Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Gunawardena TNA, Rahman MT, Abdullah BJJ, Abu Kasim NH
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2019 04;13(4):569-586.
    PMID: 30644175 DOI: 10.1002/term.2806
    Recent studies suggest that the main driving force behind the therapeutic activity observed in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the paracrine factors secreted by these cells. These biomolecules also trigger antiapoptotic events to prevent further degeneration of the diseased organ through paracrine signalling mechanisms. In comparison with the normal physiological conditions, an increased paracrine gradient is observed within the peripheral system of diseased organs that enhances the migration of tissue-specific MSCs towards the site of infection or injury to promote healing. Thus, upon administration of conditioned media derived from mesenchymal stem cell cultures (MSC-CM) could contribute in maintaining the increased paracrine factor gradient between the diseased organ and the stem cell niche in order to speed up the process of recovery. Based on the principle of the paracrine signalling mechanism, MSC-CM, also referred as the secretome of the MSCs, is a rich source of the paracrine factors and are being studied extensively for a wide range of regenerative therapies such as myocardial infarction, stroke, bone regeneration, hair growth, and wound healing. This article highlights the current technological applications and advances of MSC-CM with the aim to appraise its future potential as a regenerative therapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacokinetics; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*
  2. Akbar N, Siddiqui R, Sagathevan K, Khan NA
    Int Microbiol, 2020 Nov;23(4):511-526.
    PMID: 32124096 DOI: 10.1007/s10123-020-00123-3
    Infectious diseases, in particular bacterial infections, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality posing a global threat to human health. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has exacerbated the problem further. Hence, there is a need to search for novel sources of antibacterials. Herein, we explored gut bacteria of a variety of animals living in polluted environments for their antibacterial properties against multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria. A variety of species were procured including invertebrate species, Blaptica dubia (cockroach), Gromphadorhina portentosa (cockroach), Scylla serrata (crab), Grammostola rosea (tarantula), Scolopendra subspinipes (centipede) and vertebrate species including Varanus salvator (water monitor lizard), Malayopython reticulatus (python), Cuora amboinensis (tortoise), Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia fish), Rattus rattus (rat), Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken) and Lithobates catesbeianus (frog). Gut bacteria of these animals were isolated and identified using microbiological, biochemical, analytical profiling index (API) and through molecluar identification using 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacterial conditioned media (CM) were prepared and tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as well as human cells (HaCaT). The results revealed that CM exhibited significant broad-spectrum antibacterial activities. Upon heat inactivation, CM retained their antibacterial properties suggesting that this effect may be due to secondary metabolites or small peptides. CM showed minimal cytotoxicity against human cells. These findings suggest that gut bacteria of animals living in polluted environments produce broad-spectrum antibacterial molecule(s). The molecular identity of the active molecule(s) together with their mode of action is the subject of future studies which could lead to the rational development of novel antibacterial(s).
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*; Culture Media, Conditioned/chemistry
  3. Fui LW, Lok MPW, Govindasamy V, Yong TK, Lek TK, Das AK
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2019 12;13(12):2218-2233.
    PMID: 31648415 DOI: 10.1002/term.2966
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation seems to be a promising new therapy for diabetic wound healing (DWH), and currently, arrays of MSCs from various sources ranging from umbilical, adipose to dental sources are available as a treatment modality for this disease. However, it now appears that only a fraction of transplanted cells actually assimilate and survive in host tissues suggesting that the major mechanism by which stem cells participate in tissue repair are most likely related to their secretome level. These include a wide range of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines, which can be found from the conditioned medium (CM) used to culture the cells. Basic studies and preclinical work confirm that the therapeutic effect of CMs are comparable with the application of stem cells. This review describes in detail the wound healing process in diabetes and the cellular and biological factors that influence the process. Subsequently, through a comprehensive literature search of studies related to wound healing in diabetics, we aim to provide an overview of scientific merits of using MSCs-CM in the treatment of diabetic wound as well as the significant caveats, which restricts its potential use in clinical set-ups. To our best knowledge, this is one of the first review papers that collect the importance of stem cells as an alternative treatment to the DWH. We anticipate that the success of this treatment will have a significant clinical impact on diabetic wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/metabolism; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology
  4. Soopramanien M, Khan N, Neerooa BNHM, Sagathevan K, Siddiqui R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Mar 01;22(3):733-740.
