Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 169 in total

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  1. Asha'ari ZA, Islah W, Ahmad R, Suzina SA
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65(2):157-9.
    PMID: 23756806 MyJurnal
    We studied two similar cases of severe subglottic stenosis secondary to trauma with different treatment modalities. One had laryngotracheal reconstruction with cartilage augmentation and the other had laryngotracheal resection anastomosis. We wish to compare the two popular choices of surgery for laryngotracheal stenosis from two cases with similar nature and severity thus highlighting the complexity of managing severe subglottic stenosis in adult.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage*
  2. Yunus MHM, Nordin A, Kamal H
    Medicina (Kaunas), 2020 Nov 16;56(11).
    PMID: 33207632 DOI: 10.3390/medicina56110614
    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most well-known degenerative disease among the geriatric and is a main cause of significant disability in daily living. It has a multifactorial etiology and is characterized by pathological changes in the knee joint structure including cartilage erosion, synovial inflammation, and subchondral sclerosis with osteophyte formation. To date, no efficient treatment is capable of altering the pathological progression of OA, and current therapy is broadly divided into pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures prior to surgical intervention. In this review, the significant risk factors and mediators, such as cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, and nitric oxide, that trigger the loss of the normal homeostasis and structural changes in the articular cartilage during the progression of OA are described. As the understanding of the mechanisms underlying OA improves, treatments are being developed that target specific mediators thought to promote the cartilage destruction that results from imbalanced catabolic and anabolic activity in the joint.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular*
  3. Lee OS, Ahn S, Ahn JH, Teo SH, Lee YS
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 2018 Feb;138(2):227-236.
    PMID: 29143167 DOI: 10.1007/s00402-017-2826-4
    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of concurrent cartilage procedures during high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing the outcomes of studies that directly compared the use of HTO plus concurrent cartilage procedures versus HTO alone.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results that are possible to be compared in more than two articles were presented as forest plots. A 95% confidence interval was calculated for each effect size, and we calculated the I 2 statistic, which presents the percentage of total variation attributable to the heterogeneity among studies. The random effects model was used to calculate the effect size.

    RESULTS: Seven articles were included to the final analysis. Case groups were composed of HTO without concurrent procedures and control groups were composed of HTO with concurrent procedures such as marrow stimulation procedure, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, and injection. The case group showed a higher hospital for special surgery score and mean difference was 4.10 [I 2 80.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 9.02 to 4.82]. Mean difference of the mechanical femorotibial angle in five studies was 0.08° (I 2 0%, 95% CI - 0.26 to 0.43). However, improved arthroscopic, histologic, and MRI results were reported in the control group.

    CONCLUSION: Our analysis support that concurrent procedures during HTO for medial compartment OA have little beneficial effect regarding clinical and radiological outcomes. However, they might have some beneficial effects in terms of arthroscopic, histologic, and MRI findings even though the quality of healed cartilage is not good as that of original cartilage. Therefore, until now, concurrent procedures for medial compartment OA have been considered optional. Nevertheless, no conclusions can be drawn for younger patients with focal cartilage defects and concomitant varus deformity. This question needs to be addressed separately.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/physiology; Cartilage/surgery
  4. Irfan M, Yahia D, Nik Fariza Husna NH, Wan Shah Jihan WD, Baharudin A
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):113-5.
    PMID: 22582561 MyJurnal
    A case of a 21 year old gentleman is described, with no history of preceding trauma, presenting with intermittent dysphagia to solids and fluids for 4 years. Neck examination at rest was normal. However on deep inspiration, the right thyroid lamina protrudes or becomes more prominent. The patient is able to return the larynx to its normal position with manual manipulation. Laryngeal examination with fibreoptic scope during rest and deep breath shows gross rotation of the laryngeal structures for more than 60 degrees on deep breath, with the vocal cords axis rotated to the left side. Management was conservative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cricoid Cartilage/injuries*; Thyroid Cartilage/injuries*
  5. Aranha A, Nor M
    Singapore Med J, 1990 Apr;31(2):189-90.
    PMID: 2371587
    We present an unusual case, where the medial meniscus does not coincide with the embryological development of the formation of a discoid cartilage. A fairly, careful perusal of English literature since 1945 to date makes us feel that the following case merits recording. The meniscus had a normal anterior horn attached to the intercondylar area, in front of the anterior cruciate ligament. Medially, it was attached to the capsule and the condylar surface of the medial tibial plateau. The posterior horn was rounded, smooth, and floating free of any attachments. It was approximately 2 cms in length, semilunar in shape, and extended posteriorly up to the anterior margin of the medial collateral ligament. The rest of the medial tibial plateau had no other protective covering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/abnormalities*; Cartilage, Articular/embryology; Cartilage, Articular/pathology
  6. Moo EK, Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(8):1431-6.
    PMID: 21915496
    INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have been performed on cartilage explant cultures, the generalized dynamics of cartilage metabolism after extraction from the host are still poorly understood due to differences in the experimental setups across studies, which in turn prevent building a complete picture.

