Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 69 in total

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  1. Sunasee S, Wong KT, Lee G, Pichiah S, Ibrahim S, Park C, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jun;24(18):15488-15499.
    PMID: 28512708 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9124-0
    In this study, bisphenol A (BPA) removal by sonophotocatalysis coupled with commercially available titanium dioxide (TiO2, P25) was assessed in batch tests using energy-based advanced oxidation combining ultrasound (US) and ultraviolet (UV). The kinetics of BPA removal were systematically evaluated by changing operational parameters, such as US frequency and power, mechanical stirring speed, and temperature, but also comparison of single and coupled systems under the optimum US conditions (35 kHz, 50 W, 300 rpm stirring speed, and 20 °C). The combination of US/UV/P25 exhibited the highest BPA removal rate (28.0 × 10-3 min-1). In terms of the synergy index, the synergistic effect of sonophotocatalysis was found to be 2.2. This indicated that sonophotocatalysis has a considerably higher removal efficiency than sonocatalysis or photocatalysis. The removal of BPA was further investigated to identify BPA byproducts and intermediates using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Five main intermediates were formed during sonophotocatalytic degradation, and complete removal of BPA and its intermediates was obtained after 3 h of operation. The degradation pathway of BPA by sonophotocatalysis was also elucidated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/chemistry*
  2. Mengting Z, Kurniawan TA, Yanping Y, Avtar R, Othman MHD
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Mar;108:110420.
    PMID: 31924000 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110420
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a refractory pollutant presents in water body that possesses serious threats to living organisms. To deal with it, we investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 composite as a novel photocatalyst for BPA removal from aqueous solutions under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its removal for BPA, the surface of BiOI/Bi2WO6 is modified with graphene oxide (GO). This composite is named as 'GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6'. Changes in its physico-chemical properties after surface modification with GO are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDS, XPS, PL, and BET methods. Optimized conditions of BPA degradation by the composite are determined under identical conditions. Photodegradation pathways of BPA and its removal mechanisms by the same composite are presented. It is obvious that the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 has demonstrated its potential as a promising photocatalyst for BPA removal under UV-vis irradiation. About 81% of BPA removal is attained by the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 under optimized conditions (10 mg/L of BPA, 0.5 g/L of dose, pH 7 and 5 h of reaction time). The oxidation by-products of BPA degradation include p-hydroquinone or 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-phenol. In spite of its performance, the treated effluents are still unable to meet the maximum discharge limit of <1 mg/L set by national legislation. Therefore, subsequent biological processes are essential to maximize its biodegradation in the wastewater samples before their discharge into waterbody.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/chemistry*
  3. M Hanif A, Bushra R, Ismail NE, Bano R, Abedin S, Alam S, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2021 May;34(3(Supplementary)):1081-1087.
    PMID: 34602436
    The current investigation is based on efficient method development for the quantification of empagliflozin in raw and pharmaceutical dosage forms, as no pharmacopoeial method for the drug is available so far. The developed analytical method was validated as per ICH guidelines. C18 column with mobile phase (pH 4.8) consisted of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid solution and acetonitrile (70:30 v/v) was used for drug analysis. The calibration plot showed good linear regression (r2>0.999) over the concentration of 0.025-30 μg mL-1. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.020 μg mL-1 and 0.061 μg mL-1, respectively. The percentage recovery was estimated between 98.0 to 100.13%. Accuracy and precision data were found to be less than 2%, indicating the suitability of method for routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, the drug solution was found to be stable in refrigerator and ambient room temperature with mean % accuracy of >98%. Empagliflozin contents were also tested in both the raw API and marketed tablet brands using this newly developed method. The mean assay of raw empagliflozin and tablet brands were ranged from 99.29%±1.12 to 100.95%±1.69 and 97.18%±1.59 to 98.92%±1.00 respectively. Based on these findings, the present investigated approach is suitable for quantification of empagliflozin in raw and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/analysis*
  4. Aziz A, Agamuthu P, Fauziah SH
    Waste Manag Res, 2018 Oct;36(10):975-984.