    PMID: 33773536 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.3.733
    OBJECTIVES: The overall aim was to determine whether gut bacteria of Columbia livia are a potential source of antitumour molecules.

    METHODS: Faecal and gut microbiota of Columbia livia were isolated, identified and conditioned media were prepared containing metabolites. Growth inhibition, lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity and cell survival assays were accomplished against cervical cancer cells. Next, liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry was conducted to elucidate the molecules present.

    RESULTS: A plethora of bacteria from faecal matter and gastrointestinal tract were isolated. Selected conditioned media exhibited potent anticancer effects and displayed cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cells at IC50 concentration of 10.65 and 15.19 µg/ml. Moreover, cells treated with conditioned media exhibited morphological changes, including cell shrinking and rounding; indicative of apoptosis, when compared to untreated cells. A total of 111 and 71 molecules were revealed from these gut and faecal metabolites. The identity of 60 molecules were revealed including, dihydroxymelphalan. Nonetheless, 122 molecules remain unidentified and are the subject of future studies.

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that gut bacteria of Columbia livia possess molecules, which may have anticancer activities. Further in silico testing and/or high throughput screening will determine potential anticancer properties of these molecules.

    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*; Culture Media, Conditioned/chemistry
  5. Rosilah Ab Aziz, Kodi Isparan Kandasamy, Faridah Qamaruz Zaman, Parameswari Namasivayam
    The in vitro shoot proliferation of endemic Begonia pavonina in three culture conditions i.e semisolid medium (SM), liquid culture medium (LM) and in temporary immersion bioreactor system (RITA®) was analyzed in this study. To minimize contamination rates, seeds were surface sterilized and cultured on MS basal media. The clean raised shoots were then used as explants for inoculation onto the tested culture conditions. In this experiment, the explants were maintained in MS medium supplemented with 0.1mgL-1 BAP for shoot multiplication. After 4 weeks of incubation, higher regeneration rates were observed in TIM as compared to other medium conditions. The maximum shoot number was obtained from TIM system with a mean of 5.30 shoots per explant, followed by LM (2.47 shoots per explant) and SM (1.2 shoots per explant). Shoot hyperhydration was also lowest in a TIM system. Overall, TIM was shown to produce higher shoot multiplications combined with healthy morphological characteristics of plantlets. Shoot cultures from the all cultures were successfully rooted in vitro and acclimatized well in the greenhouse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned
  6. Eweis AH, Yap AU, Yahya NA
    Saudi Dent J, 2018 Jul;30(3):232-239.
    PMID: 29942108 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2018.04.002
    Objective: This study investigated the effect of dietary solvents on flexural strength and modulus of bulk-fill composites.

    Materials and methods: One conventional composite (Filtek Z350 [FZ]), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill [FB] and Tetric N Ceram [TN]) and a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative [BB]) were evaluated. Specimens (12 × 2 × 2 mm) were fabricated using customized stainless steel molds. Specimens were light-cured, removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into six groups. The groups (n = 10) were conditioned in the following mediums for 7 days at 37 °C: air (control), artificial saliva (SAGF), distilled water, 0.02 N citric acid, heptane, 50% ethanol-water solution. After conditioning, the specimens were rinsed, blotted dry, measured and subjected to flexural testing using a universal testing machine. Representative SEM images of the intact surfaces were obtained to appraise the degradation mechanism by dietary solvents. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA/Tukey's tests at significance level p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned
  7. Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2012 May;50(5):332-9.
