, and sensory characteristics of beef-turkey burgers. The RCE-loaded nanoemulsions were prepared using the ultrasonic homogenization method, and different concentrations (i.e., 10%, 20%, and 40% w/w) were added to the CSG solutions; these active coatings were used to cover the burgers. CSG-based coatings, especially coatings containing the highest concentration of nanoemulsions (40%), caused a significant decrease in the oil uptake and moisture retention, acrylamide content, and HMF content of fried burgers. The texture of coated burgers was softer than that of uncoated samples; they also had a higher color brightness and a lower browning index. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that RCE concentration less than 40% should be used in CSG coatings because it will cause minor cracks, which is an obvious possibility of failure of coating performance. Coating significantly (4-10 times) increased the antioxidant activity of burgers compared to the control. In conclusion, it is suggested to use the active coating produced in this study to improve fried burger quality and modulate acrylamide formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  3. Habibvand M, Yousefi M, Ahmed SA, Hassanzadeh H
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2023 Apr;17(2):80-90.
    PMID: 36478175 DOI: 10.1049/nbt2.12106
    Today, the increasing use of chemical preservatives in foods is considered one of the main problems in food industries. This study aimed to produce the pasteurised Doogh (Iranian yogurt drink) containing a nanoemulsion of essential oil (EO) with appropriate quality. A factorial test based on a completely randomised design with two treatments in three levels, including EO type (pennyroyal, Gijavash, and their equal combination) and a control sample was applied to assess the physicochemical and sensory properties of Doogh. The highest negative zeta potential and antioxidant activity percentage were observed in the sample containing the nanoemulsion of pennyroyal and enriched with a combination of two essential oils. The microbial evaluation results indicated that the total microorganism count was minimised in the Doogh containing the nanoemulsion of Gijavash. The nanoemulsions of pennyroyal and Gijavash can be added into Doogh formulation to produce a new product with maximum sensory acceptability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  4. Li H, Wan Mustapha WA, Tian G, Dong N, Zhao F, Zhang X, et al.
    Food Chem, 2024 Jan 15;431:137102.
    PMID: 37579608 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.137102
    To enhance the solubility of hydrophobic nutrients, the hydrophobicity of fish scale gelatin hydrolysate (FSGH) was increased with moderate acid or alkali hydrolysis. Acid-induced FSG hydrolysate (AcFSGH) at 3 h showed a superior curcumin loading efficiency (18.30 ± 0.38 μg/mL) among all FSGHs. Compared with FSG, the proportion of hydrophobic amino acids (from 41.1% to 46.4%) and the hydrophobic interaction (from 12.72 to 20.10 mg/mL) was significantly increased in the AcFSGH. Meanwhile, the transformation of the α-helix (from 12.8% to 4.9%) to the β-sheet (from 29.0% to 42.8%) was also observed in the AcFSGH. Based on the observation in the molecular weight and morphological analysis, AcFSGH acquired the best hydrophobic interaction with curcumin, presumably due to the formation of the flexible structure of the linear hydrolyzates. The above results call for an investigation of the role of FSG hydrolysate in the synthesis of nanoparticles loaded with bioactive lipophilic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  5. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2010 Jun 14;15(6):4324-33.
    PMID: 20657444 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15064324
    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  6. Ilyas Z, Ali Redha A, Wu YS, Ozeer FZ, Aluko RE
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2023 Jun;78(2):233-242.
    PMID: 36947371 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-023-01056-8
    Himanthalia elongata is a brown seaweed containing several nutritional compounds and bioactive substances including antioxidants, dietary fibre, vitamins, fatty acids, amino acids, and macro- and trace- elements. A variety of bioactive compounds including phlorotannins, flavonoids, dietary fucoxanthin, hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, polyphenols and carotenoids are also present in this seaweed. Multiple comparative studies were carried out between different seaweed species, wherein H. elongata was determined to exhibit high antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, fucose content and potassium concentrations compared to other species. H. elongata extracts have also shown promising anti-hyperglycaemic and neuroprotective activities. H. elongata is being studied for its potential industrial food applications. In new meat product formulations, it lowered sodium content, improved phytochemical and fiber content in beef patties, improved properties of meat gel/emulsion systems, firmer and tougher with improved water and fat binding properties. This narrative review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional composition, bioactive properties, and food applications of H. elongata.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  7. Tee LH, Yang B, Nagendra KP, Ramanan RN, Sun J, Chan ES, et al.
