Concurrent thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm is uncommon. It remains a formidable surgical challenge to vascular surgeons, as decision to treat in staged or simultaneous setting still debatable. We present, here, a case of a 62-year-old-man with asymptomatic concurrent thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms, which was successfully treated with two-stage hybrid endovascular repair. The aim of this case report is to discuss the treatment options available, possible associated complications and measures to prevent them.
All around the world, there is growing evidence of the association between psoriasis and comorbidities which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aims to determine the prevalence of various comorbidities among adult psoriasis patients in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients in the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry from January 2007 to December 2008. A total of 2,267 adult patients with psoriasis from 13 dermatology centers were included. Prevalence of various comorbidities were: hypertension 25.9%, diabetes mellitus 17.7 %, dyslipidaemia 17.8%, overweight 33.2%, obesity 20.7%, ischaemic heart disease 5.8% and cerebrovascular disease 1.4%. These comorbidities were more prevalent in patients with psoriasis of late-onset and longer duration. Active screening of these comorbidities in all adult psoriasis patients is recommended.
Remotely monitoring a patient's condition is a serious issue and must be addressed. Remote health monitoring systems (RHMS) in telemedicine refers to resources, strategies, methods and installations that enable doctors or other medical professionals to work remotely to consult, diagnose and treat patients. The goal of RHMS is to provide timely medical services at remote areas through telecommunication technologies. Through major advancements in technology, particularly in wireless networking, cloud computing and data storage, RHMS is becoming a feasible aspect of modern medicine. RHMS for the prioritisation of patients with multiple chronic diseases (MCDs) plays an important role in sustainably providing high-quality healthcare services. Further investigations are required to highlight the limitations of the prioritisation of patients with MCDs over a telemedicine environment. This study introduces a comprehensive and inclusive review on the prioritisation of patients with MCDs in telemedicine applications. Furthermore, it presents the challenges and open issues regarding patient prioritisation in telemedicine. The findings of this study are as follows: (1) The limitations and problems of existing patients' prioritisation with MCDs are presented and emphasised. (2) Based on the analysis of the academic literature, an accurate solution for remote prioritisation in a large scale of patients with MCDs was not presented. (3) There is an essential need to produce a new multiple-criteria decision-making theory to address the current problems in the prioritisation of patients with MCDs.
Although comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) with schizophrenia is well-established, the occurrence of psychotic symptoms especially hallucinations with OCD still requires further studies. We report a case of a child with OCD who experienced auditory hallucination with the recurrence of his OCD symptoms and the management involved. We discussed the possible differentials when auditory hallucinations occur in the context of OCD.
Objective: This is a case report discussing the comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia. Such clinical phenomenon merits recognition as a distinct subgroup of schizophrenia with unique challenges and treatment needs. Method: A case report presenting schizophrenia with preceding obsessive-compulsive disorder over five years. Results: This report describes the clinical course and treatment challenges of a patient with obsessive compulsive schizophrenia (OCS). Conclusion: This case illustrates that OCS is a complex disorder with atypical clinical characteristics. In managing this patient, several clinical dilemmas including diagnostic ambiguity, problems with pharmacotherapy and difficulties in his rehabilitation were highlighted.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is very important for the clinical management of HCV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypes of HCV-infected patients and to identify their risk factors and comorbidities.
Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities have transformed into a global epidemic. The number of people suffering from obesity has increased dramatically within the past few decades. This rise in obesity cannot alone be explained by genetic factors; however, diet, environment, lifestyle, and presence of other diseases undoubtedly contribute towards obesity etiology. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that alterations in the gut microbial diversity and composition have a role to play in energy assimilation, storage, and expenditure. In this review, the impact of gut microbiota composition on metabolic functionalities, and potential therapeutics such as gut microbial modulation to manage obesity and its associated comorbidities are highlighted. Optimistically, an understanding of the gut microbiome could facilitate the innovative clinical strategies to restore the normal gut flora and improve lifestyle-related diseases in the future.
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases which can be treated surgically with favorable outcome. The gait disturbance, cognitive, and urinary symptoms are known as the clinical triad of iNPH. In this review, we have addressed the comorbidities, differential diagnoses, clinical presentations, and pathology of iNPH. We have also summarized the imaging studies and clinical procedures used for the diagnosis of iNPH. The treatment modality, outcomes, and prognosis were also discussed.
Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder involving 70 million people around the globe. Epilepsy-related neuropsychiatric comorbidities such as depression, which is the most common, is an additional factor that negatively impacts the living quality of epilepsy patients. There are many theories and complexities associated with both epilepsy and associated comorbidities, one of which is the gut-brain-axis influence. The gut microbiome is hypothesized to be linked with many neurological disorders; however, little conclusive evidence is available in this area. Thus, highlighting the role will create interest in researchers to conduct detailed research in comprehending the influence of gut-brain-axis in the manifestation of depressive symptoms in epilepsy. The hypothesis which is explored in this review is that the gut-brain-axis do play an important role in the genesis of epilepsy and associated depression. The correction of this dysbiosis might be beneficial in treating both epilepsy and related depression. This hypothesis is illustrated through extensive literature discussion, proposed experimental models, and its applicability in the field. There is indirect evidence which revealed some specific bacterial strains that might cause depression in epilepsy.