    PMID: 22803323
    In the present study in vitro expansion of human keratinocytes by supplementing dermal fibroblasts conditioned medium (DFCM) has been reported. Effect of two different DFCM acquired by culturing fibroblasts in keratinocyte-specific medium (defined keratinocytes serum free medium, DFCM-DKSFM) and fibroblast-specific serum free medium (F12: DMEM nutrient mix, DFCM-FD) have been compared. Growth kinetics of keratinocytes in terms of efficiency of cell attachment, expansion index, apparent specific growth rate and growth potential at the end of culture was evaluated in culture supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD in comparison with control i.e. DKSFM only. Results indicated that supplementation of DFCM caused significant increase in keratinocyte attachment. Efficiency of keratinocyte attachment in culture supplemented with bFCM-DKSFM was significantly higher compared to those cultured in DFCM-FD and DKSFM. In addition, the expansion index of keratinocytes in cultures supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD were 3.7 and 2.2 times higher than that of control condition even though the apparent growth rate and proliferative potential was found significantly lower. These results suggested that supplementation of DFCM enhanced expansion of keratinocyte by increasing efficiency of cell attachment, and DFCM-DKSFM provided suitable condition for in vitro expansion of keratinocytes compared to DFCM-FD and control condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*
  8. Maarof M, Lokanathan Y, Ruszymah HI, Saim A, Chowdhury SR
    Protein J, 2018 12;37(6):589-607.
    PMID: 30343346 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9800-z
    Growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are involved in wound healing. Human dermal fibroblasts secrete wound-healing mediators in culture medium known as dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). However, the composition and concentration of the secreted proteins differ with culture conditions and environmental factors. We cultured human skin fibroblasts in vitro using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (EpiLife™ Medium [KM1] and defined keratinocyte serum-free medium [KM2]) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2 and DFCM-FM, respectively. We identified and compared their proteomic profiles using bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), 1-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS/MS). DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 had higher protein concentrations than DFCM-FM but not statistically significant. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS identified the presence of fibronectin, serotransferrin, serpin and serum albumin. LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis identified 59, 46 and 58 secreted proteins in DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2 and DFCM-FM, respectively. The most significant biological processes identified in gene ontology were cellular process, metabolic process, growth and biological regulation. STRING® analysis showed that most secretory proteins in the DFCMs were associated with biological processes (e.g. wound healing and ECM organisation), molecular function (e.g. ECM binding) and cellular component (e.g. extracellular space). ELISA confirmed the presence of fibronectin and collagen in the DFCMs. In conclusion, DFCM secretory proteins are involved in cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation and migration, which were demonstrated to have potential wound-healing effects by in vitro and in vivo studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/analysis
  9. Jayaraman P, Nathan P, Vasanthan P, Musa S, Govindasamy V
    Cell Biol Int, 2013 Oct;37(10):1122-8.
    PMID: 23716460 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10138
    Stem cell biology has gained remarkable interest in recent years, driven by the hope of finding cures for numerous diseases including skin wound healing through transplantation medicine. Initially upon transplantation, these cells home to and differentiate within the injured tissue into specialised cells. Contrariwise, it now appears that only a small percentage of transplanted cells integrate and survive in host tissues. Thus, the foremost mechanism by which stem cells participate in tissue repair seems to be related to their trophic factors. Indeed, stem cells provide the microenvironment with a wide range of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, which can broadly defined as the stem cells secretome. In in vitro condition, these molecules can be traced from the conditioned medium or spent media harvested from cultured cells. Conditioned medium now serves as a new treatment modality in regenerative medicine and has shown a successful outcome in some diseases. With the emergence of this approach, we described the possibility of using stem cells conditioned medium as a novel and promising alternative to skin wound healing treatment. Numerous pre-clinical data have shown the possibility and efficacy of this treatment. Despite this, significant challenges need to be addressed before translating this technology to the bedside.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*
  10. Khoo BY, Miswan N, Balaram P, Nadarajan K, Elstner E
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(5):5607-27.
    PMID: 22754319 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13055607
    In the present study, we aimed to preincubate MCF-10A cells with pioglitazone and/or serum-rich growth media and to determine adhesive and non-adhesive interactions of the preincubated MCF-10A cells with BT-474 cells. For this purpose, the MCF-10A cells were preincubated with pioglitazone and/or serum-rich growth media, at appropriate concentrations, for 1 week. The MCF-10A cells preincubated with pioglitazone and/or serum-rich growth media were then co-cultured adhesively and non-adhesively with BT-474 cells for another week. Co-culture of BT-474 cells with the preincubated MCF-10A cells, both adhesively and non-adhesively, reduced the growth of the cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of the preincubated MCF-10A cells against the growth of BT-474 cells was likely produced by increasing levels of soluble factors secreted by the preincubated MCF-10A cells into the conditioned medium, as immunoassayed by ELISA. However, only an elevated level of a soluble factor distinguished the conditioned medium collected from the MCF-10A cells preincubated with pioglitazone and serum-rich growth medium than that with pioglitazone alone. This finding was further confirmed by the induction of the soluble factor transcript expression in the preincubated MCF-10A cells, as determined using real-time PCR, for the above phenomenon. Furthermore, modification of the MCF-10A cells through preincubation did not change the morphology of the cells, indicating that the preincubated cells may potentially be injected into mammary fat pads to reduce cancer growth in patients or to be used for others cell-mediated therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/metabolism; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*
  11. Hasan NAHM, Harith HH, Israf DA, Tham CL
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 May;47(5):3511-3519.
