Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 121 in total

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  1. Lyn PCW
    Med J Malaysia, 1987 Mar;42(1):22-30.
    PMID: 3323859
    Coronary atheroma is the principal cause of ischaemic heart disease. Among the factors considered to predispose to atheroma formation is raised plasma cholesterol and although it is regarded as a minor risk factor by some, others see its contribution as one of major importance. Whichever the view, the debate on plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD) has long moved out of the exclusive domain of the scientific journal to the public arena and is reflected in the increasing frequency with which doctors are consulted by patients on the subject. The incidence of CHD in South-East Asian countries is also rising. For the practising clinician, the problem resolves itself into deciding if the evidence incriminating plasma cholesterol as a predisposing factor is strong enough, and if it is, what prophylactic and therapeutic steps are of value in reducing the incidence of CH D. An updated and brief review of lipid metabolism and the relationship of lipids to CHD is now necessary in view of the rapid accumulation of data from recent trials and prospective studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  2. LAU KS, LOPEZ CG, GAN OM
    Med J Malaya, 1962 Mar;16:184-92.
    PMID: 14462716
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  3. Banerjee B, Saha N
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Jun;23(4):332-6.
    PMID: 4235599
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  4. DAVIES TA, WILLSHER JD
    Med J Malaya, 1961 Mar;15:97-101.
    PMID: 13883856
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  5. Khoo KL, Tan H, Liew YM, Deslypere JP, Janus E
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Jul;169(1):1-10.
    PMID: 12860245
    In Western countries, it has been shown that coronary heart disease (CHD) is related to high serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. In less developed continents such as Asia and Africa, serum lipid levels are low and CHD incidence is much lower as compared with Western countries. With growing urbanization and industrialization in Asia, it has been shown that there is a concomitant rise in the level of serum TC and with it a rise in CHD. In all the Asian countries, serum TC levels are also higher in the urban compared with the rural population. Singapore, the only Asian country which is 100% urbanized since 1980, showed a rise of serum TC similar to that seen in the US and UK from the 1950s to the 1980s followed thereafter by a fall. This is reflected in the trend (rise followed by a fall) of CHD morbidity and mortality as well. In spite of a declining trend in serum TC level, CHD morbidity and mortality are still high in Singapore and comparable to the Western countries. The rest of the Asian countries show a different pattern from Singapore. In general, there is still a rising trend in serum TC level and in CHD mortality in most Asian countries. However, Japan is considered an exception in having a decreasing CHD mortality in spite of an increasing trend in serum TC. This may be attributed to a better control of other CHD risk factors such as hypertension and smoking. The rising trend in serum TC level remains a cause for concern, as this will emerge as a major problem for CHD morbidity and mortality in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  6. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S
    Poult Sci, 1998 Sep;77(9):1259-65.
    PMID: 9733111
    A study was conducted to determine the effects of adherent Lactobacillus culture on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, and serum cholesterol level of broilers. Four dietary treatments, consisting of the basal diet (control), basal diet + 0.05, 0.10, or 0.15% Lactobacillus culture (LC), were fed to 2,000 Arbor Acres broiler chicks from 1 to 42 d of age (DOA). The chicks were randomly assigned to 40 cages (50 chicks per cage, 10 cages per diet). The experimental period was 42 d. Body weights and feed to gain ratio were measured at 21 and 42 DOA. The intestinal microbial populations and serum cholesterol levels were determined at 10, 20, 30, and 40 DOA. The results showed that body weights and feed to gain ratios were improved significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to control broilers for broilers fed diets containing 0.05 or 0.10% LC, but not 0.15% LC, at 21 and 42 DOA. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 0.05% LC at 10, 20, and 30 DOA, and 0.10% at 10 and 20 DOA were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control birds. The total aerobes, total anaerobes, lactobacilli, and streptococci in the small intestines and ceca of the control birds were not significantly different from those of the treated groups. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the three diets containing LC at 30 DOA, and in the birds fed 0.05 or 0.10% LC at 20 DOA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  7. Ng TK
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Mar;48(1):12-6.
    PMID: 8341167
    Postprandial changes in plasma total cholesterol (TC) are minimal and there is essentially no difference between fasting vs random TC concentrations, as reflected in the small diurnal coefficient of variation (CV) for TC of 2.5%. Similarly, a cholesterol-rich meal within the last 24 hours lacked an impact on plasma TC. Thus, random specimens are acceptable in blood cholesterol screening. The intraindividual biological CV (CVb) for plasma TC as measured over a long period was estimated from the data of several published studies to be 6.0%, which, when combined with a probable analytical CV (CVa) of 5% during screening, gave a total intraindividual CV (CVt) of about 8% for the single cholesterol assay. There is consensus that 'high TC values' acquired during screening should be confirmed under the conventional laboratory setting capable of CVa of 3% or less.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  8. Jeyamalar R
    Med J Malaysia, 1991 Mar;46(1):1-6.