    PMID: 30058954 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X18790360
    Landfill leachate contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely, bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, which exceed the permissible limits. Thus, such landfill leachate must be treated before it is released into natural water courses. This article reports on investigations about the removal efficiency of POPs such as BPA and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol from leachate using locust bean gum (LBG) in comparison with alum. The vital experimental variables (pH, coagulant dosage and stirring speed) were optimised by applying response surface methodology equipped with the Box-Behnken design to reduce the POPs from leachate. An empirical quadratic polynomial model could accurately model the surface response with R2 values of 0.928 and 0.954 to reduce BPA and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed on treated flocs for further understanding. FTIR analysis revealed that the bridging of pollutant particles could be due to the explicit adsorption and bridging via hydrogen bonding of a coagulation mechanism. SEM micrographs indicated that the flocs produced by LBG have a rough cloudy surface and numerous micro-pores compared with alum, which enabled the capture and removal of POPs from leachate. Results showed that the reduction efficiencies for BPA and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol at pH 7.5 were 76% and 84% at LBG dosage of 500 mg·L-1 and 400 mg·L-1, respectively. Coagulant dosage and pH variation have a significant effect on POPs reduction in leachate. Coagulation/flocculation using LBG could be applied for POPs reduction in leachate as a pre-treatment prior to advanced treatments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
  5. Balakumar P, Sundram K, Dhanaraj SA
    Pharmacol Res, 2014 Apr;82:34-9.
    PMID: 24705156 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.03.008
    Diabetes mellitus is a greatly challenging disease of the 21 century, and the mortality rate due to this insidious disease is increasing worldwide in spite of availability of effective oral hypoglycemic agents. Satisfactory management of glycemic control in patients afflicted with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a major clinical challenge. Identification of potential pharmacological target sites is therefore continuing as an integral part of the diabetic research. The sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) expressed in the renal proximal tubule plays an essential role in glucose reabsorption. Pharmacological blockade of SGLT2 prevents glucose reabsorption and subsequently induces the elimination of filtered glucose via urine, the process is known as 'glucuresis'. Dapagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of SGLT2. The US FDA approved dapagliflozin in January 2014 to improve glycemic control along with diet and exercise in adult patients afflicted with T2DM. It has a potential to decrease glycated hemoglobin and to promote weight loss. Although the mechanism of action of dapagliflozin is not directly linked with insulin or insulin sensitivity, reduction of plasma glucose by dapagliflozin via induction of glucosuria could improve muscle insulin sensitivity. Moreover, dapagliflozin could cause diuresis and subsequently fall in blood pressure. In addition to general discussion on the pharmacology of dapagliflozin, we propose in this review the possibilities of dual antidiabetic effect of dapagliflozin and its possible additional beneficial actions in hypertensive-obese-T2DM patients through its indirect blood pressure-lowering action and reduction of body calories and weight. Long-term clinical studies are however needed to clarify this contention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects; Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacokinetics; Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacology*; Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use
  6. Al Azzam KM, Saad B, Aboul-Enein HY
    Electrophoresis, 2010 Sep;31(17):2957-63.
    PMID: 20690150 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201000266
    Binding constants for the enantiomers of modafinil with the negatively charged chiral selector sulfated-β-CD (S-β-CD) using CE technique is presented. The calculations of the binding constants employing three different linearization plots (double reciprocal, X-reciprocal and Y-reciprocal) were performed from the electrophoretic mobility values of modafinil enantiomers at different concentrations of S-β-CD in the BGE. The highest inclusion affinity of the modafinil enantiomers were observed for the S-enantiomer-S-β-CD complex, in agreement with the computational calculations performed previously. Binding constants for each enantiomer-S-β-CD complex at different temperatures, as well as thermodynamic parameters for binding, were calculated. Host-guest binding constants using the double reciprocal fit showed better linearity (r(2)>0.99) at all temperatures studied (15-30°C) and compared with the other two fit methods. The linear van't Hoff (15-30°C) plot obtained indicated that the thermodynamic parameters of complexation were temperature dependent for the enantiomers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/chemistry*
  7. Lim PF, Leong KH, Sim LC, Abd Aziz A, Saravanan P
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Feb;26(4):3455-3464.
