Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Hermawan A, Amrillah T, Riapanitra A, Ong WJ, Yin S
    Adv Healthc Mater, 2021 10;10(20):e2100970.
    PMID: 34318999 DOI: 10.1002/adhm.202100970
    A fully integrated, flexible, and functional sensing device for exhaled breath analysis drastically transforms conventional medical diagnosis to non-invasive, low-cost, real-time, and personalized health care. 2D materials based on MXenes offer multiple advantages for accurately detecting various breath biomarkers compared to conventional semiconducting oxides. High surface sensitivity, large surface-to-weight ratio, room temperature detection, and easy-to-assemble structures are vital parameters for such sensing devices in which MXenes have demonstrated all these properties both experimentally and theoretically. So far, MXenes-based flexible sensor is successfully fabricated at a lab-scale and is predicted to be translated into clinical practice within the next few years. This review presents a potential application of MXenes as emerging materials for flexible and wearable sensor devices. The biomarkers from exhaled breath are described first, with emphasis on metabolic processes and diseases indicated by abnormal biomarkers. Then, biomarkers sensing performances provided by MXenes families and the enhancement strategies are discussed. The method of fabrications toward MXenes integration into various flexible substrates is summarized. Finally, the fundamental challenges and prospects, including portable integration with Internet-of-Thing (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), are addressed to realize marketization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  2. Erdogan A, Rao SS, Gulley D, Jacobs C, Lee YY, Badger C
    Neurogastroenterol Motil, 2015 Aug;27(8):1192-3.
    PMID: 26220649 DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12603
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests/methods*
  3. Chuah KH, Hian WX, Lim SZ, Beh KH, Mahadeva S
    J Dig Dis, 2023 Mar;24(3):194-202.
    PMID: 37200005 DOI: 10.1111/1751-2980.13189
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and to further evaluate the impact of SIBO on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in terms of symptom severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study of consecutive adult patients who underwent glucose hydrogen breath test was conducted. Factors associated with SIBO were evaluated. Symptom severity and HRQoL of IBS patients with and without SIBO were compared. The independent factors associated with severe IBS were explored.

    RESULTS: A total of 160 patients were included (median age 40 years, males 31.3%). IBS was present among 53.8% of subjects, with 33.8% having diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). SIBO was diagnosed in 22.5% of the study population. Patients with SIBO were more commonly diagnosed with IBS-D than those without (50.0% vs 29.0%, P = 0.019). Severe IBS was associated with SIBO (36.4% vs 15.6%, P = 0.043). SIBO was associated with poorer HRQoL (Euroqol five-dimensional utility score: 0.73 vs 0.80, P = 0.024). SIBO (44.4% vs 20.6%, P = 0.043), anxiety (77.8% vs. 39.7%, P = 0.004), and depression (50.0% vs 19.1%, P = 0.011) were associated with severe IBS in the univariate analysis. However, SIBO was the only independent factor associated with severe IBS in the multivariate analysis (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval CI 1.02-14.34, P = 0.046).

    CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant association between IBS-D and SIBO. The coexistence of SIBO had a significant negative impact on IBS patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests/methods
  4. Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Peh SC, Ong KK
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Sep;50(3):208-11.
    PMID: 8926896
    Sixty-three breath samples were collected from patients who underwent a 14C-urea breath test. Following ingestion of a radiolabelled 14C-labelled urea solution, breath samples containing 14C-labelled carbon dioxide were trapped in a solution containing hyamine hydroxide. Samples were then counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Breath samples were collected at 2, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes following ingestion of the urea solution. The presence or absence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection was determined on the basis of endoscopic biopsy tests which included culture, histological examination, rapid urease test and a gram stain of a fresh tissue smear. Thirty-two HP positive and 31 HP negative samples were collected. The mean counts at 15, 20, 12 and 30 minutes time points were: 4413, 4458, 4109 and 3795 dpm respectively for the positive samples and 1275, 877, 690 and 565 dpm respectively for the negative samples. Based on a cutoff value (mean of the negative samples + 3 standard deviations) for every time point, HP positive and negative samples could be clearly differentiated giving a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The 14C-urea breath test is a reliable and convenient diagnostic test for H. pylori.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests*
  5. Abd Rahim MA, Johani FH, Shah SA, Hassan MR, Abdul Manaf MR
    Ann Glob Health, 2019 Jul 24;85(1).
    PMID: 31348624
    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known to be associated with peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Detection of H. pylori infection is a significant part of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer prevention and management. 13C-urea breath test (UBT) provides a good option for the pathogen detection due to its accuracy and safety.