    Food Chem, 2014 Dec 15;165:247-55.
    PMID: 25038673 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.084
    Dacryodes species are evergreen, perennial trees with fleshy fruits and belong to the family Buseraseae. Many Dacryodes species are underutilized but are widely applied in traditional folk medicine to treat malaria, fever and skin diseases. The nutritional compositions, phytochemicals and biological activities of Dacryodes edulis, Dacryodes rostrata, Dacryodes buettneri, Dacryodes klaineana and Dacryodes hexandra are presented. The edible fruits of D. edulis are rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids. Its extracts (leaf, fruit and resin) exhibit antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities. D. rostrata fruit has significant nutrient content, and is rich in proteins, lipids and minerals. These fruits are also highly rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities. This comprehensive review will assist the reader in understanding the nutritional benefits of Dacryodes species and in identifying current research needs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  8. Chan KW, Khong NM, Iqbal S, Umar IM, Ismail M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(7):8987-97.
    PMID: 22942747 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13078987
    Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection to gastrointestinal pH conditions (p < 0.05). Also elevated significantly were the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of SPF (p < 0.05). In summary, the antioxidant properties of SPF were enhanced under gastrointestinal pH conditions, suggesting that SPF might possess a considerable amount of bound phenolic and other antioxidative compounds. The antioxidant properties of SPF are largely influenced by pH and thus might be enhanced during the in vivo digestive process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  9. Lim SM, Yim HS
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2012;14(6):593-602.
    PMID: 23510253
    A central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X1: 266.4-393.6 min) and temperature (X2: 42.9-57.1°C) of Pleurotus ostreatus aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities, namely DPPH radical-scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation inhibition, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power, as well as total phenolic content (TPC). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models developed by RSM. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant quadratic effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were 282.3 min and 42.9°C (DPPH), 393.6 min and 42.9°C (ABTS), 340.4 min and 49.8°C (FRAP), and 347.6 min, 49.7°C (TPC), with corresponding yields of 53.32%, 73.20%, 37.14 mM Fe2+ equivalents/100 g, and 826.33 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g, respectively. These experimental data were close to their predicted values. The establishment of such a model provides a good experimental basis for employing RSM to optimize the extraction time and temperature for high antioxidant activities from P. ostreatus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  10. Li R, Ru Y, Wang Z, He X, Kong KW, Zheng T, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jul 24;26(15).
    PMID: 34361630 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26154472
    In this study, we aimed to investigate the chemical components and biological activities of Musella lasiocarpa, a special flower that is edible and has functional properties. The crude methanol extract and its four fractions (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were tested for their total antioxidant capacity, followed by their α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Among the samples, the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were found in the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction (224.99 mg GAE/g DE) and crude methanol extract (187.81 mg QE/g DE), respectively. The EtOAc fraction of Musella lasiocarpa exhibited the strongest DPPH· scavenging ability, ABTS·+ scavenging ability, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 22.17, 12.10, and 125.66 μg/mL, respectively. The EtOAc fraction also showed the strongest ferric reducing antioxidant power (1513.89 mg FeSO4/g DE) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ability (524.11 mg Trolox/g DE), which were higher than those of the control BHT. In contrast, the aqueous fraction demonstrated the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 10.11 μg/mL), and the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory ability (IC50 = 5.23 μg/mL) was observed from the crude methanol extract as compared with allopurinol (24.85 μg/mL). The HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses further revealed an impressive arsenal of compounds, including phenolic acids, fatty acids, esters, terpenoids, and flavonoids, in the most biologically active EtOAc fraction. Taken together, this is the first report indicating the potential of Musella lasiocarpa as an excellent natural source of antioxidants with possible therapeutic, nutraceutical, and functional food applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  11. Selby-Pham SNB, Siow LF, Bennett LE
    Food Funct, 2020 Jan 29;11(1):907-920.
