Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Elfikrie N, Ho YB, Zaidon SZ, Juahir H, Tan ESS
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Apr 10;712:136540.
    PMID: 32050383 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136540
    Agricultural activities have been arising along with the use of pesticides. The use of pesticides can impact not only on vector or other pest but also able to harm human health. Pesticide may leach from the irrigation of plant into the groundwater and in surface water. These waters could be sources of drinking water in a pesticides polluted area. This study aims to determine the occurrence pesticides in surface water and pesticides removal efficiency in a conventional drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) and the potential health risk to consumers. The study was conducted in Tanjung Karang, Selangor, Malaysia. Thirty river water samples and eighteen water samples from DWTP were collected. The water samples were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) before injected to the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Five hundreds and ten respondents were interviewed using questionnaires to obtain information for health risk assessments. The results showed that propiconazole had the highest mean concentration (4493.1 ng/L) while pymetrozine had the lowest mean concentration (1.3 ng/L) in river water samples. The pesticides removal efficiencies in the conventional DWTP were 77% (imidacloprid), 86% (propiconazole and buprofezin), 88% (tebuconazole) and 100% (pymetrozine, tricyclazole, chlorantraniliprole, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin), respectively. The hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard index (HI) for all target pesticides were <1, indicating there was no significant chronic non-carcinogenic health risk due to consumption of the drinking water. Conventional DWTP was not able to completely remove four pesticide; thus, advanced treatment systems need to be considered to safeguard the health of the community in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  2. Ooi CH, Ng SK, Omar EA
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2020 May;45(5):513-519.
    PMID: 31675478 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0553
    There is emerging evidence that hydrogen-rich water (H2-water) has beneficial effects on the physiological responses to exercise. However, few studies investigate its ergogenic potential. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of H2-water ingestion on physiological responses and exercise performance during incremental treadmill running. In a double-blind crossover design, 14 endurance-trained male runners (age, 34 ± 4 years; body mass, 63.1 ± 7.2 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) were randomly assigned to ingest 2 doses of 290-mL H2-water or placebo on each occasion. The first bolus was given before six 4-min submaximal running bouts, and the second bolus was consumed before the maximal incremental running test. Expired gas, heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded; blood samples were collected at the end of each submaximal stage and post maximal running test. Cardiorespiratory responses, RPE, and blood gas indices were not significantly different at each submaximal running intensity (range: 34%-91% maximal oxygen uptake) between H2-water and placebo trials. No statistical difference was observed in running time to exhaustion (618 ± 126 vs. 619 ± 113 s), maximal oxygen uptake (56.9 ± 4.4 vs. 57.1 ± 4.7 mL·kg-1·min-1), maximal HR (184 ± 7 vs. 184 ± 7 beat·min-1), and RPE (19 ± 1 vs. 19 ± 1) in the runners between the trials. The results suggest that the ingestion of 290 mL of H2-water before submaximal treadmill running and an additional dose before the subsequent incremental running to exhaustion were not sufficiently ergogenic in endurance-trained athletes. Novelty Acute ingestion of H2-water does not seem to be ergogenic for endurance performance. A small dose of H2-water does not modulate buffering capacity during intense endurance exercise in athletes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  3. Ab Razak NH, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Hashim Z
    Public Health, 2016 Feb;131:103-11.
    PMID: 26715317 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.11.006
    Information about the quality of drinking water, together with analysis of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) analysis and health risk assessment (HRA) remain limited. The aims of this study were: (1) to ascertain the level of KAP regarding heavy metal contamination of drinking water in Pasir Mas; (2) to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd) in drinking water in Pasir Mas; and (3) to estimate the health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) caused by heavy metal exposure through drinking water using hazard quotient and lifetime cancer risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  4. Zailina H, Najibah H, Aiezzati AN, Praveena SM, Patimah I
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:797603.
