Our continuing studies on secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri has led to the isolation of another new diprenylated xanthone, phylattrin (1), in addition to five other xanthones and two common sterols. The xanthones are soulattrin (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), brasixanthone B (5) and trapezifolixanthone (6) while the sterols are stigmasterol (7) and β-sitosterol (8). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, IR and UV. Compounds 1-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against SNU-1, HeLa, Hep G2, NCI-H23, K562, Raji, LS174T, IMR-32 and SK-MEL-28 cells.
Two naturally occurring xanthones, ananixanthone (1) and β-mangostin (2), were isolated using column chromatographic method from the n-hexane and methanol extracts of Calophyllum teysmannii, respectively. The major constituent, ananixanthone (1), was subjected to structural modifications via acetylation, methylation and benzylation yielding four new xanthone derivatives, ananixanthone monoacetate (3), ananixanthone diacetate (4), 5-methoxyananixanthone (5) and 5-O-benzylananixanthone (6). Compound 1 together with its four new derivatives were subjected to MTT assay against three cancer cell lines; SNU-1, K562 and LS174T. The results indicated that the parent compound has greater cytotoxicity capabilities against SNU-1 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values of 8.97 ± 0.11 and 2.96 ± 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 5 on the other hand exhibited better cytotoxicity against LS174T cell line with an IC50 value of 5.76 ± 1.07 μg/mL.
Flavokawain C (FKC), a naturally occurring chalcone, has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the possible underlying mechanisms of cell death as a response to FKC treatment remains unclear. In this study, we performed proteomic analysis of HCT 116 cells treated with FKC to identify proteins that change in abundance. This was followed by bioinformatic analysis to predict possible associated molecular targets or pathways involved in the observed effects of FKC. A total of 35 proteins that changed in abundance (17 increased and 18 decreased) were identified through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), these proteins were predicted to be involved in cell death and survival, cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, protein synthesis, post-translational modification and amino acid metabolism by. Further analysis of the transcript levels of selected proteins using qPCR showed that some of the genes exhibited similar change of profile to that of the proteins'. Our results have provided novel insights into the potential molecular mechanisms underlying FKC-induced apoptosis or cell death in colon cancer cells.
The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin was found to be strong towards both cancerous (HGC-27, MCF-7, PANC-1, HeLa), and non-cancerous (3T3) cell lines, especially in cases of dividing cells. Drug exposure studies indicated that the cytotoxic action of goniothalamin was time- and dose-dependent. At the ultrastructural level, goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity revealed a necrotic mode of cell death towards MCF-7 cells.
Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100 μg/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs.
In comparison to monolayer cells, MCTS has been claimed as more suitable candidate for studying drug penetration due to the high resemblance to solid tumors. However, the cultivation of MCTS is cumbersome, time consuming, and most technique fail to generate spheroids with uniform sizes. Therefore, the application of spheroid cultures in high throughput screening has been rather limiting. Besides, the lack of a well established screening protocol method that is applicable to spheroid could also be attributed to this limitation. Here we report a simple way of cultivating homogenous MCTS cultures with compact and rigid structure from the MCF-7 cells. Besides, we had also made some modifications to the standard MTT assay to realize high throughput screening of these spheroids. Using the modified protocol, tamoxifen showed cytotoxicity effect towards MCTS cultures from MCF-7 with high consistency. The results correlated well with the cultures' response assessed by LDH release assay but the latter assay was not ideal for detecting a wide range of cytotoxicity due to high basal background reading. The MTT assay emerged as a better indicator to apoptosis event in comparison to the LDH release assay. Therefore, the method for spheroid generation and the modified MTT assay we reported here could be potentially applied to high throughput screening for response of spheroid cultures generated from MCF-7 as well as other cancer cell lines towards cytotoxic stimuli.
