Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 134 in total

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  1. van Panhuis WG, Choisy M, Xiong X, Chok NS, Akarasewi P, Iamsirithaworn S, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2015 Oct 20;112(42):13069-74.
    PMID: 26438851 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1501375112
    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus infection that causes epidemics of febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever across the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Annual epidemics are commonly observed, but there is substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity in intensity. A better understanding of this heterogeneity in dengue transmission could lead to improved epidemic prediction and disease control. Time series decomposition methods enable the isolation and study of temporal epidemic dynamics with a specific periodicity (e.g., annual cycles related to climatic drivers and multiannual cycles caused by dynamics in population immunity). We collected and analyzed up to 18 y of monthly dengue surveillance reports on a total of 3.5 million reported dengue cases from 273 provinces in eight countries in Southeast Asia, covering ∼ 10(7) km(2). We detected strong patterns of synchronous dengue transmission across the entire region, most markedly during a period of high incidence in 1997-1998, which was followed by a period of extremely low incidence in 2001-2002. This synchrony in dengue incidence coincided with elevated temperatures throughout the region in 1997-1998 and the strongest El Niño episode of the century. Multiannual dengue cycles (2-5 y) were highly coherent with the Oceanic Niño Index, and synchrony of these cycles increased with temperature. We also detected localized traveling waves of multiannual dengue epidemic cycles in Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines that were dependent on temperature. This study reveals forcing mechanisms that drive synchronization of dengue epidemics on a continental scale across Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  2. Lim VK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1991 Dec;46(4):298-300.
    PMID: 1840435
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  3. Daneshvar C, William T, Davis TME
    Parasitology, 2018 01;145(1):18-31.
    PMID: 28122651 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182016002638
    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria of primarily the macaque species of South East Asia. While it was known that human infections could be induced during the years of malariotherapy, naturally occurring P. knowlesi human infections were thought to be rare. However, in 2004, knowlesi infections became recognized as an important infection amongst human populations in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Since then, it has become recognized as a disease affecting people living and visiting endemic areas across South East Asia. Over the last 12 years, clinical studies have improved our understanding of this potentially fatal disease. In this review article the current literature is reviewed to give a comprehensive description of the disease and treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  4. Wartel TA, Prayitno A, Hadinegoro SR, Capeding MR, Thisyakorn U, Tran NH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2017 Jan;29(1):7-16.
    PMID: 28198645 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516675701
    We described and quantified epidemiologic trends in dengue disease burden in 5 Asian countries (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam) and identified and estimated outbreaks impact over the last 3 decades. Dengue surveillance data from 1980 to 2010 were retrieved from DengueNet and from World Health Organization sources. Trends in incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate (CFR) were systematically analyzed using annual average percent change (AAPC), and the contribution of epidemic years identified over the observation period was quantified. Over the 30-year period, incidence increased in all countries (AAPC 1980-2010: 6.7% in Thailand, 10.4% in Vietnam, 12.0% in Indonesia, 18.1% in Malaysia, 24.4% in Philippines). Mortality also increased in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines (AAPC: 6.8%, 7.0%, and 29.2%, respectively), but slightly decreased in Thailand and Vietnam (AAPC: -1.3% and -2.5%), and CFR decreased in all countries (AAPC: -4.2% to -8.3%). Epidemic years, despite representing less than a third of the observation period, contributed from 1 to 3 times more cases versus nonepidemic years. Implementation of more sensitive surveillance methods over the study period may have contributed to a reporting or ascertainment bias in some countries. Nonetheless, these data support the urgent need for novel, integrated, or otherwise effective dengue prevention and control tools and approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 1997 Nov 28;46(47):1113-7.
    PMID: 9393657
    In 1988, the World Health Assembly adopted the goal of global poliomyelitis eradication by 2000, which was endorsed in each of the six regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). In the Western Pacific Region (WPR), where the last known case of polio associated with isolation of wild poliovirus occurred in March 1997, the reported number of cases decreased from 5963 in 1990 to 197 in 1996. This report documents progress toward polio eradication in WPR from January 1, 1996, through September 27, 1997, in countries where polio is endemic (Cambodia, China, Laos, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and Vietnam) or recently was endemic (Malaysia and Mongolia) and describes the routine and supplemental vaccination activities necessary to interrupt wild poliovirus transmission in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  6. Lee HM, Okuda KS, González FE, Patel V
    Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 2019;1164:11-34.
    PMID: 31576537 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22254-3_2
    Of the ~129,079 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 72,987 associated deaths estimated for 2018, the majority will be geographically localized to South East Asia, and likely to show an upward trend annually. It is thought that disparities in dietary habits, lifestyle, and exposures to harmful environmental factors are likely the root cause of NPC incidence rates to differ geographically. Genetic differences due to ethnicity and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are likely contributing factors. Pertinently, NPC is associated with poor prognosis which is largely attributed to lack of awareness of the salient symptoms of NPC. These include nose hemorrhage and headaches and coupled with detection and the limited therapeutic options. Treatment options include radiotherapy or chemotherapy or combination of both. Surgical excision is generally the last option considered for advanced and metastatic disease, given the close proximity of nasopharynx to brain stem cell area, major blood vessels, and nerves. To improve outcome of NPC patients, novel cellular and in vivo systems are needed to allow an understanding of the underling molecular events causal for NPC pathogenesis and for identifying novel therapeutic targets and effective therapies. While challenges and gaps in current NPC research are noted, some advances in targeted therapies and immunotherapies targeting EBV NPCs are discussed in this chapter, which may offer improvements in outcome of NPC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  7. Kabir MA, Goh KL, Khan MH
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:379.
    PMID: 23617464 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-379
    BACKGROUND:
    Tobacco consumption (TC) among youths poses significant public health problem in developing countries. This study utilized the data of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007 to examine and compare youth TC behavior in Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