    PMID: 1836032
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  9. Banerjee B, Saha N
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Sep;24(1):41-4.
    PMID: 4243842
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  10. Kumari Ramiah S, Meng GY, Ebrahimi M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:949324.
    PMID: 25386625 DOI: 10.1155/2014/949324
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  11. Shohaimi S, Boekholdt MS, Luben R, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT
    BMC Public Health, 2014 Aug 28;14:782.
    PMID: 25179437 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-782
    BACKGROUND: Data on the relationship between plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and social class have been inconsistent. Most previous studies have used one classification of social class.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population based study with data on occupational social class, educational level obtained using a detailed health and lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 10,147 men and 12,304 women aged 45-80 years living in Norfolk, United Kingdom, were recruited using general practice age-sex registers as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in baseline samples. Social class was classified according to three classifications: occupation, educational level, and area deprivation score according to Townsend deprivation index. Differences in lipid levels by socio-economic status indices were quantified by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression after adjusting for body mass index and alcohol consumption.

    RESULTS: Total cholesterol levels were associated with occupational level among men, and with educational level among women. Triglyceride levels were associated with educational level and occupational level among women, but the latter association was lost after adjustment for age and body mass index. HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with both educational level and educational level among men and women. The relationships with educational level were substantially attenuated by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use, whereas the association with educational class was retained upon adjustment. LDL-cholesterol levels were not associated with social class indices among men, but a positive association was observed with educational class among women. This association was not affected by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that there are sex differences in the association between socio-economic status and serum lipid levels. The variations in lipid profile with socio-economic status may be largely attributed to potentially modifiable factors such as obesity, physical activity and dietary intake.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  12. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Mohamed IN, Aminuddin A, Johari MH, Ngah WZ
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(4):349-55.
    PMID: 24578612 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.7104
    Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  13. Al-Sheraji SH, Ismail A, Manap MY, Mustafa S, Yusof RM, Hassan FA
    Food Chem, 2012 Nov 15;135(2):356-61.
    PMID: 22868099 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.120
    The effect of a yoghurt supplement containing Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 or Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on plasma lipids, lipid peroxidation and the faecal excretion of bile acids was examined in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. After 8 weeks, the rats in the positive control (PC) group who were fed the cholesterol-enriched diet showed significant increases in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA). However, groups fed a cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with yoghurt containing B. pseudocatenulatum G4 or B. longum BB536 had significantly lower plasma TC, LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and MDA than had the PC group after 8 weeks of treatment. In addition, faecal excretion of bile acids was markedly increased in the rats fed the yoghurt containing B. pseudocatenulatum G4 or B. longum BB536 as compared to the PC and NC groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  14. Ooi LG, Ahmad R, Yuen KH, Liong MT
    J Dairy Sci, 2010 Nov;93(11):5048-58.
    PMID: 20965319 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2010-3311
    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-designed study was conducted to investigate the effect of a synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 and inulin on lipid profiles of hypercholesterolemic men and women. Thirty-two hypercholesterolemic men and women with initial mean plasma cholesterol levels of 5.7±0.32 mmol/L were recruited for the 12-wk study. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups; namely the treatment group (synbiotic product) and the control group (placebo), and each received 4 capsules of synbiotic or placebo daily. Our results showed that the mean body weight, energy, and nutrient intake of the subjects did not differ between the 2 groups over the study period. The supplementation of synbiotic reduced plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 7.84 and 9.27%, respectively, compared with the control over 12 wk. Lipoproteins were subsequently subfractionated and characterized. The synbiotic supplementation resulted in a lower concentration of triglycerides in the very low, intermediate, low, and high-density lipoprotein particles compared with the control over 12 wk. The concentration of triglycerides in lipoproteins is positively correlated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Our results showed that the synbiotic might exhibit an atheropreventive characteristic. Cholesteryl ester (CE) in the high-density lipoprotein particles of the synbiotic group was also higher compared with the control, indicating greater transport of cholesterol in the form of CE to the liver for hydrolysis. This may have led to the reduced plasma total cholesterol level of the synbiotic group. The supplementation of synbiotic also reduced the concentration of CE in the LDL particles compared with the control, leading to the formation of smaller and denser particles that are more easily removed from blood. This supported the reduced LDL-cholesterol level of the synbiotic group compared with the control. Our present study showed that the synbiotic product improved plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol levels by modifying the interconnected pathways of lipid transporters. In addition, although Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 could deconjugate bile, our results showed a statistically insignificant difference in the levels of conjugated, deconjugated, primary, and secondary bile acids between the synbiotic and control groups over 12 wk, indicating safety from bile-related toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  15. Ooi LG, Liong MT
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(6):2499-522.
    PMID: 20640165 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11062499
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  16. Lye HS, Kuan CY, Ewe JA, Fung WY, Liong MT
    Int J Mol Sci, 2009 Sep;10(9):3755-75.
