This article presents the development of a low-cost microcontroller-based interface for a microbioreactor operation. An Arduino MEGA 2560 board with 54 digital input/outputs, including 15 pulse-width-modulation outputs, has been chosen to perform the acquisition and control of the microbioreactor. The microbioreactor (volume = 800 µL) was made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(methylmethacrylate) polymers. The reactor was built to be equipped with sensors and actuators for the control of reactor temperature and the mixing speed. The article discusses the circuit of the microcontroller-based platform, describes the signal conditioning steps, and evaluates the capacity of the proposed low-cost microcontroller-based interface in terms of control accuracy and system responses. It is demonstrated that the proposed microcontroller-based platform is able to operate parallel microbioreactor operation with satisfactory performances. Control accuracy at a deviation less than 5% of the set-point values and responses in the range of few seconds have been recorded.
Surfactants are compounds that can reduce the surface tension between two different phases or the interfacial tension of the liquid between water and oil, possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Biosurfactants have traits that have proven to be advantageous over synthetic surfactants, but these compounds do not compete economically with synthetic surfactants. Different alternatives increase the yield of biosurfactants; development of an economical production process and the usage of cheaper substrates during process have been employed. One of the solutions relies on the suitable formulation of a production medium by including alternative raw materials sourced from agro-wastes, hydrocarbons, or by-products of a process might help in boosting the biosurfactant production. Since the nutritional factors required will be different among microorganisms, the establishment of a suitable formulation for biosurfactant production will be challenging. The present review describes various nutrients and elements considered in the formulation of a production medium with an approach focusing on the macronutrient (carbon, nitrogen source, and C/N ratio), minerals, vitamins, metabolic regulators, and salinity levels which may aid in the study of biosurfactant production in the future.
Preservation of leptospiral cultures is tantamount to success in leptospiral diagnostics, research, and development of preventive strategies. Each Leptospira isolate has imperative value not only in disease diagnosis but also in epidemiology, virulence, pathogenesis, and drug development studies. As the number of circulating leptospires is continuously increasing and congruent with the importance to retain their original characteristics and properties, an efficient long-term preservation is critically needed to be well-established. However, the preservation of Leptospira is currently characterized by difficulties and conflicting results mainly due to the biological nature of this organism. Hence, this review seeks to describe the efforts in developing efficient preservation methods, to discover the challenges in preserving this organism and to identify the factors that can contribute to an effective long-term preservation of Leptospira. Through the enlightenment of the previous studies, a potentially effective method has been suggested. The article also attempts to evaluate novel strategies used in other industrial and biotechnological preservation efforts and consider their potential application to the conservation of Leptospira spp.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) plays a vital role in the enhancement of human health, particularly for cognitive, neurological, and visual functions. Marine microalgae, such as members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, are rich in DHA and represent a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, levels of glucose, yeast extract, sodium glutamate and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production by a Malaysian isolate of thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized medium contained 60 g/L glucose, 2 g/L yeast extract, 24 g/L sodium glutamate and 6 g/L sea salt. This combination produced 17.8 g/L biomass containing 53.9% lipid (9.6 g/L) which contained 44.07% DHA (4.23 g/L). The optimized medium was used in a scale-up run, where a 5 L bench-top bioreactor was employed to verify the applicability of the medium at larger scale. This produced 24.46 g/L biomass containing 38.43% lipid (9.4 g/L), of which 47.87% was DHA (4.5 g/L). The total amount of DHA produced was 25% higher than that produced in the original medium prior to optimization. This result suggests that Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 could be developed for industrial application as a commercial DHA-producing microorganism.
Royal jelly is a nutritious substance produced by the young nurse bees and contains significant amounts of proteins which are important for cell growth and proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture using cell proliferation assays and live cell imaging.
The culture conditions for gibberellic acid (GA3) production by the fungus Penicillium variable (P. variable) was optimized using a statistical tool, response surface methodology (RSM). Interactions of culture conditions and optimization of the system were studied using Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three levels of three variables in a batch flask reactor. Experimentation showed that the model developed based on RSM and BBD had predicted GA3 production with R(2) = 0.987. The predicted GA3 production was optimum (31.57 mg GA3/kg substrate) when the culture conditions were at 7 days of incubation period, 21% v/w of inoculum size, and 2% v/w of olive oil concentration as a natural precursor. The results indicated that RSM and BBD methods were effective for optimizing the culture conditions of GA3 production by P. variable mycelia.
Consumption of probiotics has been associated with decreased risk of colon cancer and reported to have antimutagenic/ anti-carcinogenic properties. One possible mechanism for this effect involves physical binding of the mutagenic compounds, such as heterocyclic amines (HCAs), to the bacteria. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the binding capacity of bifidobacterial strains of human origin on mutagenic heterocyclic amines which are suspected to play a role in human cancers. In vitro binding of the mutagens Trp-p-2, IQ, MeIQx, 7,8DiMeIQx and PhIP by three bacterial strains in two media of different pH was analysed using high performance liquid chromatography. Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 showed the highest decrease in the total HCAs content, followed by Bifidobacterium longum, and Escherichia coli. pH affects binding capacity; the highest binding was obtained at pH 6.8. Gram-positive tested strains were found to be consistently more effective than the gram-negative strain. There were significant decreases in the amount of HCAs in the presence of different cell concentrations of B. pseudocatenulatum G4; the highest decrease was detected at the concentration of 10(10) cfu/ml. The results showed that HCAs were able to bind with all bacterial strains tested in vitro, thus it may be possible to decrease their absorption by human intestine and increase their elimination via faeces.