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims to evaluate the 13C-UBT diagnostic accuracy studies conducted among Asian population and validate its use for the Asian population.

    METHODS: Original articles were systematically searched in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using the PICOS strategy by applying relevant keywords. Only studies published in English and conducted in Asia were included. Our search returned 276 articles. After assessment, 11 articles which answered our research question and met the criteria set for systematic review and meta-analysis were accepted. A total of 15 study protocols were extracted from the 11 accepted articles.

    FINDINGS: Majority of the studies were conducted in Hong Kong (six), followed by Taiwan (five), Japan (two), and one each in Singapore and Israel. All studies had used histology as part of its gold standard of reference. All but one study was performed on adult populations. The summary estimate for sensitivity was 97% (95% CI: 96, 98%), and specificity was 96% (95% CI: 95, 97%), with significant heterogeneity between studies. Adjusting for the dose (50 mg) and breath sample collection time (20 minutes) had improved both accuracy estimates and significantly reduced heterogeneity.

    CONCLUSION: This review supports the test-and-treat strategy for H. pylori infection management. Prevalence and cost-effectiveness studies are mandatory for health authorities to adopt this strategy into national policy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests*
  6. Ghoshal UC, Sachdeva S, Ghoshal U, Misra A, Puri AS, Pratap N, et al.
    Indian J Gastroenterol, 2022 Oct;41(5):483-507.
    PMID: 36214973 DOI: 10.1007/s12664-022-01292-x
    In the clinical setting, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a frequent, but under-diagnosed entity. SIBO is linked to various gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI disorders with potentially significant morbidity. The optimal management of SIBO is undefined while there is a lack of published consensus guidelines. Against this background, under the auspices of the Indian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association (INMA), formerly known as the Indian Motility and Functional Diseases Association (IMFDA), experts from the Asian-Pacific region with extensive research and clinical experience in the field of gut dysbiosis including SIBO developed this evidence-based practice guideline for the management of SIBO utilizing a modified Delphi process based upon 37 consensus statements, involving an electronic voting process as well as face-to-face meetings and review of relevant supporting literature. These statements include 6 statements on definition and epidemiology; 11 on etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology; 5 on clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, and predictors; and 15 on investigations and treatment. When the proportion of those who voted either to accept completely or with minor reservations was 80% or higher, the statement was regarded as accepted. The members of the consensus team consider that this guideline would be valuable to inform clinical practice, teaching, and research on SIBO in the Asian-Pacific region as well as in other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  7. Singh OP, Howe TA, Malarvili MB
    J Breath Res, 2018 01 04;12(2):026003.
    PMID: 28928295 DOI: 10.1088/1752-7163/aa8dbd
    The development of a human respiration carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement device to evaluate cardiorespiratory status inside and outside a hospital setting has proven to be a challenging area of research over the few last decades. Hence, we report a real-time, user operable CO2 measurement device using an infrared CO2 sensor (Arduino Mega2560) and a thin film transistor (TFT, 3.5″), incorporated with low pass (cut-off frequency, 10 Hz) and moving average (span, 8) filters. The proposed device measures features such as partial end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), respiratory rate (RR), inspired carbon dioxide (ICO2), and a newly proposed feature-Hjorth activity-that annotates data with the date and time from a real-time clock, and is stored onto a secure digital (SD) card. Further, it was tested on 22 healthy subjects and the performance (reliability, validity and relationship) of each feature was established using (1) an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), (2) standard error measurement (SEM), (3) smallest detectable difference (SDD), (4) Bland-Altman plot, and (5) Pearson's correlation (r). The SEM, SDD, and ICC values for inter- and intra-rater reliability were less than 5% and more than 0.8, respectively. Further, the Bland-Altman plot demonstrates that mean differences ± standard deviations for a set limit were 0.30 ± 0.77 mmHg, -0.34 ± 1.41 mmHg and 0.21 ± 0.64 breath per minute (bpm) for CO2, EtCO2 and RR. The findings revealed that the developed device is highly reliable, providing valid measurements for CO2, EtCO2, ICO2 and RR, and can be used in clinical settings for cardiorespiratory assessment. This research also demonstrates that EtCO2 and RR (r, -0.696) are negatively correlated while EtCO2 and activity (r, 0.846) are positively correlated. Thus, simultaneous measurement of these features may possibly assist physicians in understanding the subject's cardiopulmonary status. In future, the proposed device will be tested with asthmatic patients for use as an early screening tool outside a hospital setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests/instrumentation*; Breath Tests/methods*
  8. Abdullah Alwi AH, Zahedi FD, Husain S, Wan Hamizan AK, Abdullah B
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2023 May;37(3):307-312.
    PMID: 36537140 DOI: 10.1177/19458924221145084
    PURPOSE: Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential marker in the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment for the management of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). The study aimed to determine the value of nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in the diagnosis and treatment response of AR patients.