    PMID: 31942898 DOI: 10.1039/c9fo01149h
    After oil extraction, palm fruit biomass contains abundant water-soluble phytochemicals (PCs) with proven bioactivity in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI). For optimal bioefficacy following oral consumption, the pharmacokinetic plasma peak (Tmax) should be bio-matched with the onset of OSI, which can be predicted from the Phytochemical Absorption Prediction (PCAP) model and methodology. Predicted absorption and potential for regulation of OSI by measures of total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and hydrogen peroxide production capacity, were applied to characterise eight extracts from mesocarp fibre and kernel shells of oil-depleted palm fruits. Results indicated post-consumption absorption Tmax ranges of 0.5-12 h and 2-6 h for intake in liquid and solid forms, respectively, and generally high antioxidant activity of the extracts. The research supports that PC extracts of palm fruit biomass have broad potential uses for human health as dietary antioxidants in foods, supplements or functional beverages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  12. Zulkifli SA, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE
    Molecules, 2020 Feb 12;25(4).
    PMID: 32059460 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25040787
    The present study was conducted to optimize extraction process for defatted pitaya seed extract (DPSE) adopting response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level central composite design was used to optimize total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) activities. The independent variables included extraction time (30-60 min), extraction temperature (40-80 °C) and ethanol concentration (60%-80%). Results showed that the quadratic polynomial equations for all models were significant at (p < 0.05), with non-significant lack of fit at p > 0.05 and R2 of more than 0.90. The optimized extraction parameters were established as follows: extraction time of 45 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 80%. Under these conditions, the recovery of TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity based on FRAP and ABTS were 128.58 ± 1.61 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample, 9.805 ± 0.69 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g sample, 1.23 ± 0.03 mM Fe2+/g sample, and 91.62% ± 0.15, respectively. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis identified seven chemical compounds with flavonoids constituting major composition of the DPSE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  13. El Omari N, Mrabti HN, Benali T, Ullah R, Alotaibi A, Abdullah ADI, et al.
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed), 2023 Sep 27;28(9):229.
    PMID: 37796709 DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2809229
    BACKGROUND: Screening new natural molecules with pharmacological and/or cosmetic properties remains a highly sought-after area of research. Moreover, essential oils and volatile compounds have recently garnered significant interest as natural substance candidates. In this study, the volatile components of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oils (PLEOs) isolated from the fruit and its main compounds, alpha-pinene, and limonene, are investigated for antioxidant, antidiabetic, and dermatoprotective activities.

    METHODS: In vitro antioxidant activity was investigated using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. The antidiabetic and dermatoprotective effects were studied using enzyme inhibitory activities.

    RESULTS: Antioxidant tests showed that PLEO has the best activity (ranging from 29.64 ± 3.04 to 73.80 ± 3.96 µg/mL) compared to its main selected molecules (ranging from 74 ± 3.72 to 107.23 ± 5.03 µg/mL). The α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays demonstrated that the elements tested have a promising antidiabetic potential with IC50values ranging from 78.03 ± 2.31 to 116.03 ± 7.42 µg/mL and 74.39 ± 3.08 to 112.35 ± 4.92 µg/mL for the α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays, respectively, compared to the standard drug. For the tyrosinase test, we found that the EOs (IC50 = 57.72 ± 2.86 µg/mL) followed by limonene (IC50 = 74.24 ± 2.06 µg/mL) and α-pinene (IC50 = 97.45 ± 5.22 µg/mL) all exhibited greater inhibitory effects than quercetin (IC50 = 246.90 ± 2.54 µg/mL).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the biological activities of PLEO, as well as its main compounds, make them promising candidates for the development of new strategies aimed at improving dermatoprotection and treating diseases associated with diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  14. Ahamad Tarmizi AA, Nik Ramli NN, Adam SH, Abdul Mutalib M, Mokhtar MH, Tang SGH
    Molecules, 2023 Jul 10;28(14).