    METHODS: In this study, we investigated the response of cartilage to the trauma sustained during extraction and determined the time needed for the cartilage to stabilize. Explants were extracted aseptically from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints and cultured for up to 17 days.

    RESULTS: The cell viability, cell number, proteoglycan content, and collagen content of the harvested explants were analyzed at 0, 2, 10, and 17 days after explantation. A high percentage of the cartilage explants were found to be viable. The cell density initially increased significantly but stabilized after two days. The proteoglycan content decreased gradually over time, but it did not decrease to a significant level due to leakage through the distorted peripheral collagen network and into the bathing medium. The collagen content remained stable for most of the culture period until it dropped abruptly on day 17.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the tested cartilage explants were sustainable over long-term culture. They were most stable from day 2 to day 10. The degradation of the collagen on day 17 did not reach diseased levels, but it indicated the potential of the cultures to develop into degenerated cartilage. These findings have implications for the application of cartilage explants in pathophysiological fields.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/cytology; Cartilage, Articular/drug effects; Cartilage, Articular/metabolism*; Cartilage, Articular/chemistry
  7. Kamarul T, Selvaratnam L, Masjuddin T, Ab-Rahim S, Ng C, Chan KY, et al.
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2008 Aug;16(2):230-6.
    PMID: 18725678
    To compare the efficacy of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) versus non-operative measures for cartilage repair in rabbits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage Diseases/pathology; Cartilage Diseases/surgery*; Cartilage, Articular/cytology
  8. Arasaratnam S, Abdullah BJJ, Fernandez V
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):290-2.
    PMID: 10968170
    We present a case of rare pitfall in the diagnosis of an oesophageal foreign body due to the calcified vertical plate of the cricoid to highlight the need to be aware of this entity to avoid unnecessary morbidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage Diseases/diagnosis*; Cartilage Diseases/pathology; Cartilage Diseases/radiography; Cartilage Diseases/surgery
  9. Muhammad SA, Nordin N, Mehat MZ, Fakurazi S
    Cell Tissue Res, 2019 Feb;375(2):329-344.
    PMID: 30084022 DOI: 10.1007/s00441-018-2884-0
    Articular cartilage defect remains the most challenging joint disease due to limited intrinsic healing capacity of the cartilage that most often progresses to osteoarthritis. In recent years, stem cell therapy has evolved as therapeutic strategies for articular cartilage regeneration. However, a number of studies have shown that therapeutic efficacy of stem cell transplantation is attributed to multiple secreted factors that modulate the surrounding milieu to evoke reparative processes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to evaluate and compare the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell and secretome in articular cartilage regeneration in animal models. We systematically searched the PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline and Scopus databases until August 2017 using search terms related to stem cells, cartilage regeneration and animals. A random effect meta-analysis of the included studies was performed to assess the treatment effects on new cartilage formation on an absolute score of 0-100% scale. Subgroup analyses were also performed by sorting studies independently based on similar characteristics. The pooled analysis of 59 studies that utilized stem cells significantly improved new cartilage formation by 25.99% as compared with control. Similarly, the secretome also significantly increased cartilage regeneration by 26.08% in comparison to the control. Subgroup analyses revealed no significant difference in the effect of stem cells in new cartilage formation. However, there was a significant decline in the effect of stem cells in articular cartilage regeneration during long-term follow-up, suggesting that the duration of follow-up is a predictor of new cartilage formation. Secretome has shown a similar effect to stem cells in new cartilage formation. The risk of bias assessment showed poor reporting for most studies thereby limiting the actual risk of bias assessment. The present study suggests that both stem cells and secretome interventions improve cartilage regeneration in animal trials. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/cytology*; Cartilage, Articular/metabolism*
  10. Yousefi AM, Hoque ME, Prasad RG, Uth N
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Jul;103(7):2460-81.