    PMID: 30515688 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3821-1
    In this work, a sunlight-sensitive photocatalyst of nanocubic-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) and N-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) is developed through a simple hydrothermal and physical mixing method. The successful amalgamation composite photocatalyst characteristics were comprehensively scrutinized through various physical and chemical analyses. A complete removal of bisphenol A (BPA) is attained by a synthesized composite after 30 min of sunlight irradiation as compared to pure TiO2. This clearly proved the unique contribution of N-GQDs that enhanced the ability of light harvesting especially under visible light and near-infrared region. This superior characteristic enables it to maximize the absorbance in the entire solar spectrum. However, the increase of N-GQDs weight percentage has created massive oxygen vacancies that suppress the generation of active radicals. This resulted in a longer duration for a complete removal of BPA as compared to lower weight percentage of N-GQDs. Hence, this finding can offer a new insight in developing effective sunlight-sensitive photocatalysts for various complex organic pollutants degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/chemistry*
  8. Al Balawi AN, Yusof NA, Kamaruzaman S, Mohammad F, Wasoh H, Al Abbosh KF, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:7064073.
    PMID: 30868072 DOI: 10.1155/2019/7064073
    The present study has synthesized poly(4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol oxalate) by the condensation of oxalyl chloride with 4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol, where its efficacy was tested for the solid-phase extraction of DNA. The synthesized polymer in the form of a white powder was characterized by FTIR, TGA-DTG, SEM, and BET analysis. The study utilized solid-phase application of the resulting polymer to extract DNA. The analysis of results provided the information that the extraction efficiency is a strong dependent of polymer amount and binding buffer type. Among the three types of buffers tested, the GuHCl buffer produced the most satisfactory results in terms of yield and efficiency of extraction. Moreover, the absorbance ratio of A260/A280 in all of the samples varied from 1.682 to 1.491, thereby confirming the capability of poly(4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol oxalate) to elute pure DNA. The results demonstrated an increased DNA binding capacity with respect to increased percentage of the polymer. The study has concluded that poly(bisphenol Z oxalate) can be applied as one of the potential candidates for the high efficiency extraction of DNA by means of a simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach compared to the other traditional solid-phase methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/chemistry
  9. Muhamad MS, Salim MR, Lau WJ, Hadibarata T, Yusop Z
    Environ Technol, 2016 Aug;37(15):1959-69.
    PMID: 26729509 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2015.1137359
    Polyethersulphone (PES) membranes blended with silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were prepared via a dry-jet wet spinning technique for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) by adsorption mechanism. The morphology of SiO2 nanoparticles was analysed using a transmission electron microscopy and particle size distribution was also analysed. The prepared membranes were characterized by several techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle. The adsorption mechanism of membrane towards BPA was evaluated by batch experiments and kinetic model. The influence of natural organic matter (NOM) in feed water on membrane BPA removal was also studied by filtration experiments. Results showed that BPA adsorption capacity as high as 53 µg/g could be achieved by the PES membrane incorporated with 2 wt% SiO2 in which the adsorption mechanism was in accordance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticles diffusion model suggested that the rate limiting factor of membrane adsorption mechanism is governed by the diffusion of BPA into the membrane pores. The presence of 10 ppm NOM has reported to negatively reduce BPA removal by 24%, as it tended to compete with BPA for membrane adsorption. This work has demonstrated that PES-SiO2 membrane has the potential to eliminate trace amount of BPA from water source containing NOM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/analysis; Benzhydryl Compounds/isolation & purification*; Benzhydryl Compounds/chemistry
  10. Jin M, Dang J, Paudel YN, Wang X, Wang B, Wang L, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Jul 01;776:145963.