    PMID: 19865517 DOI: 10.3390/ijms10093755
    Probiotics are live organisms that are primarily used to improve gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, lactose intolerance, and to inhibit the excessive proliferation of pathogenic intestinal bacteria. However, recent studies have suggested that probiotics could have beneficial effects beyond gastrointestinal health, as they were found to improve certain metabolic disorders such as hypertension. Hypertension is caused by various factors and the predominant causes include an increase in cholesterol levels, incidence of diabetes, inconsistent modulation of renin and imbalanced sexual hormones. This review discusses the antihypertensive roles of probiotics via the improvement and/or treatment of lipid profiles, modulation of insulin resistance and sensitivity, the modulation of renin levels and also the conversion of bioactive phytoestrogens as an alternative replacement of sexual hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  17. Khoo YS, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Apr;34(2):133-45.
    PMID: 19250134 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00998.x
    Prevention of cardiovascular disease by modifying its major risk factors, including serum cholesterol levels, is an important strategy. Regular intake of garlic has been suggested, but its impact on cholesterol levels has been inconsistent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  18. Liong MT, Dunshea FR, Shah NP
    Br J Nutr, 2007 Oct;98(4):736-44.
    PMID: 17490507
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a synbiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962, fructooligosaccharide, inulin and mannitol on plasma lipid profiles and erythrocyte membrane properties in hypercholesterolaemic pigs on high- and low-fat diets. Twenty-four white male Landrace pigs were randomly allocated to four treatment groups for 8 weeks (n 6). Treatment factors were the supplementation of synbiotic (with and without) and dietary fat (5 and 15 %). The supplementation of synbiotic reduced plasma total cholesterol (P = 0.001), TAG (P = 0.002) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.045) for both dietary fats. A higher concentration of esterified-cholesterol in HDL of pigs supplemented with synbiotic than the control regardless of dietary fat (P = 0.036) indicated that cholesterol was reduced in the form of cholesteryl esters. Reduced concentration of cholesteryl esters (P < 0.001) and increased concentration of TAG (P = 0.042) in LDL of pigs on synbiotic suggested that LDL-cholesterol was reduced via the hydrolysis of smaller and denser LDL particles. The erythrocytes of pigs without any synbiotic showed more prevalence of spur cells than those given the synbiotic, as supported by the higher cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in erythrocytes (P = 0.001). Also, membrane fluidity and rigidity were improved as supported by the decreased fluorescence anisotropies in the Hb-free erythrocyte membrane of pigs given synbiotic (P < 0.001). The administration of the synbiotic reduced plasma TAG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic pigs, possibly in the form of cholesteryl esters, via the interrelated pathways of lipid transporters (VLDL, LDL and HDL). The synbiotic also reduced deformation of erythrocytes via improved membrane fluidity and permeability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  19. Hadaegh F, Harati H, Zabetian A, Azizi F
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Aug;61(3):332-8.
    PMID: 17240585
    There are contradictory results regarding the pattern of seasonal variation of serum lipids. The aim of this study was to compare serum lipid levels in different seasons in participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This was a cross-sectional study among 2890 men and 4004 women 20-64 years old from the participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) between 1999 and 2001. Mean values of serum lipids in different seasons were compared with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) after adjustment for age, physical activity level, smoking, BMI and Waist-to-hip ratio. In men, there was a significant trend for change in the values of cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C in different seasons, with higher cholesterol and LDL-C values in winter than in summer (P < 0.05). In women, only the mean values of triglycerides were significantly different between different seasons with values lower in winter than in summer. There was a 26.2% relative increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (> or = 240 mg/dl) in winter than in summer in men. The corresponding increase in the prevalence of high LDL-C (> or = 160 mg/dl) was 26.7% and 24.9% in men and women, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of high triglycerides (> or = _ 200mg/dl) in women significantly decreased (23.8%) in winter relative to summer (P < 0.001). This study showed that there is seasonal variability in serum lipid values and this variability is greater in men than women. The increase in the prevalence of high LDL in winter in both sexes must be considered in population screening and in the follow-up of hyperlipidemic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  20. Yunus R, Ariff AR, Shuaib IL, Jelani AM, Alias NA, Abdullah J, et al.
    PMID: 17121310
    There is very little data regarding the factors related to intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery in normal individuals in those with non-insulin diabetes mellitus and perimenopausal women in Southeast Asian countries. Ultrasound imaging evaluating the carotid artery IMT in those with diabetes and those on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was performed beginning in August 2000 for a period of nearly two years at the Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 153 participants were included. Significant differences between the women on HRT and not on HRT were IMT and systolic blood pressure. When comparing those with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and normal individuals, the significant differences were IMT, total cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. IMT was high in those with NIDDM but not in those on HRT. Both those with NIDDM and those on HRT had associated dyslipidemia and systolic hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
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