    PMID: 25345589 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35356
    The repair of osteochondral defects requires a tissue engineering approach that aims at mimicking the physiological properties and structure of two different tissues (cartilage and bone) using specifically designed scaffold-cell constructs. Biphasic and triphasic approaches utilize two or three different architectures, materials, or composites to produce a multilayered construct. This article gives an overview of some of the current strategies in multiphasic/gradient-based scaffold architectures and compositions for tissue engineering of osteochondral defects. In addition, the application of finite element analysis (FEA) in scaffold design and simulation of in vitro and in vivo cell growth outcomes has been briefly covered. FEA-based approaches can potentially be coupled with computer-assisted fabrication systems for controlled deposition and additive manufacturing of the simulated patterns. Finally, a summary of the existing challenges associated with the repair of osteochondral defects as well as some recommendations for future directions have been brought up in the concluding section of this article.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage Diseases/therapy*
  11. Loke LT
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1969 Oct;9(2):34-44.
    PMID: 4906531
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/transplantation
  12. Ng CY, Chai JY, Foo JB, Mohamad Yahaya NH, Yang Y, Ng MH, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2021;16:6749-6781.
    PMID: 34621125 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S327059
    Treatment of cartilage defects such as osteoarthritis (OA) and osteochondral defect (OCD) remains a huge clinical challenge in orthopedics. OA is one of the most common chronic health conditions and is mainly characterized by the degeneration of articular cartilage, shown in the limited capacity for intrinsic repair. OCD refers to the focal defects affecting cartilage and the underlying bone. The current OA and OCD management modalities focus on symptom control and on improving joint functionality and the patient's quality of life. Cell-based therapy has been evaluated for managing OA and OCD, and its chondroprotective efficacy is recognized mainly through paracrine action. Hence, there is growing interest in exploiting extracellular vesicles to induce cartilage regeneration. In this review, we explore the in vivo evidence of exosomes on cartilage regeneration. A total of 29 in vivo studies from the PubMed and Scopus databases were identified and analyzed. The studies reported promising results in terms of in vivo exosome delivery and uptake; improved cartilage morphological, histological, and biochemical outcomes; enhanced subchondral bone regeneration; and improved pain behavior following exosome treatment. In addition, exosome therapy is safe, as the included studies documented no significant complications. Modifying exosomal cargos further increased the cartilage and subchondral bone regeneration capacity of exosomes. We conclude that exosome administration is a potent cell-free therapy for alleviating OA and OCD. However, additional studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic potential of exosomes and to identify the standard protocol for exosome-based therapy in OA and OCD management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular*
  13. Ishak MF, Aminuddin BS, Asma A, Lokman BS, Ruszymah BH, Goh BS
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:117-8.
    PMID: 19025013
    Chondrocytes were isolated from normal and microtic human auricular cartilage after ear surgery carried out at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Chondrocytes were cultured and expanded until passage 4. After reached confluence, cultured chondrocytes at each passage (P1, P2, P3 and P4) were harvested and assigned for growth profile analysis. There was no significant difference in cell viability between both normal and microtic samples (p = 0.84). Both samples showed no significant differences for growth profile parameters in terms of growth rate, population doubling time and total number of cell doubling, except in passage 1, where there is significant difference in cell growth rate (p = 0.004). This preliminary data has indicated that chondrocytes from microtic cartilage has the potential to be used in the reconstruction of human pinna in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage Diseases/pathology*; Ear Cartilage/cytology*
  14. Samsudin EZ, Kamarul T
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2016 Dec;24(12):3912-3926.
    PMID: 26003481
    PURPOSE: This paper aims to review the current evidence for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) generations relative to other treatment modalities, different cell delivery methods and different cell source application.