A mycological medium was developed for primary isolation and culture of lipophilic yeasts. It was initially based on published information of nutrients and trace components that would promote the growth of these yeasts. It was subsequently modified and adjusted to specifically promote the growth of lipophilic yeasts and simultaneously avoid the luxurious growth of other fungi and bacteria. With this medium, the conventional bacteriological procedures such as microbial streaking for pure culture and anti-microbial sensitivity testing could be carried out for these lipophilic yeasts.
Isolation and culture of Burkholderia pseudomallei remains the main stay in the diagnosis of melioidosis. Thus, the search for selective and differential media for B. pseudomallei has been ongoing. A number of such media have been reported with varying efficacy. Ashdown medium is the most established selective medium for the isolation of B. pseudomallei. There are no reports of differential media differentiating B. pseudomallei from Burkholderia cepacia. This report documents such a selective and differentiating medium for B. pseudomallei. Of a total of 1042 clinical specimens containing mixed flora and gram-negative isolates that were tested on this medium, 16 of the specimens yielded B. pseudomallei. The isolation rate was found to be 1.5%. This medium was found to be simple and inexpensive, can be made by small laboratories, and called as Francis medium. Based on the colony morphology and color, a preliminary report can be made within 18-24 h for the presence of B. pseudomallei. Our study showed that this medium had an overall sensitivity of 78.4% with a specificity of 92.2%. The use of this medium as an early diagnostic tool will help to reduce mortality and morbidity of melioidosis patients.
Campylobacter jejuni survival in aerobic environments has been suggested to be mediated by biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by eight C. jejuni strains under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions in different broths (Mueller-Hinton (MH), Bolton and Brucella) was quantified. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the broths under both incubation atmospheres was determined. Biofilm formation for all strains was highest in MH broth under both incubation atmospheres. Four strains had lower biofilm formation in MH under aerobic as compared to microaerobic incubation, while biofilm formation by the other four strains did not differ under the 2 atm. Two strains had higher biofilm formation under aerobic as compared to microaerobic atmospheres in Bolton broth. Biofilm formation by all other strains in Bolton, and all strains in Brucella broth, did not differ under the 2 atm. Under aerobic incubation DO levels in MH > Brucella > Bolton broth. Under microaerobic conditions levels in MH = Brucella > Bolton broth. Levels of DO in MH and Brucella broth were lower under microaerobic conditions but those of Bolton did not differ under the 2 atm. Experimental conditions and especially the DO of broth media confound previous conclusions drawn about aerobic biofilm formation by C. jejuni.
Carbon and nitrogen sources in culture medium of Antrodia cinnamomea were optimized to eliminate the interference of exterior macromolecules on exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield by submerged fermentation. The results suggested that culture medium containing 50 g/L of glucose and 20 g/L of yeast extract as the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources could produce 1.03 g/L of exopolysaccharides. After purification, two heteropolysaccharides (AC-EPS1 and AC-EPS2) were obtained and characterized to provide the basic structure information. As the main component of the produced EPS, AC-EPS2 (accounting for 89.63%) was mainly composed of galactose (87.42%) with Mw (molecular weight) and R.M.S. (root-mean-square) radius of 1.18 × 105 g/mol and 25.3 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the spherical and flexible chain morphologies of EPS were observed in different solvents by TEM. The structural and morphological information of purified EPS were significant for further study on their structure-activity relationship and related applications.
The biosynthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals through a metabolic process known as microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) between diverse microorganisms, and organic/inorganic compounds within their immediate microenvironment, gives rise to a cementitious biomaterial that may emerge as a promissory alternative to conventional cement. Among photosynthetic microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris has been identified as one of the species capable of undergoing such activity in nature. In this study, response surface technique was employed to ascertain the optimum condition for the enhancement of biomass and CaCO3 precipitation of C. vulgaris when cultured in Blue-Green (BG)-11 aquaculture medium. Preliminary screening via Plackett-Burman Design showed that sodium nitrate (NaNO3), sodium acetate, and urea have a significant effect on both target responses (p < 0.05). Further refinement was conducted using Box-Behnken Design based on these three factors. The highest production of 1.517 g/L C. vulgaris biomass and 1.143 g/L of CaCO3 precipitates was achieved with a final recipe comprising of 8.74 mM of NaNO3, 61.40 mM of sodium acetate and 0.143 g/L of urea, respectively. Moreover, polymorphism analyses on the collected minerals through morphological examination via scanning electron microscopy and crystallographic elucidation by X-ray diffraction indicated to predominantly calcite crystalline structure.