    PMID: 37513196 DOI: 10.3390/molecules28145322
    The advancement in nanotechnology is the trigger for exploring the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and their use in biomedicine. Therefore, this study aims to synthesize selenium nanoparticles using M. oleifera as a reducing agent and evaluate their antioxidant and antidiabetic potential. Our result demonstrated a change in the color of the mixture from yellow to red, and UV-Vis spectrometry of the suspension solution confirmed the formation of MO-SeNPs with a single absorbance peak in the range of 240-560 nm wavelength. FTIR analysis revealed several bioactive compounds, such as phenols and amines, that could possibly be responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the MO-SeNPs. FESEM + EDX analysis revealed that the amorphous MO-SeNPs are of high purity, have a spherical shape, and have a size of 20-250 nm in diameter, as determined by HRTEM. MO-SeNPs also exhibit the highest DPPH scavenging activity of 84% at 1000 μg/mL with an IC50 of 454.1 μg/mL and noteworthy reducing ability by reducing power assay. Furthermore, MO-SeNPs showed promising antidiabetic properties with dose-dependent inhibition of α-amylase (26.7% to 44.53%) and α-glucosidase enzyme (4.73% to 19.26%). Hence, these results demonstrated that M. oleifera plant extract possesses the potential to reduce selenium ions to SeNPs under optimized conditions with notable antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  15. Mohamed Mahzir KA, Abd Gani SS, Hasanah Zaidan U, Halmi MIE
    Molecules, 2018 Mar 22;23(4).
    PMID: 29565312 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040724
    In this study, the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from the Buah Mahkota Dewa fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) was determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimisation was applied using a Central Composite Design (CCD) to investigate the effect of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (minutes) and extraction solvent to-feed ratio (% v/v) on four responses: free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The optimal conditions for the antioxidants extraction were found to be 64 °C extraction temperature, 66 min extraction time and 75% v/v solvent to-feed ratio giving the highest percentage yields of DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC of 86.85%, 7.47%, 292.86 mg/g and 3.22 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R²) above 99%, proving that the yield of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants activities obtained experimentally were close to the predicted values and the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimise the extraction conditions. Hence, in this study, the fruit from P. macrocarpa could be considered to have strong antioxidant ability and can be used in various cosmeceutical or medicinal applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  16. Lim MW, Yow YY, Gew LT
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2023 Oct;22(10):2810-2815.
    PMID: 37313630 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.15794
    BACKGROUND: Application of natural resources from the marine environment in the cosmeceutical industry is gaining great attention.

    AIM: This study pursues to discover the cosmeceutical potential of two Malaysian algae, Sargassum sp. and Kappaphycus sp. by determining their antioxidant capacity and assessing the presence of their secondary metabolites with cosmeceutical potential using non-targeted metabolite profiling.

    METHODS: Metabolite profiling using Quadrupole Time-of-Flight (Q-TOF) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in the Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mode resulted in 110 putative metabolites in Sargassum sp. and 47 putative metabolites in Kappaphycus sp. and were grouped according to their functions. To the best of our knowledge, the bioactive compounds of both algae have not been studied in any great detail. This is the first report to explore their cosmeceutical potential.

    RESULTS: Six antioxidants were detected in Sargassum sp., including fucoxanthin, (3S, 4R, 3'R)-4-Hydroxyalloxanthin, enzacamene N-stearoyl valine, 2-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, and metalloporphyrins. Meanwhile, three antioxidants detected in Kappahycus sp., namely Tanacetol A, 2-fluoro palmitic acid and idebenone metabolites. Three antioxidants are found in both algae species, namely, 3-tert-Butyl-5-methylcatechol, (-)-isoamijiol, and (6S)-dehydrovomifoliol. Anti-inflammatory metabolites such as 5(R)-HETE, protoverine, phytosphingosine, 4,5-Leukotriene-A4, and 5Z-octadecenoic acid were also found in both species. Sargassum sp. possesses higher antioxidant capacity as compared to Kappahycus sp. which may be linked to its number of antioxidant compounds found through LC-MS.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hence, our results conclude that Malaysian Sargassum sp. and Kappaphycus sp. are potential natural cosmeceutical ingredients as we aim to produce algae cosmeceutical products using native algae.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  17. Aishah Baharuddin S, Nadiah Abd Karim Shah N, Saiful Yazan L, Abd Rashed A, Kadota K, Al-Awaadh AM, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2023 Dec;101:106702.