    PMID: 32279207 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05439-x
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the mechanisms that contribute to bronchial remodelling which underlie chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma. Bronchial EMT can be triggered by many factors including transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). The majority of studies on TGFβ1-mediated bronchial EMT used BEGM as the culture medium. LHC-9 medium is another alternative available which is more economical but a less common option. Using normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) cultured in BEGM as a reference, this study aims to validate the induction of EMT by TGFβ1 in cells cultured in LHC-9. Briefly, the cells were maintained in either LHC-9 or BEGM, and induced with TGFβ1 (5, 10 and 20 ng/ml) for 48 h. EMT induction was confirmed by morphological analysis and EMT markers expression by immunoblotting. In both media, cells induced with TGFβ1 displayed spindle-like morphology with a significantly higher radius ratio compared to non-induced cells which displayed a cobblestone morphology. Correspondingly, the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin was significantly lower, whereas the mesenchymal marker vimentin expression was significantly higher in induced cells, compared to non-induced cells. By contrast, a slower cell growth rate was observed in LHC-9 compared to that of BEGM. This study demonstrates that neither LHC-9 nor BEGM significantly influence TGFβ1-induced bronchial EMT. However, LHC-9 is less optimal for bronchial epithelial cell growth compared to BEGM. Thus, LHC-9 may be a more cost-effective substitute for BEGM, provided that time is not a factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/metabolism; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*; Culture Media, Conditioned/chemistry
  12. Mohd Zain N.S., Tajudin S.S., Mohd Noor S.N.F., Mohamad H.
    Thisstudy aim tocharacterize melt-derivedbioactive glass and to determinethe bioactive glass (BG) suitability for dental usagethrough proliferative activity assessment of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)when exposed to bioactive glass conditioned medium. Bioglass 45S5 in mole percentages (46.13% SiO2, 26.91% CaO, 24.35% Na2O and 2.60% P2O5)was synthesizedthrough melt-derived and characterized usingX-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)to confirm and identify its properties.SHEDwere used to evaluate the biocompatibility of 45S5 by exposing the cells to various concentration of BG-conditioned medium (1-10 mg/ml) using alamarBlue assay. The BG produced has an amorphous structureas shown by XRD analysis. TheSi-O-Si bending, asymmetric Si-O stretching and asymmetricSi-O-Si stretchingbands were observed in the BG structure supporting the presenceof silicate network. For alamarBlue assay, SHED cultured in BG-conditioned medium showed high proliferation rate when subjected to minimal powder content in the DMEM cell culture medium.Hence, it can be concluded that SHED cultured in lower powder content of the BG-conditioned media showedhigh proliferative activity suggesting the potential of the BG for dental usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned
  13. Ling, A.P.K., Halmi, M.I.E., Hussein, S., Ong S.L.
    The mistletoe fig (Ficus deltoidea) is frequently found in several areas of the world, and primarily functions as houseplant or an ornamental shrub. The plant is discovered indigenous generally in Asia tropical region for example Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand. Scientific studies on the effect of plant growth regulators on cells production from this plant are vital as optimization of cells production may result in effective production of secondary products characterization and output. The growth of cell suspension cultures from this plant shows sigmoidal property. In this work, we model the effect of the plant growth regulator 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the growth kinetics of the cells from this plant according to the modified Gompertz model. The coefficient of determination showed good agreement between experimental and predicted data with values ranging from 0.97-0.98. The results showed that 2,4-D at 2 mg/L was optimal for achieving the highest cells growth rate. It is anticipated that the growth parameter constants extracted from the modelling exercise will be helpful in the future for additional secondary modelling on the effect of media conditions as well as other factors on cells growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned
  14. Wong PF, Tong KL, Jamal J, Khor ES, Lai SL, Mustafa MR
    EXCLI J, 2019;18:764-776.