Bacterial pigments are potential substitute of chemical photosensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) due to its non-toxic property and cost-effective production from microbial fermentation. Serratia nematodiphila YO1 was isolated from waterfall in Malaysia and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA. Characterization of the red pigment produced by the bacteria has confirmed the pigment as prodigiosin. Prodigiosin was produced from the fermentation of the bacteria in the presence of different oil substrates. Palm oil exhibited the best performance of cell growth and equivalent prodigiosin yield compared to olive oil and peanut oil. Prodigiosin produced with palm oil supplementation was 93 mg/l compared to 7.8 mg/l produced without supplementation, which recorded 11.9 times improvement. Specific growth rate of the cells improved 1.4 times when palm oil was supplemented in the medium. The prodigiosin pigment produced showed comparable performance as a DSSC sensitizer by displaying an open circuit voltage of 336.1 mV and a maximum short circuit current of 0.098 mV/cm2. This study stands a novelty in proving that the production of prodigiosin is favorable in the presence of palm oil substrate with high saturated fat content, which has not been studied before. This is also among the first bacterial prodigiosin tested as photosensitizer for DSSC application.
The preparation and observations of spheroplast W303 cells are described with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). The spheroplasting conversion was successfully confirmed qualitatively, by the evaluation of the morphological change between the normal W303 cells and the spheroplast W303 cells, and quantitatively, by determining the spheroplast conversion percentage based on the OD800 absorbance data. From the optical microscope observations as expected, the normal cells had an oval shape whereas spheroplast cells resemble a spherical shape. This was also confirmed under four different mediums, that is, yeast peptone-dextrose (YPD), sterile water, sorbitol-EDTA-sodium citrate buffer (SCE), and sorbitol-Tris-Hcl-CaCl2 (CaS). It was also observed that the SCE and CaS mediums had a higher number of spheroplast cells as compared to the YPD and sterile water mediums. The OD800 absorbance data also showed that the whole W303 cells were fully converted to the spheroplast cells after about 15 minutes. The observations of the normal and the spheroplast W303 cells were then performed under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The normal cells showed a smooth cell surface whereas the spheroplast cells had a bleb-like surface after the loss of its integrity when removing the cell wall.
Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L(-1) to 15.45 g L(-1), respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7) monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (T m) of 42.0 (± 0.2) °C, glass transition temperature (T g) of -1.0 (± 0.2) °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of 110.3 (± 0.1) J g(-1). The molecular weight (M w) range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa.
Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml) and in artificially contaminated pork (10(4) cfu/ml) were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii). The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria.
This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4) biomass and β -galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 2(3) full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk and yeast extract showed significant influence on the biomass production and, based on the steepest ascent step, middle points of skim milk (6% wt/vol) and yeast extract (1.89% wt/vol) were obtained. A polynomial regression model in FCCD-RSM revealed that both factors were found significant and the strongest influence was given by skim milk concentration. Optimum concentrations of skim milk and yeast extract for maximum biomass G4 and β -galactosidase production meanwhile low in lactose and FAN balance after cultivation period were 5.89% (wt/vol) and 2.31% (wt/vol), respectively. The validation experiments showed that the predicted and experimental values are not significantly different, indicating that the FCCD-RSM model developed is sufficient to describe the cultivation process of G4 using skim-milk-based medium with the addition of yeast extract.
Human interferon alpha (IFN-α) was expressed in two strains of Lactococcus lactis by aid of two promoters (P32 and Pnis) giving rise to two recombinant strains: MG:IFN and NZ:IFN, respectively. The expression of IFN was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. Highest production was achieved using glucose for growth of both recombinant strains with nisin, used for induction of the recombinant strain with Pnis promoter, at 30 ng/ml. The optimum time for MG:IFN was 9 h and for NZ:IFN was 4.5 h. The highest productions by MG:IFN and NZ:IFN were 1.9 and 2.4 μg IFN/l, respectively. Both of the expressed IFNs showed bioactivities of 1.9 × 10(6) IU/mg that were acceptable for further clinical studies.
The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO₃, Zn⁺², and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R²) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO₃, 1.5 mM (v/v) Zn⁺², and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry.
Mixotrophic metabolism was evaluated as an option to augment the growth and lipid production of marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. FTC 209. In this study, a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented in order to enrich the W-30 algal growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model the effect of three medium variables, that is, glucose (organic C source), NaNO3 (primary N source), and yeast extract (supplementary N, amino acids, and vitamins) on biomass concentration, X(max), and lipid yield, P(max)/X(max). RSM capability was also weighed against an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting a composition that would result in maximum lipid productivity, Pr(lipid). A quadratic regression from RSM and a Levenberg-Marquardt trained ANN network composed of 10 hidden neurons eventually produced comparable results, albeit ANN formulation was observed to yield higher values of response outputs. Finalized glucose (24.05 g/L), NaNO3 (4.70 g/L), and yeast extract (0.93 g/L) concentration, affected an increase of X(max) to 12.38 g/L and lipid a accumulation of 195.77 mg/g dcw. This contributed to a lipid productivity of 173.11 mg/L per day in the course of two-week cultivation.