    PMID: 33639463 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145963
    Fluorene-9-bisphenol (BHPF) is a bisphenol A substitute, which has been introduced for the production of so-called 'bisphenol A (BPA)-free' plastics. However, it has been reported that BHPF can enter living organisms through using commercial plastic bottles and cause adverse effects. To date, the majority of the toxicologic study of BHPF focused on investigating its doses above the toxicological threshold. Here, we studied the effects of BHPF on development, locomotion, neuron differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS), and the expression of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in zebrafish exposed to different doses of BHPF ranging from 1/5 of LD1 to LD50 (300, 500, 750, 1500, 3000, and 4500 nM). As a result, the possible hormetic effects of BHPF on regulating the HPT axis were revealed, in which low-dose BHPF positively affected the HPT axis while this regulation was inhibited as the dose increased. Underlying mechanism investigation suggested that BHPF disrupted myelination through affecting HPT axis including related genes expression and TH levels, thus causing neurotoxic characteristics. Collectively, this study provides the full understanding of the environmental impact of BHPF and its toxicity on living organisms, highlighting a substantial and generalized ongoing dose-response relationship with great implications for the usage and risk assessment of BHPF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
  11. Dzuhri S, Yuhana N, Khairulazfar M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:441-448.
    This study utilized the incorporation of nanoparticle filler into an epoxy system to study the effect of different nanosized
    montmorillonite (MMT) fillers on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of epoxy. The sample was prepared
    using diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) with different surface treatments of montmorillonite filler by mechanical
    stirring. The results of thermal stability and mechanical properties of epoxy/clay system obtained from thermal gravimetric
    analyzer (TGA), universal testing machine (UTM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were discussed. With the same
    amount of filler introduced into the system, different thermal stability of epoxy composite can be observed. Bentonite,
    which contained other contaminant components, can downgrade the enhanced properties of the filler.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
  12. Shehab ZN, Jamil NR, Aris AZ
    J Environ Manage, 2020 Nov 15;274:111141.
    PMID: 32818827 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111141
    A simplified modelling approach for illustrating the fate of emerging pollutants can improve risk assessment of these chemicals. Once released into aquatic environments, these pollutants will interact with various substances including suspended particles, colloidal or nano particles, which will greatly influence their distribution and ultimate fate. Understanding these interactions in aquatic environments continues to be an important issue because of their possible risk. In this study, bisphenol A (BPA) in the water column of Bentong River, Malaysia, was investigated in both its soluble and colloidal phase. A spatially explicit hydrological model was established to illustrate the associated dispersion processes of colloidal-bound BPA. Modelling results demonstrated the significance of spatial detail in predicting hot spots or peak concentrations of colloidal-bound BPA in the sediment and water columns as well. The magnitude and setting of such spots were system based and depended mainly on flow conditions. The results highlighted the effects of colloidal particles' concentration and density on BPA's removal from the water column. It also demonstrated the tendency of colloidal particles to aggregate and the impact all these processes had on BPA's transport potential and fate in a river water. All scenarios showed that after 7.5-10 km mark BPA's concentration started to reach a steady state with very low concentrations which indicated that a downstream transport of colloidal-bound BPA was less likely due to minute BPA levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
  13. Muhamad MS, Salim MR, Lau WJ, Yusop Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Jun;23(12):11549-67.
    PMID: 26939684 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6357-2
    Massive utilization of bisphenol A (BPA) in the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics has led to the occurrence of this compound (at μg/L to ng/L level) in the water treatment plant. Nowadays, the presence of BPA in drinking water sources is a major concern among society because BPA is one of the endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) that can cause hazard to human health even at extremely low concentration level. Parallel to these issues, membrane technology has emerged as the most feasible treatment process to eliminate this recalcitrant contaminant via physical separation mechanism. This paper reviews the occurrences and effects of BPA toward living organisms as well as the application of membrane technology for their removal in water treatment plant. The potential applications of using polymeric membranes for BPA removal are also discussed. Literature revealed that modifying membrane surface using blending approach is the simple yet effective method to improve membrane properties with respect to BPA removal without compromising water permeability. The regeneration process helps in maintaining the performances of membrane at desired level. The application of large-scale membrane process in treatment plant shows the feasibility of the technology for removing BPA and possible future prospect in water treatment process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/analysis*; Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity*
  14. Kouidhi W, Thannimalay L, Soon CS, Ali Mohd M
    Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 2017 Jul 14;30(5):743-750.