    METHODS: The participants were divided into control and allergic rhinitis groups based on the clinical symptoms and skin prick tests. The AR group was treated with intranasal corticosteroid after the diagnosis. The nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) levels were compared between control and AR groups. In the AR group, the visual analogue scale (VAS), Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation (NOSE) questionnaire, and nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were assessed pre- and post-treatment.

    RESULTS: One hundred ten adults were enrolled. The nasal FeNO level was significantly higher in AR compared to control (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  9. Lee WS, Davidson GP, Moore DJ, Butler RN
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2000 Aug;36(4):340-2.
    PMID: 10940167
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and clinical application of a hand-held breath hydrogen (H2) analyzer (BreatH2, Europa Scientific, Crewe, UK).

    METHODOLOGY: Breath samples of patients referred to the Gastroenterology Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia, for confirmation of the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption were analysed with the Quintron microlyzer (Quintron Instrument Co., Milwaukee, USA) and the BreatH2 analyser, using the Quintron microlyzer as the gold standard.

    RESULTS: Twenty-nine breath H2 tests (BHT) were performed in 29 patients aged 2 months to 61 years. The sensitivity and specificity of the BreatH2 analyser in detecting a positive BHT using the Quintron microlyser as the gold standard were 0.90 and 0.95 with positive and negative predictive values of 0.90 and 0.95, respectively. There was one false positive and one false negative reading. Bland-Altman plots showed a high degree of agreement between the values obtained with two different methods.

    CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, using a portable breath H2 analyser (BreatH2), achieved an acceptable degree of sensitivity and specificity, enabling it to be used where no alternative is available.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests/methods
  10. Goh LH, Mohd Said R, Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2018 Dec;2(6):307-310.
    PMID: 30619942 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12089
    Background and Aims: There have been few reports on lactase deficiency (LD) and lactose intolerance (LI) in Malaysia, which has a peculiar mix of three distinct major Asian races-Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LD and LI in a young multiethnic Malaysian population.

    Methods: Lactase activity was measured with a 13CO2 lactose breath test using an infrared spectrometer. Each subject took 25 g of lactose naturally enriched in 13CO2 together with 250 mL of water after an overnight fast. Breath samples were collected at baseline and at 15-min intervals for 180 min. Subjects were asked to report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms following ingestion of the lactose test meal.

    Results: Of the 248 subjects tested, 216 (87.1%) were lactase deficient. We found no significant differences in the presentation of LD between gender and races. LD was found in 87.5% of males and 86.8% of females (P = 0.975) and in different races: Chinese (88.5%) versus Malay (83.1%) (P = 0.399), Indian (90.5%) versus Malay (P = 0.295), and Chinese versus Indian (P = 0.902). LI was diagnosed in only 49 (19.8%) subjects; 35 patients had diarrhea, while the remainder had at least two other GI symptoms after the lactose meal.

    Conclusion: The prevalence of LD was high in all three major ethnic groups-Malays, Chinese, and Indians. Ironically, the prevalence of LI was low overall.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  11. Yusof N, Hamid N, Ma ZF, Lawenko RM, Wan Mohammad WMZ, Collins DA, et al.
    Gut Pathog, 2017;9:75.
    PMID: 29255490 DOI: 10.1186/s13099-017-0224-7
    Background: After an environmental disaster, the affected community is at increased risk for persistent abdominal pain but mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to determine association between abdominal pain and poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) practices, and if small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and/or gut dysbiosis explain IBS, impaired quality of life (QOL), anxiety and/or depression after a major flood.

    Results: New onset abdominal pain, IBS based on the Rome III criteria, WaSH practices, QOL, anxiety and/or depression, SIBO (hydrogen breath testing) and stools for metagenomic sequencing were assessed in flood victims. Of 211 participants, 37.9% (n = 80) had abdominal pain and 17% (n = 36) with IBS subtyped diarrhea and/or mixed type (n = 27 or 12.8%) being the most common. Poor WaSH practices and impaired quality of life during flood were significantly associated with IBS. Using linear discriminant analysis effect size method, gut dysbiosis was observed in those with anxiety (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, effect size 4.8), abdominal pain (Fusobacteria, Staphylococcus, Megamonas and Plesiomonas, effect size 4.0) and IBS (Plesiomonas and Trabulsiella, effect size 3.0).