This study aims to elucidate the effects of chrysin on human ER-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The study demonstrated that treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with 20 microM chysin for 48 h significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and induced cytoplasmic lipid accumulation in the cells, but that the observed of cell death was not caused by apoptosis. The expression of PPARalpha mRNA in chrysin-treated MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly increased, which was likely associated to the proliferation of the cells post chrysin treatment.
Biomaterials intended for end-use application as bone-graft substitutes have to undergo safety evaluation. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effects especially to determine the mode of death of two hydroxyapatite compounds (HA2, HA3) which were synthesized locally. The methods used for cytotoxicity was the standard MTT assay whereas AO/PI staining was performed to determine the mode of cell death in HA treated L929 fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that both HA2 and HA3 were not significantly cytotoxic as more than 75% cells after 72 hours treatment were viable. Furthermore, we found that the major mode of cell death in HA treated cells was apoptosis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these hydroxyapatite compounds are not cytotoxic where the mode of death was primarily via apoptosis.
The cytotoxic structure-activity relationships among a series of xanthone derivatives from Mesua beccariana, Mesua ferrea and Mesua congestiflora were studied. Eleven xanthone derivatives identified as mesuarianone (1), mesuasinone (2), mesuaferrin A (3), mesuaferrin B (4), mesuaferrin C (5), 6-deoxyjacareubin (6), caloxanthone C (7), macluraxanthone (8), 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (9), tovopyrifolin C (10) and α-mangostin (11) were isolated from the three Mesua species. The human cancer cell lines tested were Raji, SNU-1, K562, LS-174T, SK-MEL-28, IMR-32, HeLa, Hep G2 and NCI-H23. Mesuaferrin A (3), macluraxanthone (8) and α-mangostin (11) showed strong cytotoxicities as they possess significant inhibitory effects against all the cell lines. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) study revealed that the diprenyl, dipyrano and prenylated pyrano substituent groups of the xanthone derivatives contributed towards the cytotoxicities.
Andrographolide was extracted and purified from Andrographis panicula using hexane and water partitioning followed by ethyl acetate extraction and chromatography. It showed selective cytotoxicity to prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro. The morphological and biochemical changes induced by the extract in carcinoma PC-3 cell death were studied. In andrographolide-treated cells, evidence of apoptosis such as cell shrinkage and surface microvilli loss after 4-hour treatment and chromatin condensation and fragmentation in H&E-stained cells between 4 to 8 hours after treatment were observed. Under electron microscopy, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies formation were seen after 8-hour treatment. Using immunocytochemistry staining and cellular caspase-3 activity assay, andrographolide-treated cells showed considerable caspase-3 activation and caspase-8 in PC-3 cells at 4 and 2 hours after treatment, respectively. This suggests andrographolide-induced cell death was achieved through the apoptotic pathway, via the activation of an extrinsic caspase cascade.
Cell death is a process of dying within biological cells that are ceasing to function. This process is essential in regulating organism development, tissue homeostasis, and to eliminate cells in the body that are irreparably damaged. In general, dysfunction in normal cellular death is tightly linked to cancer progression. Specifically, the up-regulation of pro-survival factors, including oncogenic factors and antiapoptotic signaling pathways, and the down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factors, including tumor suppressive factors, confers resistance to cell death in tumor cells, which supports the emergence of a fully immortalized cellular phenotype. This review considers the potential relevance of ubiquitous environmental chemical exposures that have been shown to disrupt key pathways and mechanisms associated with this sort of dysfunction. Specifically, bisphenol A, chlorothalonil, dibutyl phthalate, dichlorvos, lindane, linuron, methoxychlor and oxyfluorfen are discussed as prototypical chemical disruptors; as their effects relate to resistance to cell death, as constituents within environmental mixtures and as potential contributors to environmental carcinogenesis.