    METHODS:
    The GYTS covered a total of 2,242 Bangladeshi, 1,444 Nepalese and 1,377 Sri-Lankan youths aged 13-15 years. They represented response rates of 88.9%, 94.6%, and 85.0% for the three countries, respectively. Socioeconomic, environmental, motivating, and programmatic predictors of TC were examined using cross tabulations and logistic regressions.

    RESULTS:
    Prevalence of TC was 6.9% (9.1% in males, 5.1% in females) in Bangladesh, 9.4% (13.2% in males, 5.3% in females) in Nepal and 9.1% (12.4% in males, 5.8% in females) in Sri Lanka. The average tobacco initiation age was 9.6, 10.24 and 8.61 years, respectively. Cross tabulations showed that gender, smoking among parents and friends, exposure to smoking at home and public places, availability of free tobacco were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with TC in all three countries. The multivariable analysis [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] indicated that the common significant predictors for TC in the three countries were TC among friends [1.9 (1.30-2.89) for Bangladesh, 4.10 (2.64-6.38) for Nepal, 2.34 (1.36-4.02) for Sri Lanka], exposure to smoking at home [1.7 (1.02-2.81) for Bangladesh, 1.81 (1.08-2.79) for Nepal, 3.96 (1.82-8.62) for Sri Lanka], exposure to smoking at other places [2.67 (1.59-4.47) for Bangladesh, 5.22 (2.76-9.85) for Nepal, 1.76 (1.05-2.88) for Sri Lanka], and the teaching of smoking hazards in schools [0.56 (0.38-0.84) for Bangladesh, 0.60 (0.41-0.89) for Nepal, 0.58 (0.35-0.94) for Sri Lanka].

    CONCLUSIONS:
    An understanding of the influencing factors of youth TC provides helpful insights for the formulation of tobacco control policies in the South-Asian region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  8. Undurraga EA, Halasa YA, Shepard DS
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013;7(2):e2056.
    PMID: 23437407 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002056
    BACKGROUND: Dengue virus infection is the most common arthropod-borne disease of humans and its geographical range and infection rates are increasing. Health policy decisions require information about the disease burden, but surveillance systems usually underreport the total number of cases. These may be estimated by multiplying reported cases by an expansion factor (EF).

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: As a key step to estimate the economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia (SEA), we projected dengue cases from 2001 through 2010 using EFs. We conducted a systematic literature review (1995-2011) and identified 11 published articles reporting original, empirically derived EFs or the necessary data, and 11 additional relevant studies. To estimate EFs for total cases in countries where no empirical studies were available, we extrapolated data based on the statistically significant inverse relationship between an index of a country's health system quality and its observed reporting rate. We compiled an average 386,000 dengue episodes reported annually to surveillance systems in the region, and projected about 2.92 million dengue episodes. We conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, simultaneously varying the most important parameters in 20,000 Monte Carlo simulations, and derived 95% certainty level of 2.73-3.38 million dengue episodes. We estimated an overall EF in SEA of 7.6 (95% certainty level: 7.0-8.8) dengue cases for every case reported, with an EF range of 3.8 for Malaysia to 19.0 in East Timor.