    PMID: 25530970 DOI: 10.1155/2014/797603
    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in blood, urine, and drinking water as well as the health implications on 100 residents in an urban and a rural community. Results showed the blood As, urinary Cd, DNA damage, and water As and Cs were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the rural community. Findings showed significant (P < 0.005) correlations between blood As and DNA damage with household income, years of residence, and total glasses of daily water consumption among the rural residents. The urinary NAG concentrations, years of residence, milk powder intake (glass/week), and seafood intake (per week) were significantly correlated (P < 0.005) with urinary Cd concentrations among respondents. In addition, urinary Cd level significantly influenced the urinary NAG concentrations (P < 0.001). The rural respondents experienced significantly higher lymphocyte DNA damage and blood As influenced by their years of residence and water consumption. The Cd in drinking water also resulted in the rural respondents having significantly higher urinary NAG which had a significant relationship with urinary Cd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  5. Azlan A, Khoo HE, Idris MA, Ismail A, Razman MR
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:403574.
    PMID: 22649292 DOI: 10.1100/2012/403574
    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  6. Ab Razak NH, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Hashim Z
    J Epidemiol Glob Health, 2015 Dec;5(4):297-310.
    PMID: 25944153 DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2015.04.003
    Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  7. Rizeei HM, Azeez OS, Pradhan B, Khamees HH
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Oct 04;190(11):633.
    PMID: 30288624 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-7013-8
    Groundwater hazard assessments involve many activities dealing with the impacts of pollution on groundwater, such as human health studies and environment modelling. Nitrate contamination is considered a hazard to human health, environment and ecosystem. In groundwater management, the hazard should be assessed before any action can be taken, particularly for groundwater pollution and water quality. Thus, pollution due to the presence of nitrate poses considerable hazard to drinking water, and excessive nutrient loads deteriorate the ecosystem. The parametric IPNOA model is one of the well-known methods used for evaluating nitrate content. However, it cannot predict the effect of soil and land use/land cover (LULC) types on calculations relying on parametric well samples. Therefore, in this study, the parametric model was trained and integrated with the multivariate data-driven model with different levels of information to assess groundwater nitrate contamination in Saladin, Iraq. The IPNOA model was developed with 185 different well samples and contributing parameters. Then, the IPNOA model was integrated with the logistic regression (LR) model to predict the nitrate contamination levels. Geographic information system techniques were also used to assess the spatial prediction of nitrate contamination. High-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images with 5 m spatial resolution were processed by object-based image analysis and support vector machine algorithm to extract LULC. Mapping of potential areas of nitrate contamination was examined using receiver operating characteristic assessment. Results indicated that the optimised LR-IPNOA model was more accurate in determining and analysing the nitrate hazard concentration than the standalone IPNOA model. This method can be easily replicated in other areas that have similar climatic condition. Therefore, stakeholders in planning and environmental decision makers could benefit immensely from the proposed method of this research, which can be potentially used for a sustainable management of urban, industrialised and agricultural sectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry
  8. Jaafar M, Marcilla AL, Felipe-Sotelo M, Ward NI
    Food Chem, 2018 Apr 25;246:258-265.
    PMID: 29291847 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.019
    Water from La Pampa, Argentina, was used for washing and cooking rice to examine the in-situ impact of using naturally-contaminated water for food preparation on the elemental dietary intake. Whilst washing with the control tap water (28 μg/L As) reduced the concentration of As in rice by 23%, the use of different well waters (281-1144 μg/L) increased As levels significantly (48-227%) in comparison with the original concentration in the rice (0.056 µg/g). Cooking the rice at a low water-to-rice ratio (2:1) using modern methods increased the levels of As in the cooked samples by 2-3 orders of magnitude for both pre-washed and un-washed rice. Similar trends were observed for vanadium. Although the levels of manganese, iron, copper, zinc and molybdenum in rice were reduced during washing and cooking for most water samples, the molybdenum concentration in the cooked rice doubled (2.2-2.9 µg/g) when using water containing >1 mg/L Mo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  9. Praveena SM, Cheema MS, Guo HR
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2019 Apr 15;170:699-707.
