Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 64 in total

  1. Jameleddine Chtioui M, Harzallah N, Odabachian Jebali MC, Grati H, Njeh M, Dhidah L, et al.
    Tunis Med, 2021 1 23;98(8-9):651-655.
    PMID: 33480021
    OBJECTIVES: Industries have made claims on the effectiveness of a disinfection procedure in reducing COVID-19 transmission. This procedure is usually performed by automated dispersion of disinfectant on individuals when they go through a booth. This Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report is a systematic review that synthesizes the evidence on the efficacy and safety of using these booths and provides recommendations to the Ministry of Health to facilitate decision-making regarding the relevance of using this technology.

    METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using Pubmed, Web of Science, INAHTA and GIN databases, from inception to June 4, 2020. Three independent reviewers selected eligible studies then extracted and synthesized the evidence. The synthesis was submitted to a multidisciplinary group of experts to provide recommendations.

    RESULTS: Two scientific papers and a Malaysian HTA report were included in data synthesis. In light of the resources consulted, spraying disinfectants on humans in booths is not effective and can be toxic. Disinfectants are intended for use on surfaces, not on living tissue and spraying disinfectants on the outside of the body does not kill the virus inside an infected person's body. Furthermore, this procedure may increase the risk of neglecting other effective measures.

    CONCLUSION: It is recommended to prohibit the use of disinfection booths in all structures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  2. Goh CF, Ming LC, Wong LC
    Clin Dermatol, 2020 10 02;39(2):314-322.
    PMID: 34272029 DOI: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2020.09.005
    Infection preventive practice of using disinfectants against SARS-CoV-2 has become the new normal due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although disinfectants may not be applied directly to the human body, it remains at high risk of exposure including close skin contact on disinfected surfaces or during handling. This dermal contact, on a regular basis, can induce hazardous skin reactions like irritation, inflammation, and burning in severe conditions. Disinfectants are germicide chemicals that can penetrate the skin and create skin reactions that are usually regarded as irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. More importantly, disinfectants can react with skin components (proteins and lipids) to facilitate their skin penetration and disrupt the skin barrier function. Whereas the antimicrobial actions of disinfectants are well understood, much less is known regarding their dermatologic reactions, including but not limited to irritation and hypersensitivity. We reviewed the skin reactions created by those disinfectants against SARS-CoV-2 approved by the European Chemical Agency and the US Environmental Protection Agency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants/adverse effects*
  3. Daood U, Yiu CKY
    Dent Mater, 2019 02;35(2):206-216.
    PMID: 30509480 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.018
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transdentinal cytotoxicity and macrophage phenotype response to a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant.

    METHODS: NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and incubated for 3 days. The cells (3×104) were seeded on the pulpal side of dentine discs and the occlusal side of the discs were treated with different cavity disinfectants: Group 1: de-ionized water (control); Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); Group 3: 2% QAS; Group 4: 5% QAS, and Group 5: 10% QAS. Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue assay. The eluates were collected and applied on cells seeded in 24-well plates. The total protein production, alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of mineralized nodules were evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on the samples with primary antibodies of CD68+, CD80+, and CD163+ assessing the macrophage M1/M2 phenotypes. The macrophages were imaged using a confocal scanning light microscope with an excitation wavelength of 488nm.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in cell viability (p<0.0001), total protein production (p<0.01) and mineralized nodule production (p<0.05) was found between 2% QAS and the control, which was significantly higher than 2% CHX, 5% and 10% QAS after 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase production of 2% QAS was significantly lower than the control (p<0.001), but higher than 2% CHX at 14 days. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio was also significantly lower in the 2% and 10% QAS groups (p<0.05) compared to the control and 2% CHX groups.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The 2% QAS cavity disinfectant does not have cytotoxic effects on 3T3 NIH mouse fibroblast cells and the predominance of the anti-inflammatory phenotype after its application may stimulate healing and tissue repair.