    PMID: 31611757 DOI: 10.17179/excli2019-1505
    Accumulation of senescent endothelial cells can cause endothelium dysfunction which eventually leads to age-related vascular disorders. The senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) cells secrete a plethora of soluble factors that negatively influence the surrounding tissue microenvironment. The present study sought to investigate the effects of exosomes, which are nano-sized extracellular vesicles known for intercellular communications secreted by SASP cells on young endothelial cells. Exosomes were isolated from the condition media of senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and then confirmed by the detection of exosome specific CD63 and CD9 expressions, electron microscopy and acetylcholinesterase assay. The purified exosomes were used to treat young HUVECs. Exposure to exosomes repressed the expression of adherens junction proteins including vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and beta-catenin, decreased cell growth kinetics and impaired endothelial migration potential of young endothelial cells. These findings suggest that senescent HUVECs-secreted exosomes could disrupt barrier integrity that underpins endothelial barrier dysfunction in healthy young endothelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned
  15. Gunawardena TNA, Masoudian Z, Rahman MT, Ramasamy TS, Ramanathan A, Abu Kasim NH
    PLoS One, 2019;14(5):e0216003.
    PMID: 31042749 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216003
    Alopecia is a clinical condition caused by excessive hair loss which may result in baldness, the causes of which still remain elusive. Conditioned media (CM) from stem cells shows promise in regenerative medicine. Our aim was to evaluate the potential CM of dental pulp stem cells obtained from human deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) to stimulate hair growth under in vitro and in vivo conditions. SHED and hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) (n = 3) were cultured in media combinations; i) STK2, ii) DMEM-KO+10% FBS, iii) STK2+2% FBS and profiled for the presence of positive hair growth-regulatory paracrine factors; SDF-1, HGF, VEGF-A, PDGF-BB and negative hair growth-regulatory paracrine factors; IL-1α, IL-1β, TGF-β, bFGF, TNF-α, and BDNF. The potential of CM from both cell sources to stimulate hair growth was evaluated based on the paracrine profile and measured dynamics of hair growth under in vitro conditions. The administration of CM media to telogen-staged synchronized 7-week old C3H/HeN female mice was carried out to study the potential of the CM to stimulate hair growth in vivo. SHED and HFSCs cultured in STK2 based media showed a shorter population doubling time, higher viability and better maintenance of MSC characteristics in comparison to cells cultured in DMEM-KO media. STK2 based CM contained only two negative hair growth-regulatory factors; TNF-α, IL-1 while DMEM-KO CM contained all negative hair growth-regulatory factors. The in vitro study confirmed that treatment with STK2 based media CM from passage 3 SHED and HFSCs resulted in a significantly higher number of anagen-staged hair follicles (p<0.05) and a significantly lower number of telogen-staged hair follicles (p<0.05). Administration of SHED-CM to C3H/HeN mice resulted in a significantly faster stimulation of hair growth in comparison to HFSC-CM (p<0.05), while the duration taken for complete hair coverage was similar for both CM sources. Thus, SHED-CM carries the potential to stimulate hair growth which can be used as a treatment tool for alopecia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*
  16. Akbar N, Siddiqui R, Iqbal M, Sagathevan K, Khan NA
    Lett Appl Microbiol, 2018 May;66(5):416-426.
    PMID: 29457249 DOI: 10.1111/lam.12867
    Here, we hypothesized that the microbial gut flora of animals/pests living in polluted environments, produce substances to thwart bacterial infections. The overall aim of this study was to source microbes inhabiting unusual environmental niches for potential antimicrobial activity. Two cockroach species, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar) and Blaptica dubia (Dubia) were selected. The gut bacteria from these species were isolated and grown in RPMI 1640 and conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media were tested against a panel of Gram-positive (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria, as well as the protist pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii. The results revealed that the gut bacteria of cockroaches produce active molecule(s) with potent antibacterial properties, as well as exhibit antiamoebic effects. However, heat-inactivation at 95°C for 10 min had no effect on conditioned media-mediated antibacterial and antiamoebic properties. These results suggest that bacteria from novel sources i.e. from the cockroach's gut produce molecules with bactericidal as well as amoebicidal properties that can ultimately lead to the development of therapeutic drugs.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The bacteria isolated from unusual dwellings such as the cockroaches' gut are a useful source of antibacterial and antiamoebal molecules. These are remarkable findings that will open several avenues in our search for novel antimicrobials from unique sources. Furthermore studies will lead to the identification of molecules to develop future antibacterials from insects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*
