METHODS: This study adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis for Diagnostic Test Accuracy (PRISMA-DTA) guideline. Relevant studies in the health-related electronic databases were searched. According to the criteria set for this study, eligible studies were identified. The quality of included studies was evaluated with the use of a quality assessment checklist. A summary performance estimates such as pooled sensitivity and specificity were stratified by type of LAMP. Bivariate model for data analyses was applied. Summary receiver operating characteristics plots were created to display the results of individual studies in a receiver operating characteristics space. Meta-regression analysis was performed to investigate the sources of heterogeneity among individual studies.
RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies across 17 endemic countries were identified. The vast majority of studies were with unclear risk of bias in the selection of index test. Overall, the pooled test performances were high for Pan LAMP (sensitivity: 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97; specificity: 0.98, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99), Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) LAMP (sensitivity: 0.96, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.98; specificity: 0.99, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00) or for Plasmodium vivax (Pv) LAMP from 6 studies (sensitivity: 0.98, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99; specificity: 0.99, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.00). The area under the curve for Pan LAMP (0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.00), Pf LAMP (0.99, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and Pv LAMP was (1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.00) indicated that the diagnostic performance of these tests were within the excellent accuracy range. Meta-regression analysis showed that sample size had the greatest impact on test performance, among other factors.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that LAMP-based assays are appropriate for detecting low-level malaria parasite infections in the field and would become valuable tools for malaria control and elimination programmes. Future well-designed larger sample studies on LAMP assessment in passive and active malaria surveillances that use PCR as the reference standard and provide sufficient data to construct 2 × 2 diagnostic table are needed.
CASE REPORT: A 5-year-old Malay boy with a history of recurrent pneumonia, presented with productive cough, fever and worsening tachypnoea. Physical examination revealed coarse crepitations, reduced breath sounds and clubbing. Biochemical investigations showed that he had respiratory type 2 failure as a result of bronchiectasis. Sweat conductivity done twice was raised supporting a diagnosis of CF. Other investigations such as bronchoscopy to look for congenital anomaly of the lung, infectious disease screening and tuberculosis, fungal and viral culture and sensitivity were negative. Further cascade screening revealed high sweat conductivity results in his siblings.
DISCUSSION: Although CF prevalence is low in Malaysia, it is nevertheless an important diagnosis to be recognised as it is associated with increased morbidity.
METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 214 patients underwent DM and DBT, acquired with a Siemens Mammomat Inspiration unit. 2 expert readers independently reviewed the studies in 2 steps: DM and DM+DBT, according to BI-RADS rate. Patients with BI-RADS 0, 3, 4, and 5 were recalled for work-up. Inter-reader agreement for BI-RADS rate and work-up rate were evaluated using Cohen's kappa.
RESULTS: Inter-reader agreement (κ value) for BI-RADS classification was 0.58 for DM and 0.8 for DM+DBT. DM+DBT increased the number of BI-RADS 1, 2, 4, 5 and reduced the number of BI-RADS 0 and 3 for both readers compared to DM alone. Regarding work-up rate agreement, κ was poor for DM and substantial (0.7) for DM+DBT. DM+DBT also reduced the work-up rate for both Reader 1 and Reader 2.
CONCLUSION: DM+DBT increased the number of negative and benign cases (BI-RADS 1 and 2) and suspicious and malignant cases (BI-RADS 4 and 5), while it reduced the number of BI-RADS 0 and 3. DM+DBT also improved inter-reader agreement and reduced the overall recall for additional imaging or short-interval follow-up.