    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  4. How SW, Low DYS, Leo BF, Manickam S, Goh BH, Tang SY
    J Hosp Infect, 2023 Jul;137:24-34.
    PMID: 37044283 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2023.03.022
    Following recent viral outbreaks, there has been a significant increase in global demand for gloves. Biomedical research focuses increasingly on antimicrobial gloves to combat microbial transmission and hospital-acquired infections. Most antimicrobial gloves are manufactured using antimicrobial chemicals such as disinfectants, biocides and sanitizers. The design of antimicrobial gloves incorporates advanced technologies, including colloidal particles and nanomaterials, to enhance antimicrobial effectiveness. A category of antimicrobial gloves also explores and integrates natural antimicrobial benefits from animals, plants and micro-organisms. Many types of antimicrobial agents are available; however, it is crucial that the selected agent exhibits a broad spectrum of activity and is not susceptible to promoting resistance. Additionally, future research should focus on the potential effect of antimicrobial gloves on the skin microbiota and irritation during extended wear. Careful integration of the antimicrobial agent is essential to ensure optimal effectiveness without compromising the mechanical properties of the gloves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  5. Keah KC, Jegathesan M, Tan SC, Chan SH, Chee OM, Cheong YM, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):291-7.
    PMID: 8668045
    A study to determine contamination of diluted disinfectants at different points in preparation and use in 6 Malaysian hospitals was done using the in-use test. A growth of > or = 250 organisms/ml was taken as an indication of contamination. A total of 342 (7.9%) of the 4316 freshly diluted samples collected from disinfectant bottles in the pharmacy were found to be contaminated. The bacterial isolates obtained were Pseudomonas spp. (42.4%), Moraxella spp. (22.0%), Flavobacterium spp. (11.6%) and Enterobacter spp. (4.2%). Three hundred and sixty seven out of 2278 ward stock were contaminated. The isolates were Pseudomonas spp. (48.6%), Moraxella spp. (17.8%), Acinetobacter spp. (8.9%) and Flavobacterium spp. (7.0%). Of the 9265 disinfectants in-use, 1519 (16.4%) were contaminated. Among the organisms isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (44.3%), Bacillus spp. (13.0%), Enterobacter spp. (9.5%) and Acinetobacter spp. (7.3%). The results indicated a high level of contamination of diluted disinfectants prepared in the pharmacy, stored and used in the wards. This gave a high index of suspicion that recommendations for cleaning of disinfectant containers before refilling, handling of diluted stock solutions and using of disinfectants were not closely adhered to. Standard disinfection procedures outlined in the disinfection and sterilization policy by the Ministry of Health should therefore be followed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants/standards*
  6. Khor SY, Jegathesan M
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Sep;32(1):85-9.
    PMID: 609352
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants/pharmacology*
  7. Daood U, Burrow MF, Yiu CKY
    Clin Oral Investig, 2020 Feb;24(2):649-661.
    PMID: 31115692 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02928-7
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate effect of quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant on cariogenic biofilm.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single- (Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus acidophilus), dual- (Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus Acidophilus), and multi-species (Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus sanguis) biofilms were grown on acid-etched dentine discs. Biofilms were incubated (120 min/37 °C) and allowed to grow for 3 days anaerobically. Discs (no treatment) served as control (group 1). Groups II, III, IV, and V were then treated with 2% chlorhexidine, and 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS (20 s). Discs were returned to well plates with 300 μL of bacterial suspension and placed in anaerobic incubator at 37 °C and biofilms redeveloped for 4 days. Confocal microscopy, Raman, CFU, and MTT assay were performed.

    RESULTS: Raman peaks show shifts at 1450 cm-1, 1453 cm-1, 1457 cm-1, 1460 cm-1, and 1462 cm-1 for control, 2% CHX, 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS groups in multi-species biofilms. There was reduction of 484 cm-1 band in 10% QAS group. CLSM revealed densely clustered green colonies in control group and red confluent QAS-treated biofilms with significantly lower log CFU for single/dual species. Metabolic activities of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus decreased with increasing QAS exposure time.

    CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium silanes possess antimicrobial activities and inhibit growth of cariogenic biofilms.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Available data demonstrated use of QAS as potential antibacterial cavity disinfectant in adhesive dentistry. Experimental QAS can effectively eliminate caries-forming bacteria, when used inside a prepared cavity, and can definitely overcome problems associated with present available cavity disinfectants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  8. Ali HR, Ariffin MM, Omar TFT, Ghazali A, Sheikh MA, Shazili NAM, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Oct;28(37):52247-52257.
    PMID: 34002317 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14424-1
    Irgarol 1051 and diuron are photosystem II inhibitors in agricultural activities and antifouling paints in the shipping sector. This study focused on three major ports (western, southern, and eastern) surrounding Peninsular Malaysia to construct the distribution of both biocides on the basis of the seasonal and geographical changes. Surface seawater samples were collected from November 2011 to April 2012 and pretreated using the solid-phase extraction technique followed by quantification with GC-MS and LC-MS-MS for Irgarol 1051 and diuron, respectively. Generally, the distribution of Irgarol 1051 was lowest during November 2011 and highest during April 2012, and similar patterns were observed at all ports, whereas the distribution of diuron was rather vague. The increasing pattern of Irgarol 1051 from time to time is probably related to its accumulation in the seawater as a result of its half-life and consistent utilization. On the basis of the discriminant analysis, the temporal distribution of Irgarol 1051 varied at Klang North Port, Klang South Port, and Pasir Gudang Port, whereas diuron was temporally varied only at Kemaman Port. Furthermore, Irgarol 1051 was spatially varied during November 2011, whereas diuron did not show any significant changes throughout all sampling periods. Ecological risk assessment exhibited a high risk for diuron and Irgarol 1051, but Irgarol 1051 should be of greater concern because of its higher risk compared to that of diuron. Thus, it is recommended that the current Malaysian guidelines and regulations of biocide application should be reevaluated and improved to protect the ecosystem, as well as to prevent ecological risks to the aquatic environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  9. Rusmah M
    Singapore Dent J, 1993 Jun;18(1):17-21.
    PMID: 9582689
    The disinfective and fixative properties of glutaraldehyde are now widely investigated. Glutaraldehyde is effective against micro-organisms and their spores. Recently, studies have shown the effectiveness of glutaraldehyde against the HIV virus. 2% glutaraldehyde is now recommended for the sterilisation of surgical instruments, operating areas, dental impressions and root canals during endodontic therapy. Studies have also shown that glutaraldehyde is an effective fixative with minimum side effects, limited penetration and quick acting. Pulpotomy studies using glutaraldehyde as the fixative agent produce high success rates. The important feature is the vital pulpal tissue at the apical third suggesting its limited penetration. The small amounts that get distributed systemically are quickly metabolised and excreted in the urine or exhaled as carbon dioxide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Disinfectants/pharmacokinetics; Dental Disinfectants/pharmacology*; Dental Disinfectants/therapeutic use
  10. Chai, Jin Sian, Hoe, Yeak Su, Ali H. M. Murid
    MATEMATIKA, 2018;34(2):0-0.
    A mathematical model is considered to determine the effectiveness of disin-
    fectant solution for surface decontamination. The decontamination process involved the
    diffusion of bacteria into disinfectant solution and the reaction of the disinfectant killing
    effect. The mathematical model is a reaction-diffusion type. Finite difference method and
    method of lines with fourth-order Runge-Kutta method are utilized to solve the model
    numerically. To obtain stable solutions, von Neumann stability analysis is employed to
    evaluate the stability of finite difference method. For stiff problem, Dormand-Prince
    method is applied as the estimated error of fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. MATLAB
    programming is selected for the computation of numerical solutions. From the results
    obtained, fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has a larger stability region and better ac-
    curacy of solutions compared to finite difference method when solving the disinfectant
    solution model. Moreover, a numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the effect
    of different thickness of disinfectant solution on bacteria reduction. Results show that
    thick disinfectant solution is able to reduce the dimensionless bacteria concentration more
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants
  11. Ashraf MA, Ullah S, Ahmad I, Qureshi AK, Balkhair KS, Abdur Rehman M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Feb;94(3):388-403.
    PMID: 23983055 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6371
