OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to assess the antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of stem parts of Elytranthe parasitica (L.) Danser (EP) on colorectal cancer and identify the bioactive phytochemicals.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: EP methanol extract (EP.M) and its subsequent fractions were screened for antiproliferative activity in human colorectal carcinoma HCT 116 cell line. Phytocomposition of the bioactive fraction was analyzed by GC-MS. Further, apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest was assessed in the most bioactive fractions.
RESULTS: EP.DEE (Diethyl Ether) fraction and a subsequent fraction derived by column chromatography, Fraction 3A (FR 3A) significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT 116 cells (P cell cycle checkpoints. GC-MS analysis of FR 3A revealed the presence of 24 phytochemicals, the most prominent of which was pinocembrin (70.67%), a flavonoid.
CONCLUSION: Hence, it could be speculated that pinocembrin and its related derivatives may be the chief phytochemicals involved in apoptosis - mediated cytotoxicity of the enriched fraction. Our findings indicate the enriched fraction is a promising candidate which could be developed into a natural chemotherapeutic product for colorectal cancer therapy.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The Lactobacillus strains tested in this study could be considered good potential probiotic candidates for food/feed industry because of their beneficial functional bioactivities such as good cholesterol-reducing ability, high antioxidant activity, and good and selective cytotoxic effect against cancer cells.
METHODS: EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05).
RESULTS: The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, pentacyclic triterpenoids and guttiferones in Brazilian red propolis. EEP and its hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning exhibited satisfactory antioxidant percentages. EEP (IC50 cell lines tested when compared to negative control.
CONCLUSIONS: C-Orbitrap-FTMS was useful to establish the chemical profile of the red propolis. Brazilian red propolis has antioxidant properties and decreases substantially the percentage of cell survival of human tumour cells; thus, it has potential to serve as an anticancer drug.
METHODS: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50 ). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition.
RESULTS: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application.
CONCLUSION: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.
RESULTS: Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF-7 cells by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ.
CONCLUSION: Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health.