    Conclusion: Disturbed gut microbiota because of environmentally-derived organisms may explain persistent abdominal pain and IBS after a major environmental disaster in the presence of poor WaSH practices.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  12. Khairul, A.J., Anwar, A., Ramelah, M.
    Background: (13) C – urea breath test (UBT) is sensitive and specific for detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Gastric biopsy culture for H. pylori confirms the diagnosis. Here, we analyzed data of all patients who were investigated for H. pylori infection using both tests throughout the year 2005. Materials and Methods : Retrospective data of 377 patients between the ages of 17 – 88 were identified through endoscopy records from January to December 2005. Upper endoscopy, UBT and gastric biopsy culture were performed on all patients simultaneously during each endoscopy session. Patients who had positive UBT and biopsy culture for H. pylori were treated with triple therapy of PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for one week. A repeat of UBT was done at one-month post therapy. Results and Analysis: Twenty-eight patients on the list had no available data on UBT and were omitted from the analysis. Ethnic group Chinese comprised of 45.4% (n=163), followed by Malay, 37.3% (n=134), Indian, 10.6% (n=38) and others, 3.9% (n=14). UBT was positive in 23.7% (n=85)(figure1). H. pylori culture was positive in 19.2% (n=69)(figure1). Sixteen patients with UBT positive had H. pylori culture negative, 18.8% (n=16/85)(figure2). Five patients with H. pylori culture positive had UBT negative, 7.2% (n=5/69)(figure3). Ethnic group Indian had the highest incidence of UBT positive, 47.4% (n=18/38), followed by Others (Sikhs and foreigners) 42.8% (n=6/14), the Chinese 27.6% (n=45/163) and the Malays 11.6% (n= 16/138). UBT positive was the highest in the age group of 50 and above, 64.7% (n=55/85), followed by the age group between 30 to 49, 21.2% (n=18/85) and the age group of 29 and below, 14.5% (n=12/85). Out of the 85 UBT positive patients 91.8% (n=78/85)(figure4) of them responded to the conventional one week of triple therapy (PPI, amoxicillin, clarithromycin) with negative UBT at one-month post therapy compared to only 8.2% (n=7/85)(figure4) who failed with positive UBT at one-month post therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  13. Norbäck D, Hashim JH, Hashim Z, Wieslander G
    Int J Environ Health Res, 2024 Jan;34(1):213-224.
    PMID: 36335594 DOI: 10.1080/09603123.2022.2143482
    We studied associations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), health and household exposure among school children (N = 348) in Penang, Malaysia. Multiple logistic regression and linear mixed models were applied. Overall, 46.0% had elevated FeNO (>20 ppb) and 10.6% diagnosed asthma. Male gender (p = 0.002), parental asthma or allergy (p = 0.047), cat allergy (p = 0.009) and seafood allergy (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  14. Marsden PA, Satia I, Ibrahim B, Woodcock A, Yates L, Donnelly I, et al.
    Chest, 2016 06;149(6):1460-6.
    PMID: 26973014 DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.02.676
    BACKGROUND: Cough is recognized as an important troublesome symptom in the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Asthma control is thought to be determined by the degree of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness but how these factors relate to cough frequency is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective cough frequency, disease control, airflow obstruction, and airway inflammation in asthma.

    METHODS: Participants with asthma underwent 24-h ambulatory cough monitoring and assessment of exhaled nitric oxide, spirometry, methacholine challenge, and sputum induction (cell counts and inflammatory mediator levels). Asthma control was assessed by using the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). The number of cough sounds was manually counted and expressed as coughs per hour (c/h).

