METHODS: Faecal and gut microbiota of Columbia livia were isolated, identified and conditioned media were prepared containing metabolites. Growth inhibition, lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity and cell survival assays were accomplished against cervical cancer cells. Next, liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry was conducted to elucidate the molecules present.
RESULTS: A plethora of bacteria from faecal matter and gastrointestinal tract were isolated. Selected conditioned media exhibited potent anticancer effects and displayed cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cells at IC50 concentration of 10.65 and 15.19 µg/ml. Moreover, cells treated with conditioned media exhibited morphological changes, including cell shrinking and rounding; indicative of apoptosis, when compared to untreated cells. A total of 111 and 71 molecules were revealed from these gut and faecal metabolites. The identity of 60 molecules were revealed including, dihydroxymelphalan. Nonetheless, 122 molecules remain unidentified and are the subject of future studies.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that gut bacteria of Columbia livia possess molecules, which may have anticancer activities. Further in silico testing and/or high throughput screening will determine potential anticancer properties of these molecules.
Materials and methods: One conventional composite (Filtek Z350 [FZ]), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill [FB] and Tetric N Ceram [TN]) and a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative [BB]) were evaluated. Specimens (12 × 2 × 2 mm) were fabricated using customized stainless steel molds. Specimens were light-cured, removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into six groups. The groups (n = 10) were conditioned in the following mediums for 7 days at 37 °C: air (control), artificial saliva (SAGF), distilled water, 0.02 N citric acid, heptane, 50% ethanol-water solution. After conditioning, the specimens were rinsed, blotted dry, measured and subjected to flexural testing using a universal testing machine. Representative SEM images of the intact surfaces were obtained to appraise the degradation mechanism by dietary solvents. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA/Tukey's tests at significance level p
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The bacteria isolated from unusual dwellings such as the cockroaches' gut are a useful source of antibacterial and antiamoebal molecules. These are remarkable findings that will open several avenues in our search for novel antimicrobials from unique sources. Furthermore studies will lead to the identification of molecules to develop future antibacterials from insects.