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) are chronic inflammatory conditions often characterised by erosive and/or painful oral lesions that have a considerable impact on quality of life. Current treatment often necessitates the use of steroids in the form of mouthwashes, creams or ointments, but these are often ineffective due to inadequate drug contact times with the lesion. Here we evaluate the performance of novel mucoadhesive patches for targeted drug delivery. Electrospun polymeric mucoadhesive patches were produced and characterised for their physical properties and cytotoxicity before evaluation of residence time and acceptability in a human feasibility study. Clobetasol-17-propionate incorporated into the patches was released in a sustained manner in both tissue-engineered oral mucosa and ex vivo porcine mucosa. Clobetasol-17 propionate-loaded patches were further evaluated for residence time and drug release in an in vivo animal model and demonstrated prolonged adhesion and drug release at therapeutic-relevant doses and time points. These data show that electrospun patches are adherent to mucosal tissue without causing tissue damage, and can be successfully loaded with and release clinically active drugs. These patches hold great promise for the treatment of oral conditions such as OLP and RAS, and potentially many other oral lesions.
Targeted drug delivery is one of the key challenges in cancer nanomedicine. Stoichiometric and spatial control over the antibodies placement on the nanomedicine vehicle holds a pivotal role to overcome this key challenge. Here, a DNA tetrahedral is designed with available conjugation sites on its vertices, allowing to bind one, two, or three cetuximab antibodies per DNA nanostructure. This stoichiometrically definable cetuximab conjugated DNA nanostructure shows enhanced targeting on the breast cancer cells, which results with higher overall killing efficacy of the cancer cells.
Cyanobacteria are reported as rich sources of secondary metabolites that provide biological activities such as enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity. Ten depsipeptide derivatives (lyngbyabellins) were isolated from a Malaysian Moorea bouillonii and a Red Sea Okeania sp.: lyngbyabellins G (1), O (2), P (3), H (4), A (7), 27-deoxylyngbyabellin A (5), and homohydroxydolabellin (6). This study indicated that lyngbyabellins displayed cytotoxicity, antimalarial, and antifouling activities. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic effect against human breast cancer cells (MCF7), for antifouling activity against Amphibalanus amphitrite barnacle larvae, and for antiplasmodial effect towards Plasmodium falciparum. Lyngbyabellins A and G displayed potent antiplasmodial effect against Plasmodium, whereas homohydroxydolabellin showed moderate effect. For antifouling activity, the side chain decreases the activity slightly, but the essential feature is the acyclic structure. As previously reported, the acyclic lyngbyabellins are less cytotoxic than the corresponding cyclic ones, and the side chain increases cytotoxicity. This study revealed that lyngbyabellins, despite being cytotoxic agents as previously reported, also exhibit antimalarial and antifouling activities. The unique chemical structures and functionalities of lyngbyabellin play an essential role in their biological activities.
This paper focuses on the development of a drug delivery system for systemically controlled release of a poorly soluble drug, letrozole. The work meticulously describes the preparation and characterizations of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) polymerization onto hydrophilic acrylamide grafted low-density polyethylene (AAm-g-LDPE) surface for targeted drug release system. The surface morphology and thickness measurement of coated pHEMA layer were measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling study was done in deionized (DI) water and simulated uterine fluid (SUF, pH = 7.6). In vitro release of letrozole from the system was performed in SUF. Further, the release kinetics of letrozole from the system was studied using different mathematical models. The results, suggest that the rate of drug release can be altered by varying the concentrations of cross-linker in pHEMA. The optimized sample released 72% drug at the end of 72 h of measurement.
Development of novel metallodrugs with pharmacological profile plays a significant role in modern medicinal chemistry and drug design. Metal complexes have shown remarkable clinical results in current cancer therapy. Gold complexes have attained attention due to their high antiproliferative potential. Gold-based drugs are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Gold-containing compounds with selective and specific targets are capable to assuage the symptoms of a range of human diseases. Gold (I) species with labile ligands (such as Cl in TEPAuCl) interact with isolated DNA; therefore, this biomolecule has been considered as a target for gold drugs. Gold (I) has a high affinity towards sulfur and selenium. Due to this, gold (I) drugs readily interact with cysteine or selenocysteine residue of the enzyme to form protein-gold(I) thiolate or protein-gold (I) selenolate complexes that lead to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Au(III) compounds due to their square-planner geometriesthe same as found in cisplatin, represent a good source for the development of anti-tumor agents. This article aims to review the most important applications of gold products in the treatment of human colon cancer and to analyze the complex interplay between gold and the human body.