    The study of biofilms has skyrocketed in recent years due to increased awareness of the pervasiveness and impact of biofilms. It costs the USA literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. But biofilms also offer huge potential for cleaning up hazardous waste sites, filtering municipal and industrial water and wastewater, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of emerging novel antimicrobial techniques, including those using myriad organic and inorganic products as well as genetic engineering techniques, the use of coordination complex molecules, composite materials and antimicrobial peptides and the use of lasers as such or their modified use in combination treatments. This review also addresses advanced and recent modifications, including methodological changes, and biocide efficacy enhancing strategies. This review will provide future planners of biofilm control technologies with a broad understanding and perspective on the use of biocides in the field of green developments for a sustainable future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  12. Harino H, Arai T, Ohji M, Ismail AB, Miyazaki N
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2009 Apr;56(3):468-78.
    PMID: 18979060 DOI: 10.1007/s00244-008-9252-0
    The concentrations of butyltins (BTs) in sediment from Peninsular Malaysia along the Strait of Malacca and their spatial distribution are discussed. The concentrations of BTs were high in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia where there is a lot of ship traffic, because trade is prosperous. The concentrations of monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT) in sediment from the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia were in the range 4.1-242 microg/kg dry weight (dw), 1.1-186 microg/kg dw, and 0.7-228 microg/kg dw, respectively. A higher percentage of TBT was observed in the area where TBT concentrations were high. The concentrations of monophenyltin (MPT), diphenyltin (DPT), and triphenyltin (TPT) were in the range <0.1-121 microg/kg dw, 0.4-27 microg/kg dw, and 0.1-34 microg/kg dw in sediment from Peninsular Malaysia, respectively. MPT was the dominant phenyltin species. MBT, DBT, and TBT in green mussel (Perna viridis) samples were detected in the range 41-102 microg/kg, 3-5 microg/kg, and 8-32 microg/kg, respectively. A tolerable average residue level (TARL) was estimated at 20.4 microg/kg from a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.25 microg TBTO/kg body weight/day. The maximum value of TBT detected in green mussel samples was the value near the TARL. TPTs were not detected in green mussel samples. The concentrations of Diuron and Irgarol 1051 in sediment from Peninsular Malaysia were in the range <0.1-5 microg/kg dw and <0.1-14 microg/kg dw, respectively. High concentrations of these compounds were observed in locations where the concentrations of TBT were high. Sea Nine 211, Dichlofluanid, and Pyrithiones were not detected in sediment. The concentrations of antifouling biocides in Melaka and the Strait of Johor were investigated in detail. BTs were found in similar concentrations among all sampling sites from Melaka, indicating that BT contamination spread off the coast. However, Sea Nine 211, Diuron, and Irgarol 1051 in the sediment from Melaka were high at the mouth of the river. BT concentrations at the Strait of Johor were higher than those in Peninsular Malaysia and Melaka and were high at the narrowest locations with poor flushing of water. The concentrations of antifouling biocides were compared among Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A higher concentration and wide variations of TBT and TPT in sediment from Malaysia were observed among these countries. The Irgarol 1051 concentrations in sediment from Malaysia were higher than those in Thailand and Vietnam.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants/analysis*
  13. Lee YF, Merican H, Nallusamy R, Ong LM, Mohamed Nazir P, Hamzah HB, et al.
    Am J Infect Control, 2016 06 01;44(6):e95-7.
    PMID: 26897697 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2015.12.031
    Hand hygiene auditing is mandatory for all Malaysian public hospitals; nonetheless, the burden of auditing is impacting the support and sustainability of the program. We report an alternative method to routinely measure hand hygiene compliance with the aim to test whether alcohol-based handrub purchase data could be used as a proxy for usage because human auditing has decreased validity and reliability inherent in the methodology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  14. Lim VKE
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):289-90.
    PMID: 8668044
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants/standards*
  15. Chandraseharan P, Sockalingam SNM, Shafiei Z, Zakaria ASI, Mahyuddin A, Rahman MA
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2023 Oct 01;24(10):779-786.
    PMID: 38152911 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3581
    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the antimicrobial activities of commercially available 5% apple cider vinegar (ACV) against Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus casei. Materials and methods: Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were conducted using the broth microdilution method. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) of 5.25% was used as a positive control, and comparisons were also made with acetic acid (AA) as the main ingredient in ACV. The three test bacteria treated with the most effective ACV dilution were visualized under a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for structural changes.