    METHODS: Literature search was performed to identify all level I and II studies reporting the clinical and structural outcome of any ACI generation in human knees using the following medical electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and NICE healthcare database. The level of evidence, sample size calculation and risk of bias were determined for all included studies to enable quality assessment.

    RESULTS: Twenty studies were included in the analysis, reporting on a total of 1094 patients. Of the 20 studies, 13 compared ACI with other treatment modalities, seven compared different ACI cell delivery methods, and one compared different cell source for implantation. Studies included were heterogeneous in baseline design, preventing meta-analysis. Data showed a trend towards similar outcomes when comparing ACI generations with other repair techniques and when comparing different cell delivery methods and cell source selection. Majority of the studies (80 %) were level II evidence, and overall the quality of studies can be rated as average to low, with the absence of power analysis in 65 % studies.

    CONCLUSION: At present, there are insufficient data to conclude any superiority of ACI techniques. Considering its two-stage operation and cost, it may be appropriate to reserve ACI for patients with larger defects or those who have had inadequate response to other repair procedures until hard evidence enables specific clinical recommendations be made.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage Diseases/therapy*; Cartilage, Articular/injuries*
  15. Nor Idahriani Muhd Nor, Azhany Yaakub, Naik, Venkatesh R., Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam, Liza Sharmini Ahmad Tajudin
    MyJurnal
    The reconstruction of the upper eyelid with medial canthal involvement post extensive removal of malignant tumour remains a challenge. Proper eyelid reconstruction is necessary to reestablish anatomic integrity, restoration of its functions and to maintain the best cosmetic appearance. These case reports illustrate an alternative reconstructive technique for large upper eyelid full thickness defect with medial canthal involvement. Two cases of upper eyelid tumours involving medial canthal region underwent staged reconstruction by glabellar flap advancement and reconstruction of the posterior lamellar with autologous graft using buccal mucosa and ear cartilage. The posterior lamellar graft and flap survived without any complication except for mild eyelid margin notching in one of the two cases. The staged reconstruction with glabellar flap advancement provides adequate defect coverage, excellent blood supply, maintains eyebrow contour and function of the eyelid. The flap also perfectly matches the surrounding tissue with minimal donor site morbidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ear Cartilage
  16. Choong, C. Y. L., Chan, H. Z., Azuhairy, A., Anwar Hau, M., Zulkiflee, O.
    Malays Orthop J, 2014;8(2):55-58.
    MyJurnal
    Conventional chondrosarcomas rarely metastasize and it is extremely unusual to see multicentric- behaviour in malignant cartilage tumour. We report a 40 year old lady with presentation of two non-contiguous metachronous foci of low to intermediate grade of chondrosarcoma over left pelvic bone and right scalp respectively in the absence of pulmonary or visceral metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage
  17. Abbas AA, Mohamad JA, Lydia AL, Selvaratnam L, Razif A, Ab-Rahim S, et al.
    JUMMEC, 2014;17(1):8-13.
    MyJurnal
    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a widely accepted procedure for the treatment of large, fullthickness chondral defects involving various joints, but its use in developing countries is limited because of high cost and failure rates due to limited resources and support systems. Five patients (age
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage Diseases
  18. Satar Jabbar Rahi Algraittee, Rajesh Ramasamy
    MyJurnal
    Human cartilage contains multipotent stem cells, namely mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which are progenitors of connective tissue that play homeostatic and reparative roles. Although the major constituent cells in the cartilage are chondrocytes, they possess a limited regenerative ability, and as a result, spontaneous cartilage repair by chondro- cytes leads to the synthesis of fibrocartilage. Similarly, MSCs derived from articular cartilage of osteoarthritis patients have demonstrated inadequacy in cartilage repair. The role of MSCs in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA) is not entirely understood, whether the inflammatory milieu associated with OA joints affects the reparative properties of MSCs or the inherent defects of OA cartilage-derived MSCs impair the proper execution of the required immu- nosuppressive and reparative functions. Therefore, the current review explores the biological characteristics and features of MSCs derived from physiological state and OA condition with the aim of identifying how OA affects MSC functions as well as the role of MSCs in the pathophysiology of OA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular
  19. Agarwal T, Chiesa I, Presutti D, Irawan V, Vajanthri KY, Costantini M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Apr;123:112005.
    PMID: 33812625 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2021.112005
    Inadequate self-repair and regenerative efficiency of the cartilage tissues has motivated the researchers to devise advanced and effective strategies to resolve this issue. Introduction of bioprinting to tissue engineering has paved the way for fabricating complex biomimetic engineered constructs. In this context, the current review gears off with the discussion of standard and advanced 3D/4D printing technologies and their implications for the repair of different cartilage tissues, namely, articular, meniscal, nasoseptal, auricular, costal, and tracheal cartilage. The review is then directed towards highlighting the current stem cell opportunities. On a concluding note, associated critical issues and prospects for future developments, particularly in this sphere of personalized medicines have been discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage
  20. Yong CW, Lai KW, Murphy BP, Hum YC
    Curr Med Imaging, 2021;17(8):981-987.
    PMID: 33319690 DOI: 10.2174/1573405616666201214122409
    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint inflammation that may lead to disability. Although OA is not lethal, this disease will remarkably affect patient's mobility and their daily lives. Detecting OA at an early stage allows for early intervention and may slow down disease progression.

    INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful technique to visualize soft tissues within the knee joint. Cartilage delineation in magnetic resonance (MR) images helps in understanding the disease progressions. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promising results in computer vision tasks, and various encoder-decoder-based segmentation neural networks are introduced in the last few years. However, the performances of such networks are unknown in the context of cartilage delineation.

    METHODS: This study trained and compared 10 encoder-decoder-based CNNs in performing cartilage delineation from knee MR images. The knee MR images are obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). The benchmarking process is to compare various CNNs based on physical specifications and segmentation performances.

    RESULTS: LadderNet has the least trainable parameters with the model size of 5 MB. UNetVanilla crowned the best performances by having 0.8369, 0.9108, and 0.9097 on JSC, DSC, and MCC.

    CONCLUSION: UNetVanilla can be served as a benchmark for cartilage delineation in knee MR images, while LadderNet served as an alternative if there are hardware limitations during production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage
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