    PMID: 30580164 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.12.048
    Generally, non-nutritive artificial sweeteners are widely utilized as sugar substitute in various applications. With various applications, non-nutritive artificial sweeteners are now being recognized as emerging contaminants with high water persistence and are chemically stable in environment. Although non-nutritive artificial sweeteners were documented on their occurrence in environment, yet their potential impacts to environment and human health remain ambiguous. Therefore, this review was prepared to provide a more comprehensive insight of non-nutritive artificial sweeteners in environment matrixes by highlighting special concerns on human health and environmental risks. Precisely, this review monitors the exploration of non-nutritive artificial sweeteners occurrences as an emerging contaminants in environment worldwide and their associated risks to human as well as environment. At present, there are a total of 24 non-nutritive artificial sweeteners' studies with regards to their occurrence in the environment from 38 locations globally, spanning across Europe including United Kingdoms, Canada, United States and Asia. Overall, the quantitative findings suggested that the occurrence of non-nutritive artificial sweeteners is present in surface water, tap water, groundwater, seawater, lakes and atmosphere. Among these environmental matrixes, surface water was found as the most studied matrix involving non-nutritive artificial sweeteners. However, findings on non-nutritive artificial sweeteners impacts on human health and environment are limited to understanding its overall potential impacts and risks. Additionally, this review also serves as a framework for future monitoring plans and environmental legislative to better control these emerging contaminants in environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  10. Mohd Nasir FA, Praveena SM, Aris AZ
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2019 Dec 15;185:109681.
    PMID: 31561079 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109681
    Studies on the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in drinking water were conducted especially in developed countries. However, limited studies reported the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in developing countries. Thus, this study is conducted to fill the knowledge gap of pharmaceutical residue occurrences in developing countries, particularly in Malaysia, along with public awareness level and its potential human health risk. This study investigates public awareness level of drinking water quality and pharmaceutical handling, the occurrence of nine pharmaceutical residues (amoxicillin, caffeine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, dexamethasone, diclofenac, nitrofurazone, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) and potential human health risks in drinking water from Kajang (Malaysia) using commercially competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In general, the public awareness level of Kajang population showed poor knowledge (82.02%), and less positive attitude (98.88%) with a good practice score (57.3%). Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentration (0.667 ng/L) while amoxicillin was at the lowest concentration (0.001 ng/L) in drinking water from Kajang (Malaysia). Nevertheless, all the reported occurrences were lower than previous studies conducted elsewhere. There was no appreciable potential human health risk for all the pharmaceutical residues as the risk quotient (RQ) values were less than 1 (RQ water risk management and regulation in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  11. Wee SY, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Praveena SM
    Sci Rep, 2020 10 20;10(1):17755.
    PMID: 33082440 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-74061-5
    Contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) concerns the security and sustainability of a drinking water supply system and human exposure via water consumption. This study analyzed the selected EDCs in source (river water, n = 10) and supply (tap water, n = 155) points and the associated risks. A total of 14 multiclass EDCs was detected in the drinking water supply system in Malaysia. Triclosan (an antimicrobial agent) and 4-octylphenol (a plasticizer) were only detected in the tap water (up to 9.74 and 0.44 ng/L, respectively). Meanwhile, chloramphenicol and 4-nonylphenol in the system were below the method detection limits. Bisphenol A was observed to be highest in tap water at 66.40 ng/L (detection: 100%; median concentration: 0.28 ng/L). There was a significant difference in triclosan contamination between the river and tap water (p water supply system regarding treatment sustainability and water security. Further exploration of smart monitoring and management using Big Data and Internet of Things and the need to invent rapid, robust, sensitive, and efficient sensors is warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  12. Kumar T, Abd Majid MA, Onichandran S, Jaturas N, Andiappan H, Salibay CC, et al.
    Infect Dis Poverty, 2016 Jan 13;5:3.
    PMID: 26763230 DOI: 10.1186/s40249-016-0095-z
    Access to clean and safe drinking water that is free from pathogenic protozoan parasites, especially Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia that cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, is still an issue in Southeast Asia (SEA). This study is the first attempt to detect the aforementioned protozoan parasites in water samples from countries in SEA, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry
  13. Mamikutty N, Thent ZC, Haji Suhaimi F
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:895961.
    PMID: 26273656 DOI: 10.1155/2015/895961
    BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the complications of the metabolic syndrome. It encompasses a wide range of disease spectrum from simple steatosis to liver cirrhosis. Structural alteration of hepatic mitochondria might be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

    AIMS: In the present study, we used a newly established model of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male Wistar rats in order to investigate the ultrastructural changes in hepatic mitochondria that occur with fructose consumption and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis.

    METHODS: The concentration of fructose-drinking water (FDW) used in this study was 20%. Six male Wistar rats were supplemented with FDW 20% for eight weeks. Body composition and metabolic parameters were measured before and after 8 weeks of FDW 20%. Histomorphology of the liver was evaluated and ultrastructural changes of mitochondria were assessed with transmission electron micrograph.