    RESULTS: Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined at 0.625% of the concentration of ACV against S. mutans and E. faecalis and 1.25% of the concentration of ACV against L. casei with two-fold serial dilutions. A concentration of 5 × 10-1% with 10-fold serial dilutions was found to be the MIC value for all three bacteria. No significant differences were found when compared with the positive control (NaOCl) (p = 0.182, p = 0.171, and p = 0.234), respectively, for two-fold serial dilutions and (p = 1.000, p = 0.658, and p = 0.110), respectively for 10-fold serial dilutions. MBC was observed to be 5% ACV for both E. faecalis and S. mutans. However, positive microbial growth was observed on the agar plate when cultured with L. casei. An independent sample t-test showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the antimicrobial activities between 5% ACV and 5% pure AA. TEM revealed cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane disruptions on all three bacteria at MIC value.

    CONCLUSION: Apple cider vinegar has antimicrobial activities against Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus casei at their respective MIC values.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Apple cider vinegar can be an alternative antimicrobial dental pulp disinfectant to sodium hypochlorite. Apple cider vinegar can be used safely, especially in children's dental pulp therapy and deep caries management, when adequate tooth isolation is not readily achievable. Thus, adverse reactions commonly associated with other frequently used chemical disinfectants can be avoided.

    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  16. Kannaiyan K, Rakshit P, Bhat MPS, Sadasiva SKK, Babu SC, Ummer H
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2023 Nov 01;24(11):891-894.
    PMID: 38238278 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3563
    AIM: The current study aimed to determine the impact of three different disinfectants on the surface roughness and color stability of heat-cure acrylic denture material.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a stainless-steel mold, disc-shaped wax patterns with dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick (in accordance with ADA Specification No. 12) were created and prepared for a total of 75 acrylic samples. Dimensions of all 75 acrylic samples were checked with a digital Vernier caliper. About 25 samples of denture base material were immersed in three different chemical disinfectants: Group I: immersed in chlorhexidine gluconate solution, group II: immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution, and group III: immersed in glutaraldehyde solution. All samples were scrubbed daily for 1 minute with the appropriate disinfectant and submerged for 10 minutes in the same disinfectant. Between disinfection cycles, samples were kept in distilled water at 37°C. Color stability was measured using a reflection spectrophotometer. Surface roughness values were measured by a profilometer at baseline following 15 days and 30 days.

    RESULTS: After 15 days, the color stability was better in chlorhexidine gluconate solution group (4.88 ± 0.24) than sodium hypochlorite solution (4.74 ± 0.18) and glutaraldehyde solution group (4.46 ± 0.16). The mean surface roughness was less in glutaraldehyde solution group (2.10 ± 0.19), followed by chlorhexidine gluconate solution group (2.48 ± 0.09) and sodium hypochlorite solution group (2.64 ± 0.03). After 30 days, the color stability was significantly better in chlorhexidine gluconate solution group (4.40 ± 0.02), followed by sodium hypochlorite solution (4.06 ± 0.16) and glutaraldehyde solution group (3.87 ± 0.17). The mean surface roughness was significantly lesser in glutaraldehyde solution group (2.41 ± 0.14), followed by chlorhexidine gluconate solution group (2.94 ± 0.08) and sodium hypochlorite solution group (3.02 ± 0.13).

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the color stability was significantly better in chlorhexidine gluconate solution group than sodium hypochlorite solution and glutaraldehyde solution group. But the surface roughness was significantly lesser in the glutaraldehyde solution group, followed by the chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium hypochlorite solution group.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The maintenance of the prosthesis requires the use of a denture disinfectant; therefore, it is crucial to select one that is effective but would not have a negative impact on the denture base resin's inherent characteristics over time. How to cite this article: Kannaiyan K, Rakshit P, Bhat MPS, et al. Effect of Different Disinfecting Agents on Surface Roughness and Color Stability of Heat-cure Acrylic Denture Material: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2023;24(11):891-894.