    RESULTS: Eighty-nine subjects with asthma (mean ± SD age, 57 ± 12 years; 57% female) were recruited. According to GINA criteria, 18 (20.2%) patients were classified as controlled, 39 (43.8%) partly controlled, and 32 (36%) uncontrolled; the median ACQ score was 1 (range, 0.0-4.4). The 6-item ACQ correlated with 24-h cough frequency (r = 0.40; P < .001), and patients with uncontrolled asthma (per GINA criteria) had higher median 24-h cough frequency (4.2 c/h; range, 0.3-27.6) compared with partially controlled asthma (1.8 c/h; range, 0.2-25.3; P = .01) and controlled asthma (1.7 c/h; range, 0.3-6.7; P = .002). Measures of airway inflammation were not significantly different between GINA categories and were not correlated with ACQ. In multivariate analyses, increasing cough frequency and worsening FEV1 independently predicted measures of asthma control.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ambulatory cough frequency monitoring provides an objective assessment of asthma symptoms that correlates with standard measures of asthma control but not airflow obstruction or airway inflammation. Moreover, cough frequency and airflow obstruction represent independent dimensions of asthma control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests/methods
  15. Loh LC, Teh PN
    J Asthma, 2009 Aug;46(6):529-34.
    PMID: 19657890 DOI: 10.1080/02770900801890489
    We prospectively evaluated the use of a simple 3-Minute Respiratory Exerciser Test (3MRET) that estimates perception of dyspnea to identify patients at risk of asthma exacerbations. A total of 146 stable asthmatics (42 under-perceivers, 69 normal perceivers, and 35 over-perceivers) received follow-up for 12 months. The mean (SD) unscheduled visits to doctors among under-, normal, and over-perceivers were 1.8 (1.2), 2.2 (1.8), and 3.1 (2.3), respectively (p = 0.008). The mean (SD) hospital admissions among the groups were 1.3 (0.5), 1.2 (0.6), and 1.7 (1.3), respectively (p = 0.026). Compared to normal perceivers, over-perceivers had increased risks of unscheduled visits (OD: 5.12; 95% CI = 1.59 to 16.47) and hospital admissions (OD: 0.31; 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.41), defined as > or =2 events in 12 months. The association between over-perceiver and unscheduled visits remained significant after adjusting for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). Sensitivity and specificity of over-perceivers are 77% and 47%, respectively, for unscheduled visits and 37% and 78%, respectively, for hospital admissions, with significantly better area under ROC for unscheduled visits (0.67 [95% CI = 0.56 to 0.77]; p = 0.003) than for hospital admissions (0.58 [0.471 to 0.70]; p = 0.127). We conclude that the 3MRET may have a role in identifying asthmatic patients with over-perception of dyspnea at risk of clinically important asthma exacerbations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests/instrumentation*
  16. Kim KT, Morton S, Howe S, Chiew YS, Knopp JL, Docherty P, et al.
    Trials, 2020 Feb 01;21(1):130.
    PMID: 32007099 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-4035-7
    BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at minimum respiratory elastance during mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may improve patient care and outcome. The Clinical utilisation of respiratory elastance (CURE) trial is a two-arm, randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the performance of PEEP selected at an objective, model-based minimal respiratory system elastance in patients with ARDS.

    METHODS AND DESIGN: The CURE RCT compares two groups of patients requiring invasive MV with a partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio ≤ 200; one criterion of the Berlin consensus definition of moderate (≤ 200) or severe (≤ 100) ARDS. All patients are ventilated using pressure controlled (bi-level) ventilation with tidal volume = 6-8 ml/kg. Patients randomised to the control group will have PEEP selected per standard practice (SPV). Patients randomised to the intervention will have PEEP selected based on a minimal elastance using a model-based computerised method. The CURE RCT is a single-centre trial in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Christchurch hospital, New Zealand, with a target sample size of 320 patients over a maximum of 3 years. The primary outcome is the area under the curve (AUC) ratio of arterial blood oxygenation to the fraction of inspired oxygen over time. Secondary outcomes include length of time of MV, ventilator-free days (VFD) up to 28 days, ICU and hospital length of stay, AUC of oxygen saturation (SpO2)/FiO2 during MV, number of desaturation events (SpO2 

    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests/methods
  17. Guan NC, Ann AY
    PMID: 23082572
    We studied the use of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) to identify nicotine dependence among adult Malaysian male smokers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 107 male smoking staff at a university hospital. We measured their exhaled CO using a piCO+ Smokerlyzer and diagnosed nicotine dependence using a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The optimal cut-off value for exhaled CO was determined. The correlation between exhaled CO level and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was also assessed. The mean exhaled CO level among subjects with nicotine dependence (15.78 ppm) was significantly higher than subjects without nicotine dependence (9.62 ppm). The cut-off value used to identify smokers with nicotine dependence was set at 10 ppm (specificity = 0.721, sensitivity = 0.731, positive predictive value = 0.817 and negative predictive value = 0.617). Psychometric properties were stable with various durations of smoking. Exhaled CO correlated positively with FTND scores (Pearson's rho = 0.398, p = 0.01). Our findings show exhaled CO can be used to identify nicotine dependence among adult Malaysian male smokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  18. Abdul Aziz AF, Hamzah Z, Tong SF, Nadeson S, Wan Puteh SE
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2009 May 12;8(1):4.
    PMID: 19435494 DOI: 10.1186/1447-056X-8-4
    BACKGROUND: Optimum management of dyspepsia in primary care is a debatable subject. Testing for Helicobacter pylori (HP) has been recommended in primary care as this strategy will cure most underlying peptic ulcer disease and prevent future gastro duodenal disease.