  17. Maarof M, Chowdhury SR, Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Apr 22;21(8).
    PMID: 32331278 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21082929
    Fibroblasts secrete many essential factors that can be collected from fibroblast culture medium, which is termed dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). Fibroblasts isolated from human skin samples were cultured in vitro using the serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (Epilife (KM1), or define keratinocytes serum-free medium, DKSFM (KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to collect DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively). We characterised and evaluated the effects of 100-1600 µg/mL DFCM on keratinocytes based on attachment, proliferation, migration and gene expression. Supplementation with 200-400 µg/mL keratinocyte-specific DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 enhanced the attachment, proliferation and migration of sub-confluent keratinocytes, whereas 200-1600 µg/mL DFCM-FM significantly increased the healing rate in the wound healing assay, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM was suitable to enhance keratinocyte attachment and proliferation. A real-time (RT2) profiler polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array showed that 42 genes in the DFCM groups had similar fold regulation compared to the control group and most of the genes were directly involved in wound healing. In conclusion, in vitro keratinocyte re-epithelialisation is supported by the fibroblast-secreted proteins in 200-400 µg/mL DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM, which could be useful for treating skin injuries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology*
  18. Lau BF, Abdullah N, Aminudin N, Lee HB, Yap KC, Sabaratnam V
    PLoS One, 2014;9(7):e102509.
    PMID: 25054862 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102509
    Previous studies on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of Lignosus rhinocerotis focused mainly on the sclerotium; however, the supply of wild sclerotium is limited. In this investigation, the antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic effect of L. rhinocerotis cultured under different conditions of liquid fermentation (shaken and static) were compared to the sclerotium produced by solid-substrate fermentation. Aqueous methanol extracts of the mycelium (LR-MH, LR-MT) and culture broth (LR-BH, LR-BT) demonstrated either higher or comparable antioxidant capacities to the sclerotium extract (LR-SC) based on their radical scavenging abilities, reducing properties, metal chelating activities, and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. All extracts exerted low cytotoxicity (IC50>200 µg/ml, 72 h) against selected mammalian cell lines. Several low-molecular-weight compounds, including sugars, fatty acids, methyl esters, sterols, amides, amino acids, phenolics, and triterpenoids, were identified using GC-MS and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of proteins (<40 kDa) in the extracts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF-MS. Principal component analysis revealed that the chemical profiles of the mycelial extracts under shaken and static conditions were distinct from those of the sclerotium. Results from bioactivity evaluation and chemical profiling showed that L. rhinocerotis from liquid fermentation merits consideration as an alternative source of functional ingredients and potential substitute for the sclerotium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology; Culture Media, Conditioned/chemistry*
  19. Syam S, Abdul AB, Sukari MA, Mohan S, Abdelwahab SI, Wah TS
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 23;16(8):7155-70.
    PMID: 21862957 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16087155
    Murraya koenigii is an edible herb widely used in folk medicine. Here we report that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells. The MTT and LDH assay results showed that girinimbine decreased cell viability and increased cytotoxicity in a dose-and time-dependent manner selectively. Girinimbine-treated HepG2 cells showed typical morphological features of apoptosis, as observed from normal inverted microscopy and Hoechst 33342 assay. Furthermore, girinimbine treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation and elevated levels of caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. Girinimbine treatment also displayed a time-dependent accumulation of the Sub-G(0)/G(1) peak (hypodiploid) and caused G(0)/G(1)-phase arrest. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively induce programmed cell death in HepG2 cells and suggests the importance of conducting further investigations in preclinical human hepatocellular carcinoma models, especially on in vivo efficacy, to promote girinimbine for use as an anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media, Conditioned/chemistry
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