    CONCLUSION: Studies that make no adjustment for underreporting would seriously understate the burden and cost of dengue in SEA and elsewhere. As the sites of the empirical studies we identified were not randomly chosen, the exact extent of underreporting remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the results reported here, based on a systematic analysis of the available literature, show general consistency and provide a reasonable empirical basis to adjust for underreporting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  9. Shepard DS, Undurraga EA, Halasa YA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013;7(2):e2055.
    PMID: 23437406 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002055
    BACKGROUND: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA). Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources--surveillance data, World Health Organization (WHO), and published studies--and adjusted for underreporting using expansion factors from previous literature. We obtained unit costs per episode through a systematic literature review, and completed missing data using linear regressions. We excluded costs such as prevention and vector control, and long-term sequelae of dengue. Over the decade of 2001-2010, we obtained an annual average of 2.9 million (m) dengue episodes and 5,906 deaths. The annual economic burden (with 95% certainty levels) was US$950m (US$610m-US$1,384m) or about US$1.65 (US$1.06-US$2.41) per capita. The annual number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), based on the original 1994 definition, was 214,000 (120,000-299,000), which is equivalent to 372 (210-520) DALYs per million inhabitants.

    CONCLUSION: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in SEA with a DALY burden per million inhabitants in the region. This burden is higher than that of 17 other conditions, including Japanese encephalitis, upper respiratory infections, and hepatitis B.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  10. Hoy DG, Rao C, Hoa NP, Suhardi S, Lwin AM
    Int J Stroke, 2013 Oct;8 Suppl A100:21-7.
    PMID: 23013164 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00903.x
    Stroke is a leading cause of death in Asia; however, many estimates of stroke mortality are based on epidemiological models rather than empirical data. Since 2005, initiatives have been undertaken in a number of Asian countries to strengthen and analyse vital registration data. This has increased the availability of empirical data on stroke mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  11. Moore MA, Manan AA, Chow KY, Cornain SF, Devi CR, Triningsih FX, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11 Suppl 2:81-98.
    PMID: 20553070
    Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  12. Schratz A, Pineda MF, Reforma LG, Fox NM, Le Anh T, Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza L, et al.
    Adv. Parasitol., 2010;72:79-107.
    PMID: 20624529 DOI: 10.1016/S0065-308X(10)72004-2
    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  13. Phillips DR
    Soc Sci Med, 1991;33(4):395-404.
    PMID: 1948152
    The concept of epidemiological transition is now quite widely recognized, if not so widely accepted. The transition appears to progress at varying speeds and to different extents spatially; it seems that there can be considerable international, regional and local variations in its progress. The paper examines this contention in the case of a number of countries in Southeast Asia, principally Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand. Drawing on evidence from this region, the paper highlights the importance when researching epidemiological transition of the time period under consideration; socio-cultural variations; the nature and quality of data, and spatial scale. It makes some suggestions as to the potential of the concept of epidemiological transition in health care planning and development studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  14. Waikagul J
    PMID: 1822877
    Twenty-three species of intestinal flukes reported in man in Southeast Asia are assigned to seven families: Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodriidae, Microphallidae, Paramphistomatidae and Plagiorchiidae. The majority of species belongs to the Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae families. Common species are Fasciolopsis buski, Echinostoma ilocanum, E. malayanum, E. revolutum and Haplorchis yokogawai. The countries where large number of species were reported are Thailand (14 species), Philippines (12 species), Indonesia (8 species) and Malaysia (4 species). Only one species was recognized in Laos, and Vietnam. Several species reported in man in the other regions, were reported in animals in Southeast Asia. It is possible that these are present in humans but have not yet been reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  15. Kimman M, Jan S, Kingston D, Monaghan H, Sokha E, Thabrany H, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(2):421-5.
    PMID: 22524800
    Cancer can be a major cause of poverty. This may be due either to the costs of treating and managing the illness as well as its impact upon people's ability to work. This is a concern that particularly affects countries that lack comprehensive social health insurance systems and other types of social safety nets. The ACTION study is a longitudinal cohort study of 10,000 hospital patients with a first time diagnosis of cancer. It aims to assess the impact of cancer on the economic circumstances of patients and their households, patients' quality of life, costs of treatment and survival. Patients will be followed throughout the first year after their cancer diagnosis, with interviews conducted at baseline (after diagnosis), three and 12 months. A cross-section of public and private hospitals as well as cancer centers across eight member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will invite patients to participate. The primary outcome is incidence of financial catastrophe following treatment for cancer, defined as out-of-pocket health care expenditure at 12 months exceeding 30% of household income. Secondary outcomes include illness induced poverty, quality of life, psychological distress, economic hardship, survival and disease status. The findings can raise awareness of the extent of the cancer problem in South East Asia and its breadth in terms of its implications for households and the communities in which cancer patients live, identify priorities for further research and catalyze political action to put in place effective cancer control policies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  16. Khoo KL, Tan H, Liew YM, Deslypere JP, Janus E