α-Mangostin (AMG) is a potent anticancer xanthone that was discovered in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.). AMG possesses the highest opportunity for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic therapy. AMG inhibits every step in the process of carcinogenesis. AMG suppressed multiple breast cancer (BC) cell proliferation and apoptosis by decreasing the creation of cancerous compounds. Accumulating BC abnormalities and their associated molecular signaling pathways promotes novel treatment strategies. Chemotherapy is a commonly used treatment; due to the possibility of unpleasant side effects and multidrug resistance, there has been substantial progress in searching for alternative solutions, including the use of plant-derived natural chemicals. Due to the limitations of conventional cancer therapy, nanotechnology provides hope for effective and efficient cancer diagnosis and treatment. Nanotechnology enables the delivery of nanoparticles and increased solubility of drugs and drug targeting, resulting in increased cytotoxicity and cell death during BC treatment. This review summarizes the progress and development of AMG's cytotoxicity and the mechanism of death BC cells. The combination of natural medicine and nanotechnology into a synergistic capital will provide various benefits. This information will aid in the development of AMG nanoparticle preparations and may open up new avenues for discovering an effective BC treatment.
The stem bark extracts of Knema laurina inhibited the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- and aggregated amyloid β-peptide 1-42 length (Aβ(1-42))-induced cell death in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of 250 μM H2O2 or 20 μM Aβ(1-42) to the cells for 24 h reduced 50% of cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with ethyl acetate extract (EAE) or n-butanol extract (BE) at 300 μg/mL and then exposure to H2O2 protected the cells against the neurotoxic effects of H2O2. Besides, methanolic extract (ME) at 1 and 10 μg/mL exerted neuroprotective effect on Aβ(1-42)-induced toxicity to the cells. These results showed that EAE, BE and ME exhibited neuroprotective activities against H2O2- and Aβ(1-42)-induced cell death. Flavonoids (3-6) and β-sitosterol glucoside (8) were isolated from the EAE. Compound 1 was isolated from hexane extract, and compounds 2 and 7 were isolated from dichloromethane extract. All these observations provide the possible evidence for contribution in the neuroprotective effects.
Thymoquinone (TQ) has been shown to exhibit antitumor properties. Thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (TQ-NLC) was developed to improve the bioavailability and cytotoxicity of TQ. This study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic effects of TQ-NLC on breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and SiHa). TQ-NLC was prepared by applying the hot high pressure homogenization technique. The mean particle size of TQ-NLC was 35.66 ± 0.1235 nm with a narrow polydispersity index (PDI) lower than 0.25. The zeta potential of TQ-NLC was greater than -30 mV. Polysorbate 80 helps to increase the stability of TQ-NLC. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that TQ-NLC has a melting point of 56.73°C, which is lower than that of the bulk material. The encapsulation efficiency of TQ in TQ-NLC was 97.63 ± 0.1798% as determined by HPLC analysis. TQ-NLC exhibited antiproliferative activity towards all the cell lines in a dose-dependent manner which was most cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell shrinkage was noted following treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with TQ-NLC with an increase of apoptotic cell population (P < 0.05). TQ-NLC also induced cell cycle arrest. TQ-NLC was most cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 cells. It induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the cells.
Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a popular tumor vaccine carrier protein and an immunostimulant. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory activity of KLH on cytotoxicity, cytokines production, and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, antiproliferative activity of KLH on Meth A sarcoma cells was studied.