    PMID: 28584331 DOI: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00917
    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study has been to assess ambient bisphenol A (BPA) levels in workplaces and urine levels of workers and to establish a BPA database for different populations in Malaysia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urine samples were collected from plastic factory workers and from control subjects after their shift. Air samples were collected using gas analyzers from 5 sampling positions in the injection molding unit work area and from ambient air. The level of BPA in airborne and urine samples was quantified by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry - selected ion monitoring (GCMS-SIM) analysis.

    RESULTS: Bisphenol A was detected in the median range of 8-28.3 ng/m³ and 2.4-3.59 ng/m³ for the 5 sampling points in the plastic molding factory and in the ambient air respectively. The median urinary BPA concentration was significantly higher in the workers (3.81 ng/ml) than in control subjects (0.73 ng/ml). The urinary BPA concentration was significantly associated with airborne BPA levels (ρ = 0.55, p < 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide the first evidence that workers in a molding factory in Malaysia are occupationally exposed to BPA. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):743-750.

    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/analysis*; Benzhydryl Compounds/urine
  15. Choong CE, Ibrahim S, Basirun WJ
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Apr 01;541:12-17.
    PMID: 30682589 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.01.071
    The present study reports the removal of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Ibuprofen (IBP) using adsorbents prepared from batik sludge. The calcite sludge-aluminum hydroxide (CAl) adsorbent was prepared by calcination and followed by aluminum hydroxide impregnation. The batik sludge and prepared adsorbents were characterized by FESEM, TGA, XRD, FTIR and BET techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity, adsorption time, different initial solution pH, ionic strength and regeneration study of the adsorbents were also investigated. Furthermore, the sorption behavior of the pollutants were studied by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The deposition of Al(OH)3 enhanced the BPA and IBP adsorption capacity on the CAl surface. The maximum removal capacity of BPA and Ibuprofen were 83.53 mg g-1 and 34.96 mg g-1 for the CAl adsorbent. In addition, the kinetic data for BPA and IBP were fitted to the pseudo first order, pseudo second order, Elovich, parabolic diffusion and power function equations to understand the sorption behavior. The adsorption behavior of BPA and IBP was mainly chemisorption. This study shows that CAl is a promising adsorbent for the removal of BPA and IBP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/analysis; Benzhydryl Compounds/isolation & purification*
  16. Nurulnadia MY, Koyama J, Uno S, Amano H
    Chemosphere, 2016 Feb;144:185-92.
    PMID: 26363319 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.08.059
    We evaluated the potential for biomagnification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BP), and natural estrogens such as estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in a benthic fish, Pleuronectes yokohamae. The assimilation efficiencies (AE) of most EDCs ranged from 88 to 96% suggesting that they were efficiently incorporated and assimilated into P. yokohamae, except for NP (50%). However, the biomagnification factor (BMF) values were <1.0 suggesting that the compounds were not biomagnifying. Additionally, three of the target EDCs were not detected (BP, E1 and E2). Glucuronidation activity towards BP (11.44 ± 2.5 nmol/mg protein/min) and E2 (12.41 ± 3.2 nmol/mg protein/min) was high in the intestine suggesting that EDCs were glucuronidated prior to excretion into bile. Thus, we conclude that biomagnification of dietary EDCs is reduced in P. yokohamae because of effective glucuronidation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
  17. Farhana Mohamed Ghazali, Wan Lutfi Wan Johari
    MyJurnal
    This review paper briefly explains the meaning and characteristics of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). EDCs comprise various types of natural and synthetic chemical compounds that can impede the reproductive action of the endocrine system in animals and humans. Further discussion is on bisphenol A (BPA), one of the examples of EDCs that is extensively used in industries nowadays. It acts as a monomer, which is desired in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. BPA later ends up in environmental compartments (air, water, sediment). In spite of this, BPA is not categorized as a persistent compound and it will be degraded either by photolysis or bacteria. It can only exist between three and five days in the environment. The concentration of BPA varies in different locations depending on the temperature, pH, source and time of sampling. BPA has been frequently debated due to its toxicity and carcinogenicity towards animals and humans. This paper also explains several extraction procedures and analytical methods concerning how to identify BPA in either aqueous or solid samples. However, an additional review is needed in respect of how to handle, reduce the level of BPA in the environment and understand the details concerning the existence of BPA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
  18. Shehab ZN, Jamil NR, Aris AZ
    Sci Rep, 2020 11 23;10(1):20360.