    RESULTS: After 8 weeks of fructose consumption, the animals developed several features of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, fructose consumption led to the development of macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, such as increase in mitochondrial size, disruption of the cristae, and reduction of matrix density.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that in male Wistar rat 8-week consumption of FDW 20% leads to NAFLD likely via mitochondrial structural alteration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry
  14. Pramanik BK, Pramanik SK, Sarker DC, Suja F
    Environ Technol, 2017 Jun;38(11):1383-1389.
    PMID: 27587007 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2016.1228701
    The effects of ozonation, anion exchange resin (AER) and UV/H2O2 were investigated as a pre-treatment to control organic fouling (OF) of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of drinking water. It was found that high molecular weight (MW) organics such as protein and polysaccharide substances were majorly responsible for reversible fouling which contributed to 90% of total fouling. The decline rate increased with successive filtration cycles due to deposition of protein content over time. All pre-treatment could reduce the foulants of a Ultrafiltration membrane which contributed to the improvement in flux, and there was a greater improvement of flux by UV/H2O2 (61%) than ozonation (43%) which in turn was greater than AER (23%) treatment. This was likely due to the effective removal/breakdown of high MW organic content. AER gave greater removal of biofouling potential components (such as biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents) compared to UV/H2O2 and ozonation treatment. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential of pre-treatments for reducing OF of ultrafiltration for the treatment of drinking water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry
  15. Majid NA, Phang IC, Darnis DS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Oct;24(29):22827-22838.
    PMID: 28150147 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8484-9
    Identification of Pelargonium radula as bioindicator for mercury (Hg) detection confers a new hope for monitoring the safety of drinking water consumption. Hg, like other non-essential metals, inflicts the deterioration of biological functions in human and other creatures. In the present study, effects of Hg on the physiology and biochemical content of P. radula were undertaken to understand the occurrence of the morphological changes observed. Young leaves of P. radula were treated with different concentrations of Hg-containing solution (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ppb) along with controls for 4 h, prior to further analysis. Elevated Hg concentration in treatment solution significantly prompted an increased accumulation of Hg in the leaf tissues. Meanwhile, total protein, chlorophyll and low molecular mass thiol contents (cysteine, glutathione and oxidized glutathione) decreased as Hg accumulation increased. However, phytochelatin 2 productions were induced in the treated leaves, in comparison to the control. Based on these findings, it is postulated that as low as 0.5 ppb of Hg interferes with the metabolic processes of plant cells, which was reflected from the morphological changes exhibited on P. radula leaves-the colour of the Hg-treated leaves changed from green to yellowish-brown, became chlorosis and wilted. Changes in the tested characteristics of plant are closely related to the Hg-induced morphological changes on P. radula leaves, a potential bioindicator for detecting Hg in drinking water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  16. Kumar M, RaoT S, Isloor AM, Ibrahim GPS, Inamuddin, Ismail N, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 May 15;129:715-727.
    PMID: 30738161 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.02.017
    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) were used as additives (1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%) to prepare polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) hollow fiber membranes. Prepared hollow fiber membranes were characterized by surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface roughness by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the surface charge of the membrane was analyzed by zeta potential measurement, hydrophilicity by contact angle measurement and the functional groups by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Fouling resistant nature of the prepared hollow fiber membranes was evaluated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and molecular weight cutoff was investigated using polyethylene glycol (PEG). By total organic carbon (TOC), the percentage rejection of PEG was found to be 14,489 Da. It was found that the hollow fiber membrane prepared by the addition of 5 wt% of CAP in PPSU confirmed increased arsenic removal from water as compared to hollow fiber membrane prepared by 5 wt% of CA in PPSU. The removal percentages of arsenic with CA-5 and CAP-5 hollow fiber membrane was 34% and 41% with arsenic removal permeability was 44.42 L/m2h bar and 40.11 L/m2h bar respectively. The increased pure water permeability for CA-5 and CAP-5 hollow fiber membrane was 61.47 L/m2h bar and 69.60 L/m2 h bar, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  17. Mohamad Hanapi NS, Sanagi MM, Ismail AK, Wan Ibrahim WA, Saim N, Wan Ibrahim WN
    PMID: 28142101 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.01.028
    The aim of this study was to investigate and apply supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) in two-phase micro-electrodriven membrane extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) for pre-concentration and determination of three selected antidepressant drugs in water samples. A thin agarose film impregnated with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C6MIM] [PF6], was prepared and used as supported ionic liquid membrane between aqueous sample solution and acceptor phase for extraction of imipramine, amitriptyline and chlorpromazine. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method provided good linearity in the range of 1.0-1000μgL(-1), good coefficients of determination (r(2)=0.9974-0.9992) and low limits of detection (0.1-0.4μgL(-1)). The method showed high enrichment factors in the range of 110-150 and high relative recoveries in the range of 88.2-111.4% and 90.9-107.0%, for river water and tap water samples, respectively with RSDs of ≤7.6 (n=3). This method was successfully applied to the determination of the drugs in river and tap water samples. It is envisaged that the SILM improved the perm-selectivity by providing a pathway for targeted analytes which resulted in rapid extraction with high degree of selectivity and high enrichment factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry
  18. Affum AO, Osae SD, Nyarko BJ, Afful S, Fianko JR, Akiti TT, et al.
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 Feb;187(2):1.
    PMID: 25600401 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-4167-x
    In recent times, surface water resource in the Western Region of Ghana has been found to be inadequate in supply and polluted by various anthropogenic activities. As a result of these problems, the demand for groundwater by the human populations in the peri-urban communities for domestic, municipal and irrigation purposes has increased without prior knowledge of its water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 public hand-dug wells during the rainy season in 2013 and investigated for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of the dataset and a linear stoichiometric plot of major ions were applied to group the water samples and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Hierarchal cluster analysis revealed four clusters from the hydrochemical variables (R-mode) and three clusters in the case of water samples (Q-mode) after z score standardization. Principal component analysis after a varimax rotation of the dataset indicated that the four factors extracted explained 93.3 % of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, toxic elements and hardness pollution as the dominant factors affecting groundwater quality. Cation exchange, mineral dissolution and silicate weathering influenced groundwater quality. The ranking order of major ions was Na(+) > Ca(2+) > K(+) > Mg(2+) and Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-). Based on piper plot and the hydrogeology of the study area, sodium chloride (86 %), sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate (14 %) water types were identified. Although E. coli were absent in the water samples, 36 % of the wells contained total coliforms (Enterobacter species) which exceeded the WHO guidelines limit of zero colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL of drinking water. With the exception of Hg, the concentration of As and Cd in 79 and 43 % of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline limits of 10 and 3 μg/L for drinking water, respectively. Reported values in some areas in Nigeria, Malaysia and USA indicated that the maximum concentration of Cd was low and As was high in this study. Health risk assessment of Cd, As and Hg based on average daily dose, hazard quotient and cancer risk was determined. In conclusion, multiple natural processes and anthropogenic activities from non-point sources contributed significantly to groundwater salinization, hardness, toxic element and microbiological contamination of the study area. The outcome of this study can be used as a baseline data to prioritize areas for future sustainable development of public wells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  19. Lim CS, Shaharuddin MS, Sam WY
    Glob J Health Sci, 2013 Mar;5(2):1-12.
    PMID: 23445691 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n2p1
    A cross sectional study was conducted to estimate risk of exposure to lead via tap water ingestion pathway for the population of Seri Kembangan (SK).
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry*
  20. Sakai N, Dayana E, Abu Bakar A, Yoneda M, Nik Sulaiman NM, Ali Mohd M
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Oct;188(10):592.
    PMID: 27679511
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites. Therefore, the PCB load was estimated to be negligible during the sampling period because PCBs have an extremely long half-life. The PCBs, particularly higher chlorinated biphenyls, could be thoroughly dechlorinated to mono-CBs to tri-CBs by microbial decomposition in sediment or could still be accumulated in the sediment. The lower chlorinated biphenyls, however, could be resuspended or desorbed from the sediment because they have faster desorption rates and higher solubility, compared to the higher chlorinated biphenyls. The health risk for the Malaysia population by PCB intake that was estimated from the local fish consumption (7.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and tap water consumption (1.5 × 10(-3)-3.1 × 10(-3) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) based on the detected PCB levels in the surface water was considered to be minimal. The hazard quotient based on the tolerable daily intake (20 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) was estimated at 0.36.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/chemistry
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