    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants*
  17. Afsah-Hejri, L., Rukayadi, Y., Fouladynezhad, N., Son, R., Nakaguchi, Y., Nishibuchi, M.
    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a gram positive food-borne pathogen that is able to form biofilm on food factory surfaces. Formation of biofilm makes the bacteria much more resistance to environmental stresses such as disinfectant. The extracellular polymeric matrix (biofilm structure) which is mostly comprised of sticky extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and proteins can protect bacteria in a harsh condition. The efficiency of four disinfectants on removing L. monocytogenes biofilm was investigated. Five concentration levels (100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25%) of disinfectants were tested. In the microtitre assay, the optical density at 595 nm CV-OD595 value, was used to measure the amount of remained biofilm after 24 h. Results showed that disinfectants did not have significant effect on removing L. monocytogenes biofilm. Formation of L. monocytogenes biofilm significantly decreased the efficiency of disinfectants. Biofilm produced by strain number 9 showed higher resistance to disinfectant. Low concentrations (
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants
  18. Kow RY, Low CL, Ruben JK, Zaharul-Azri MZ, Ng MS
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Jul;11(2):72-74.
    PMID: 29021884 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1707.008
    Chlorhexidine is a common antiseptic and disinfectant used in the medical field. Allergy to chlorhexidine has been reported in the literature but life-threatening anaphylactic shock is rare. We present a case of severe anaphylactic shock due to chlorhexidine occurring during surgery. Literatures suggest that profound anaphylactic shock to chlorhexidine is commonly preceded by milder, non-specific reactions. These mild symptoms are often dismissed by both the patient and physicians alike. Direct questioning of these symptoms is necessary as a part of the pre-operative assessment and the patient should be referred for further immunology testing if indicated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants
  19. Ismail Hossain M, El-Harbawi M, Noaman YA, Bustam MA, Alitheen NB, Affandi NA, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2011 Jun;84(1):101-4.
    PMID: 21421256 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.048
    Eight hydroxylammonium-based room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have been synthesized by acid-base neutralization of ethanolamines with organic acids. The ILs were characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies and elemental analysis. Their anti-microbial activities were determined using the well-diffusion method. All eight ILs were toxic to Staphylococcus aureus, while 2-hydroxyethylammonium lactate and 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-methylethanaminium acetate showed high anti-microbial activity against a wide range of human pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants/chemical synthesis; Disinfectants/toxicity
  20. Fernando WJ
    J Theor Biol, 2009 Jul 21;259(2):297-303.
    PMID: 19336237 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2009.03.026
    Chemical inactivation of microorganisms is a common process widely employed in many fields such as in treatment of water, preservation in food industry and antimicrobial treatments in healthcare. For economy of applications and efficiency of treatment establishment the minimum dosage of breakpoint in the chemical application becomes essential. Even though experimental investigations have been extensive, theoretical understanding of such processes are demanding. Commonly employed theoretical analyses for the inactivation of microorganisms and depletion of chemicals include kinetics expressing the rates of depletion of chemical and microorganisms. The terms chemical demand (x) and specific disinfectant demand (alpha) are often used in theoretical modeling of inactivation. The value of specific disinfectant demand (alpha) has always been assumed to be a constant in these models. Intracellular concentration built up within the cells of the microorganisms during inactivation could lead to possible weakening effects of microorganisms thereby requiring lower doses as disinfection proceeds makes the assumption of constant alpha inaccurate. Model equations are formulated based on these observations co-relating the parameters alpha and x with a progressive inactivation (N/N(0)). The chemical concentration (C) is also presented in terms of the inactivation time (t) and the survival ratio (N/N(0)) for given pH and temperature conditions. The model is examined using experimentally verified Ct data of Giardia Cysts/chlorine system. The respective values of x for different survival ratios were evaluated from the data using MatLab software. Proposed model correlating for the disinfectant demand (x) with the survival ratio (N/N(0)) fits satisfactorily with those evaluated from data. The rate constants for different pH and temperature conditions are evaluated which showed compatibility with the Arrhenius model. The dependence of frequency factors with pH indicated compatibility with accepted models. The Ct values regenerated with the kinetic data shows a very accurate fit with published data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disinfectants/pharmacokinetics; Disinfectants/pharmacology*
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