RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: We reviewed a number of published articles from 2002 to 2016 to find out the appropriate management of diabetes mellitus. The paramount parameters of the selected studies include the insulin type & its dose, type of diabetes, duration and comparison of different insulin protocols. In addition, various newly developed approaches for insulin delivery with potential output have also been evaluated.
RESULTS: A great variability was observed in managing diabetes mellitus through insulin therapy and the important controlling factors found for this therapy include; dose titration, duration of insulin use, type of insulin used and combination therapy of different insulin.
CONCLUSION: A range of research articles on current trends and recent advances in insulin has been summarized, which led us to the conclusion that multiple daily insulin injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump) is the best method to manage diabetes mellitus. In future perspectives, development of the oral and inhalant insulin would be a tremendous breakthrough in Insulin therapy.
AIMS: To examine the trends in prescribed antidiabetic treatments, including variations across age, gender, socioeconomic status and regions in the Irish population over the last 10 years.
METHODS: The Irish national pharmacy claims database was used to identify patients ≥ 16 years dispensed antidiabetic agents (oral or insulin) from January 2003 to December 2012 through the two main community drug schemes for diabetes. The rate of prescribing per 1,000 population was calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine variations in prescribing in patients with diabetes.
RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the prescribing of fast and long-acting insulin analogues with a rapid decline in the prescribing of human insulin (p < 0.0001). Increased prescribing of metformin, incretin modulators and fixed oral combination agents was observed (p < 0.0001). Females and older aged patients were more likely to be prescribed human insulin than other insulins. Metformin was less likely while sulphonylureas were more likely to be prescribed in older than younger aged patients. Socioeconomic differences were observed in increased prescribing of the newer and more expensive antidiabetic agents in the non-means tested scheme. Regional variations were observed in the prescribing of both insulin and oral antidiabetic agents.
CONCLUSION: There has been an increase over time in the prescribing of both insulin and oral antidiabetic agents in the Irish population with increasing uptake of newer antidiabetic agents. This has implications for projecting future uptake and expenditure of these agents given the rising level of diabetes in the population.