    PMID: 33230250 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-77454-8
    Phase distribution of emerging organic contaminants is highly influential in their presence, fate and transport in surface water. Therefore, it is crucial to determine their state, partitioning behaviour and tendencies in water environments. In this study, Bisphenol A was investigated in both colloidal and soluble phases in water. BPA concentrations ranged between 1.13 and 5.52 ng L-1 in the soluble phase and n.d-2.06 ng L-1 in the colloidal phase, respectively. BPA was dominant in the soluble phase, however, the colloidal contribution ranged between 0 and 24% which implied that colloids can play a significant role in controlling BPA's transportation in water. Urban and industrial areas were the main sources of BPA while forest areas displayed lower levels outside the populated domains. pH levels were between 6.3 and 7.4 which might have affected BPA's solubility in water to some extent. The particle size distribution showed that the majority of the particles in river samples were smaller than 1.8 µm in diameter with a small presence of nanoparticles. Zeta potential varied between - 25 and - 18 mV, and these negative values suggested instability of particles. Furthermore, BPA was positively correlated with BOD, COD and NH3-N which might indicate that these organic compounds were released concurrently with BPA. RQ assessment showed low levels of risk towards algae and fish in the study area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
  19. Bethke C, Sanchez-Vazquez SA, Raps D, Bakis G, Bard S, Ngoc ULD, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 May 02;11(5).
    PMID: 31052574 DOI: 10.3390/polym11050793
    The present study focuses on the processing and properties of epoxy foams by the use of CO2 blocked hardener N-aminoethylpiperazine (B-AEP) and different resins. Although some studies described the foaming with carbamates, little attention has been given to the interaction of resin properties (such as viscosity) on the foaming performance. Therefore, two resins, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and epoxy novolac (EN), as well as their 50:50 blend, were foamed with B-AEP and unblocked/blocked AEP hardener mixtures in a batch foaming process. Furthermore, the commercially available chemical blowing agent para-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH) was used as a benchmark for commonly used chemical blowing agents. The lowest density in this study was reached by the DGEBA+B-AEP system in the range of 215 kg/m3 with the drawback of an inhomogeneous cell structure and high cell size distribution. The best cell morphology and lowest cell size distribution was reached with the EN+15:85% unblocked:blocked hardener mixture, resulting in a density in the range of 394 kg/m3. A syntactic foam was achieved by a DGEBA+50:50% unblocked:blocked hardener mixture with a density of around 496 kg/m3. It was found that a higher viscosity of the resin lead to an increase in the density and a decrease in the cell size distribution range as a result of a closer expansion time window.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
  20. Yahaya N, Huang ZA, Yan B, Chen DDY
    Food Chem, 2022 Mar 15;372:131220.
    PMID: 34607048 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131220
    A simple and sensitive method for the determination of bisphenol A and its analogues at the ng/mL level in bottled tea beverages is presented. This method utilized a dynamic pH junction to focus the analyte into a more concentrated zone, based on the electrophoretic mobility difference of analytes in the sample matrix and background electrolytes in capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS). The optimised analyte focusing led to enhanced signal detection with average peak heights for five bisphenols of 53-170 folds higher than conventional injections. Under optimised conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-100 ng/mL, excellent limits of detection (0.03-0.04 ng/mL), good analyte recovery (80.3-118.1%) with acceptable relative standard deviations (<12%). The limits of quantifications were below the maximum permissible content of bisphenol A set by the European Commission for this product. This method was used to quantitatively analyse bisphenols in six different kinds of bottled tea beverages, making it a promising tool for practical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds
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