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Jul;169(1):1-10.
    PMID: 12860245
    In Western countries, it has been shown that coronary heart disease (CHD) is related to high serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. In less developed continents such as Asia and Africa, serum lipid levels are low and CHD incidence is much lower as compared with Western countries. With growing urbanization and industrialization in Asia, it has been shown that there is a concomitant rise in the level of serum TC and with it a rise in CHD. In all the Asian countries, serum TC levels are also higher in the urban compared with the rural population. Singapore, the only Asian country which is 100% urbanized since 1980, showed a rise of serum TC similar to that seen in the US and UK from the 1950s to the 1980s followed thereafter by a fall. This is reflected in the trend (rise followed by a fall) of CHD morbidity and mortality as well. In spite of a declining trend in serum TC level, CHD morbidity and mortality are still high in Singapore and comparable to the Western countries. The rest of the Asian countries show a different pattern from Singapore. In general, there is still a rising trend in serum TC level and in CHD mortality in most Asian countries. However, Japan is considered an exception in having a decreasing CHD mortality in spite of an increasing trend in serum TC. This may be attributed to a better control of other CHD risk factors such as hypertension and smoking. The rising trend in serum TC level remains a cause for concern, as this will emerge as a major problem for CHD morbidity and mortality in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  17. Isahak I, Steering Committee for Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Asia
    PMID: 11023089
    Adult immunization is a neglected and underpublicised issue in Southeast Asia. Vaccine-preventable diseases cause unnecessary morbidity and mortality among adults in the region, while inadequate immunization results in unnecessary costs, including those associated with hospitalization, treatment, and loss of income. Childhood vaccination coverage is high for the EPI diseases of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis; however, unvaccinated, undervaccinated, and aging adults with waning immunity remain at risk from infection and may benefit from vaccination. Catch-up immunization is advisable for adults seronegative for hepatitis B virus, while immunization against the hepatitis A and varicella viruses may benefit those who remain susceptible. Among older adults, immunization against influenza and pneumococcal infections is likely to be beneficial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Certain vaccinations are also recommended for specific groups, such as rubella for women of child-bearing age, typhoid for those travelling to high-endemicity areas, and several vaccines for high-risk occupational groups such as health care workers. This paper presents an overview of a number of vaccine-preventable diseases which occur in adults, and highlights the importance of immunization to protect those at risk of infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  18. Silver ZA, Kaliappan SP, Samuel P, Venugopal S, Kang G, Sarkar R, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 01;12(1):e0006153.
    PMID: 29346440 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006153
    BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD) worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia.

    METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis.

    PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23%) followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19%) and hookworm (12%, 9-15%). Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh). When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24%) and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%). Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63%) and Ascaris (32%, 23-43%) than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively). Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90%) was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC) were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31%) and Trichuris (22%, 14-34%) were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16%) was comparable.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for ascariasis and trichuriasis, tribal populations had higher levels of infection than rural populations. We also found a higher prevalence of ascariasis and trichuriasis in SAC compared to the general population but comparable levels of hookworm infections. These key findings need to be taken into account in planning future MDA and other interventions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  19. Shafiq M, Fong AYY, Tai ES, Nang EEK, Wee HL, Adam J, et al.
    Int J Epidemiol, 2018 10 01;47(5):1399-1400g.
    PMID: 30165399 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy168
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
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