METHOD: This is a retrospective cohort study of confirmed severe dengue patients that were admitted in 2014 to Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Data on baseline characteristics, clinical parameters, and laboratory findings at diagnosis of severe dengue were collected. The outcome of interest is death among patients diagnosed with severe dengue.
RESULTS: There were 199 patients with severe dengue included in the study. Multivariate analysis found lethargy, OR 3.84 (95% CI 1.23-12.03); bleeding, OR 8.88 (95% CI 2.91-27.15); pulse rate, OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07); serum bicarbonate, OR 0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.89) and serum lactate OR 1.27 (95% CI 1.09-1.47), to be statistically significant predictors of death. The regression equation to our model with the highest AUROC, 83.5 (95% CI 72.4-94.6), is: Log odds of death amongst severe dengue cases = - 1.021 - 0.220(Serum bicarbonate) + 0.001(ALT) + 0.067(Age) - 0.190(Gender).
CONCLUSION: This study showed that a large proportion of severe dengue occurred early, whilst patients were still febrile. The best prediction model to predict death at recognition of severe dengue is a model that incorporates serum bicarbonate and ALT levels.
METHODS: The current study was conducted at the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. A total of 300 elderly Malay participants ≥ 65 years, with CKD, were taken in study. Demographic data, blood pressure, weight, and height were documented. Serum creatinine was assayed by Chemistry Analyzer Model Architect-C8000 (Jaffe Method), while serum cystatin C was examined by Human cystatin C ELISA kit (Sigma-Aldrich) using Thermo Scientific Varioskan Flash ELISA reader.
RESULTS: The study participants were divided into three groups on the basis of age. There was a statistically significant difference at the p value
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five inbred female Sprague Dawley rats aged 43 days were administered with three weekly doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) intraperitoneally (ip) at 50 mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized (beginning from 10 mm tumor size) into four TAM-treated (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/day) groups of six animals each, and another group (n=6) treated with TAM 100 μg/day at starting tumour size of 15 mm. The animals were treated by oral gavage daily for 8 weeks before sacrifice.
RESULTS: Serum urea and creatinine, and overall physical tumor burden were significantly modulated in animals treated with variable doses of TAM compared to the untreated controls (n=5). Final body weight and tumor number were significantly different in the 10 mm-treated animals compared to those treated at 15 mm. There were no significant differences in histopathological features among all the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the importance of standardizing tumour size and drug doses before initiation of treatment, particularly in the direct comparison of basic end-tumour physical parameters.