    PMID: 38041881 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2023.106702
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignancy and the third primary cause of cancer-related mortalities caused by unhealthy diet, hectic lifestyle, and genetic damage. People aged ≥ 50 are more at risk for CRC. Nowadays, bioactive compounds from plants have been widely studied in preventing CRC because of their anticancer and antioxidant properties. Herein, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract the bioactive compounds of Pluchea indica (L.) leaves. The resultant total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of P. indica (L.) leaves were analyzed using a response surface methodology (RSM). The central composite design was implemented to evaluate the amplitude (10 %-70 %) and treatment time (2-10 min) on both responses, i.e., TPC and TFC of P. indica (L.) leaves. The optimum UAE conditions were observed 40 % amplitude and 6 min of treatment, where the TPC and TFC were 3.26 ± 0.00 mg GAE/g d.w. and 67.58 ± 1.46 mg QE/g d.w., respectively. The optimum P. indica (L.) leaf extract was then screened for its cytotoxicity on the HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line. This extract had strong cytotoxicity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 12 µg/mL. The phytochemical screening of bioactive compounds revealed that the optimal P. indica (L.) leaf extract contains flavonoids, namely, kaempferol 3-[2''',3''',5'''-triacetyl]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1->6)-glucoside, myricetin 3-glucoside-7-galactoside, quercetin 3-(3''-sulfatoglucoside), and kaempferol 7,4'-dimethyl ether 3-O-sulfate, which could be good sources for promising anticancer agents. This study employs the RSM approach to utilize UAE for bioactive compounds extraction of P. indica (L.) leaves, identified the specific compounds present in the optimized extract and revealed its potential in preventing CRC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  18. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:523120.
    PMID: 25147852 DOI: 10.1155/2014/523120
    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%-80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40-70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20-40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  19. Yap HY, Aziz AA, Fung SY, Ng ST, Tan CS, Tan NH
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(6):602-7.
    PMID: 24782649 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8341
    The Lignosus is a genus of fungi that have useful medicinal properties. In Southeast Asia, three species of Lignosus (locally known collectively as Tiger milk mushrooms) have been reported including L. tigris, L. rhinocerotis, and L. cameronensis. All three have been used as important medicinal mushrooms by the natives of Peninsular Malaysia. In this work, the nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of the wild type and a cultivated strain of L. tigris sclerotial extracts were investigated. The sclerotia are rich in carbohydrates with moderate amount of protein and low fat content. Free radical scavenging activities of L. tigris sclerotial extracts correlate with their phenolic content, which ranges from 6.25 to 45.42 mg GAE/g extract. The FRAP values ranged from 0.002 to 0.041 mmol/min/g extract, while the DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and superoxide anion (SOA) scavenging activities ranged from 0.18 to 2.53, 0.01 to 0.36, and -4.53 to 10.05 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract, respectively. L. tigris cultivar shows good prospect to be developed into functional food due to its good nutritional value and potent SOA scavenging activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  20. Anarjan N, Tan CP, Nehdi IA, Ling TC
    Food Chem, 2012 Dec 1;135(3):1303-9.
    PMID: 22953858 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.05.091
    Astaxanthin colloidal particles were produced using solvent-diffusion technique in the presence of different food grade surface active compounds, namely, Polysorbate 20 (PS20), sodium caseinate (SC), gum Arabic (GA) and the optimum combination of them (OPT). Particle size and surface charge characteristics, rheological behaviour, chemical stability, colour, in vitro cellular uptake, in vitro antioxidant activity and residual solvent concentration of prepared colloidal particles were evaluated. The results indicated that in most cases the mixture of surface active compounds lead to production of colloidal particles with more desirable physicochemical and biological properties, as compared to using them individually. The optimum combination of PS20, SC and GA could produce the astaxanthin colloidal particles with small particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), conductivity and higher zeta potential, mobility, cellular uptake, colour intensity and in vitro antioxidant activity. In addition, all prepared astaxanthin colloidal particles had significantly (p<0.05) higher cellular uptake than pure astaxanthin powder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
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