    METHODS: A total of 98 patients completed Modified Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score Questionnaire (MGDSSQ) at initial presentation before undergoing the 13Carbon Urea Breath Test (UBT) for HP. Those with positive UBT received Eradication Therapy with oral Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, Clarithromycin 500 mg daily and Amoxycillin 500 mg twice daily for one week followed by Omeprazole to be completed for another 4 to 6 weeks. Those with negative UBT received empirical treatment with oral Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily for 4 to 6 weeks. Patients were assessed again using the MGDSSQ at the completion of treatment and one month after stopping treatment.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of dyspepsia at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia-Primary Care Centre was 1.12% (124/11037), out of which 23.5% (23/98) was due to HP. Post treatment assessment in both HP (95.7%, 22/23) and non HP-related dyspepsia (86.7%, 65/75) groups showed complete or almost complete resolution of dyspepsia. Only about 4.3% (1/23) in the HP related dyspepsia and 13.3% (10/75) in the non HP group required endoscopy.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dyspepsia due to HP in this primary care centre was 23.5%. Detection of HP related dyspepsia yielded good treatment outcomes (95.7%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  19. Lim CS, Rani FA, Tan LE
    Clin Respir J, 2018 Jan;12(1):218-226.
    PMID: 27328740 DOI: 10.1111/crj.12518
    INTRODUCTION: To our knowledge, no meta-analysis has investigated the response of FeNO levels to corticosteroid treatment in ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis assessed the potential role of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as a biomarker for corticosteroid response in ex-smokers with stable COPD.

    METHODS: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar databases were searched until November 5, 2014 using the following terms: corticosteroid, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, nitric oxide, NO, exhaled nitric oxide. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) or two-arm prospective studies were included. The primary outcome measure was FeNO before and after treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in ex-smokers with COPD. Sensitivity analysis was also performed.

    RESULTS: Five studies were included in the analysis with a total of 171 COPD patients. All five studies included 125 ex-smokers and two of these also included 46 current smokers. There was a significant decrease of FeNO in ex-smoking COPD patients following inhaled corticosteroid treatment (-7.51, 95% CI: -11.51 to -3.51; P =0.003); and in a population of subjects that included both smokers and ex-smokers (-1.99, 95% CI: -3.41 to -0.56; P =0.006).

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that FeNO levels significantly decreased with corticosteroid treatment in ex-smokers with COPD. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether concurrent smoking has significant effect on FeNO response to ICS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
  20. Boey CC
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2001 Apr;37(2):157-60.
    PMID: 11328471
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of lactase deficiency among Malaysian children with recurrent abdominal pain and to describe their clinical characteristics.

    METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four children referred consecutively to the University of Malaya Medical Centre who fulfilled Apley's criteria (at least three episodes of abdominal pain severe enough to affect normal activity over a period longer than 3 months) were tested for lactase deficiency using a pocket breath test analyser (BreatH2 meter; Europa Scientific, Cheshire, England). Lactulose was used to check for hydrogen-producing capacity.

    RESULTS: There were 14 males and 10 females in the study, consisting of five Malays, 14 Chinese and five Indians. Mean age was 9.9 years. Seventeen of the 24 children (70.8%) with recurrent abdominal pain who underwent the breath hydrogen test had a positive result. In those with a negative result, subsequent lactulose administration resulted in a positive rise in breath hydrogen. None of the 24 children developed abdominal pain during the test. All the Indian subjects, 71.4% of the Chinese subjects and 40% of the Malay subjects with recurrent abdominal pain had lactase deficiency. The proportion of boys and girls with lactase deficiency was similar (71.4 vs 70.0%, respectively). There was no significant difference between lactase sufficient and deficient children with recurrent abdominal pain with regard to sex, age, ethnic group and clinical features. Following a lactose-free diet, none of the children in the breath hydrogen positive and negative groups reported any appreciable difference in pain symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of lactase deficiency among this group of Malaysian children with recurrent abdominal pain was high, but lactase deficiency did not appear to play an important role in causing the symptoms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breath Tests
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