The safety of simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. The objective of the current study was to investigate perioperative morbidity and mortality rates within 30 days of simultaneous bilateral TKA. A detailed analysis of medical, surgical and anaesthesia records of 183 consecutive patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty between 2002 and 2006 was performed. The mean age of the patients was 67.6 years old. More than 80% had one or more co-morbidities, but none of them had ASA score greater than class 2. The mean hospital stay was 10 days, and the mean surgical time 156 minutes. Less than half of the patients (42.6%) required blood transfusion. The rate of perimorbidity was 15.3 % and there was no mortality in this series. We believe that simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty is a safe and cost effective option for our patients, provided that patients are selected and informed appropriately.
Objective: This case report highlights males as victims of sexual abuse, ascertain the factors that are associated with male sexual abuse and outline problems in management of sexual abuse with the presence of co morbidities. Methods: We report a case of sexual abuse in a 14 year old boy who has borderline mental retardation and ADHD. Results: The victim was
traumatized due to the abuse. The perpetrator was not charged due to lack of evidence of the abuse and stigma. Conclusion: Sexual abuse that occurs in males can be influenced by multiple factors such as the presence of comorbidities. Strong awareness must be present in caregivers to prevent abuse in this population and to take appropriate and early action to effect the necessary intervention.
About 60% of people with mental illness developed co-morbid medical and physical illness that invariably worsens their lives. However, most of the studies regarding this issue were done either in the out-patient or community settings, ignoring long stay inpatients. Locally, no data exists among long stay patients in psychiatric institutions. The aim of this retrospective study was to look at the prevalence of physical illness among long-stay patients and to compare the occurrence of physical illness before and after admission to the psychiatric institution. We found that 85 (63.4%) out of 134 subjects there was suffering with co-morbid physical and medical illnesses. There were 33 (24.6%) subjects with hyperlipidaemia, 22 (16.4%) subjects with hypertension and 17 (12.7%) subjects with diabetes. Approximately 75 (55.9%) subjects developed medical illness after admission. In conclusion, long-stay psychiatric patients are at a high risk of developing medical problems that tends to begin after admission to the psychiatric institution.
Study site: Hospital Bahagia, Ulu Kinta, Perak, Malaysia
The vital importance of the mental health of a nation for the overall well being of the population and socioeconomic development is increasingly recognized. In Malaysia, psychiatric disorders were responsible for 8.6% of the total Disability Adjusted Life Years and were ranked fourth as the leading cause of burden of disease by disease categories. More and more evidence shows that physical illnesses are strongly associated with psychiatric disorders. Those with physical illnesses have much higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders compared to that without. The mechanisms of co-morbidity of psychiatric and physical illness are complex. It is a two-way interaction and there are five different possible ways to describe this.
The paper discusses on the complexity of the issues surrounding a patient with subluxation of cervical spine in a Down syndrome child. Several relevant issues are discussed including consent in a minor, conflicting decision making between parents and doctors, end-of-life issues, supporting handicapped child with minimal co-morbidities, community ethics, neglect of care by the caregiver and decision making after allowing zonal of parental discretion. Despite the difficulties surrounding parental actions, there are still ethical priorities which have to be considered individually to alleviate the suffering of the patients and the family members. Dealing with patients with chronic illnesses is a challenge for any medical doctors. The case warrants sensitive approach to allow appropriate respect for parental decision despite in disagreement with the clinical team. The term ‘zone of parental discretion’ refers to a controversial area of decision making; and has still many potential conflicts on day to day clinical cases, especially among the conservative society in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
The holistic approach of assertive community treatment (ACT) may provide better care and lead to better outcomes in populations with difficult-to-treat comorbid mental and physical illnesses. This paper describes the complex issues in managing a person with multiple chronic medical illnesses who also
had comorbid treatment-resistant depression and poor social support. The patient achieved improvement after the implementation of the therapeutic ingredients of ACT.
The aim of this systematic review (SR) was to determine the association between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and pubertal development. Due to the inadequacy of the conventional PICO (Population, Interventions, Comparisons and Outcome) format used for intervention-based SRs, the Joanna Briggs Institute's guidelines for synthesising evidence related to associations with a focus on aetiology were adopted. A search of the PubMed and LIVIVO databases covering the period from January 1980 to May 2018 yielded four publications, which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Analysis of articles based on the Pubertal Development Scale showed that TMD prevalence increases with pubertal development. Although no sex difference in TMD prevalence and diagnosis was observed, more females reported TMD anamnestic variables, including accounts of temporomandibular pain during pubertal maturity. The higher prevalence of depression and somatisation during pubertal development may contribute to more TMD symptom reporting in females. More prospective studies incorporating standardised methods for diagnosing TMDs and detecting comorbid psychosocial and somatic problems are desired to further elucidate the relationship between TMDs and pubertal development.
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The relationship between dyspepsia and particularly gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychiatric comorbidity such as anxiety is poorly defined. However, GERD was noted to be strongly associated and often coincident in onset with generalized anxiety disorder in the community. In this paper, we report the case of an adult man who presented with severe weight loss and underlying GERD, and was later found to have an anxiety disorder as the cause of both.