Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Rathore C, Rathbone MJ, Chellappan DK, Tambuwala MM, Pinto TJA, Dureja H, et al.
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2020 04;17(4):479-494.
    PMID: 32077770 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2020.1730808
    Introduction: Thymoquinone (TQ), 2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1, 4-quinone, the main active constituent of Nigella sativa (NS) plant, has been proven to be of great therapeutic aid in various in vitro and in vivo conditions. Despite the promising therapeutic activities of TQ, this molecule is not yet in the clinical trials, restricted by its poor biopharmaceutical properties including photo-instability.Area covered: This review compiles the different types of polymeric and lipidic nanocarriers (NCs), encapsulating TQ for their improved oral bioavailability, and augmented in vitro and in vivo efficacy, evidenced on various pathologies. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive overview of TQ in relation to its encapsulation approaches advancing the delivery and improving the efficacy of TQ.Expert opinion: TQ was first identified in the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. black seed. TQ has not been used in formulations because it is a highly hydrophobic drug having poor aqueous solubility. To deal with the poor physicochemical problems associated with TQ, various NCs encapsulating TQ have been tried in the past. Nevertheless, these NCs could be impending in bringing forth this potential molecule to clinical reality. This will also be beneficial for a large research community including pharmaceutical & biological sciences and translational researchers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage*
  2. Shadab M, Haque S, Sheshala R, Meng LW, Meka VS, Ali J
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(3):440-453.
    PMID: 27784250 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161026163201
    BACKGROUND: The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects.

    METHOD: Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects.

    RESULT: Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles.

    CONCLUSION: This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  3. Abdulbaqi IM, Darwis Y, Khan NA, Assi RA, Khan AA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2016;11:2279-304.
    PMID: 27307730 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S105016
    Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential), entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  4. Shao M, Hussain Z, Thu HE, Khan S, Katas H, Ahmed TA, et al.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016 Nov 01;147:475-491.
    PMID: 27592075 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.08.027
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin-E (IgE), T-lymphocytes and mast cells. The key pathophysiological factors causing this disease are immunological disorders and the compromised epidermal barrier integrity. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological complication. Preventive interventions which include educational programs, avoidance of allergens, exclusive care towards skin, and the rational selection of therapeutic regimen play key roles in the treatment of dermatosis. In last two decades, it is evident from a plethora of studies that scientific focus is being driven from conventional therapies to the advanced nanocarrier-based regimen for an effective management of AD. These nanocarriers which include polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), hydrogel NPs, liposomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanoemulsion, provide efficient roles for the target specific delivery of the therapeutic payload. The success of these targeted therapies is due to their pharmaceutical versatility, longer retention time at the target site, avoiding off-target effects and preventing premature degradation of the incorporated drugs. The present review was therefore aimed to summarise convincing evidence for the therapeutic superiority of advanced nanocarrier-mediated strategies over the conventional therapies used in the treatment of AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage*
  5. Ling Tan JS, Roberts CJ, Billa N
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2019 Apr;24(4):504-512.
    PMID: 30132723 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2018.1515225
    This study describes the properties of an amphotericin B-containing mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), with the intent to maximize uptake within the gastrointestinal tract. We have reported previously that lipid nanoparticles can significantly improve the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmpB). On the other hand, the aggregation state of AmpB within the NLC has been ascribed to some of the side effects resulting from IV administration. In the undissolved state, AmpB (UAmpB) exhibited the safer monomeric conformation in contrast to AmpB in the dissolved state (DAmpB), which was aggregated. Chitosan-coated NLC (ChiAmpB NLC) presented a slightly slower AmpB release profile as compared to the uncoated formulation, achieving 26.1% release in 5 hours. Furthermore, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation appeared to prevent the expulsion of AmpB upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal pH media, whereby up to 63.9% of AmpB was retained in the NLC compared to 56.1% in the uncoated formulation. The ChiAmpB NLC demonstrated mucoadhesive properties in pH 5.8 and 6.8. Thus, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation is well-primed for pharmacokinetic studies to investigate whether delayed gastrointestinal transit may be exploited to improve the systemic bioavailability of AmpB, whilst simultaneously addressing the side-effect concerns of AmpB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  6. Tan KX, Danquah MK, Sidhu A, Yon LS, Ongkudon CM
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018 02 08;19(3):248-258.
    PMID: 27321771 DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666160617120926
    BACKGROUND: The search for smart delivery systems for enhanced pre-clinical and clinical pharmaceutical delivery and cell targeting continues to be a major biomedical research endeavor owing to differences in the physicochemical characteristics and physiological effects of drug molecules, and this affects the delivery mechanisms to elicit maximum therapeutic effects. Targeted drug delivery is a smart evolution essential to address major challenges associated with conventional drug delivery systems. These challenges mostly result in poor pharmacokinetics due to the inability of the active pharmaceutical ingredients to specifically act on malignant cells thus, causing poor therapeutic index and toxicity to surrounding normal cells. Aptamers are oligonucleotides with engineered affinities to bind specifically to their cognate targets. Aptamers have gained significant interests as effective targeting elements for enhanced therapeutic delivery as they can be generated to specifically bind to wide range of targets including proteins, peptides, ions, cells and tissues. Notwithstanding, effective delivery of aptamers as therapeutic vehicles is challenged by cell membrane electrostatic repulsion, endonuclease degradation, low pH cleavage, and binding conformation stability.

    OBJECTIVE: The application of molecularly engineered biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric particles with tunable features such as surface area and chemistry, particulate size distribution and toxicity creates opportunities to develop smart aptamer-mediated delivery systems for controlled drug release.

    RESULTS: This article discusses opportunities for particulate aptamer-drug formulations to advance current drug delivery modalities by navigating active ingredients through cellular and biomolecular traffic to target sites for sustained and controlled release at effective therapeutic dosages while minimizing systemic cytotoxic effects.

    CONCLUSION: A proposal for a novel drug-polymer-aptamer-polymer (DPAP) design of aptamer-drug formulation with stage-wise delivery mechanism is presented to illustrate the potential efficacy of aptamer- polymer cargos for enhanced cell targeting and drug delivery.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  7. Chuah LH, Billa N, Roberts CJ, Burley JC, Manickam S
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2013 May-Jun;18(3):591-9.
    PMID: 22149945 DOI: 10.3109/10837450.2011.640688
    In the present study, we investigate the mucoadhesive characteristics and release of the anticancer agent curcumin, contained in chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs). Such a system has potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of colon cancer through prolonged retention and delivery. The CS-NPs were ionically gelled with tripolyphosphate (TPP) and registered an isoelectric pH of 6.2 (z-average diameter of 214 nm ± 1.0 nm). pH variations around the isoelectric point caused a reduction in CS-NPs electrical charge which correspondingly increased the z-average due to agglomeration. Curcumin release from CS-NPs was slowest at chitosan to TPP weight ratio of 3:1, with a significant retention (36%) at the end of 6 h. Adsorption isotherms of mucin on CS-NPs fitted both the Freundlich and Langmuir models, suggesting a monolayer-limited adsorption on heterogeneous sites with varied affinities. Encapsulated curcumin exerted an influence on the adsorption of mucin due to H-bonding as well as π-π interactions between the phenolic moieties of curcumin and mucin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  8. Wong TW
    Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul, 2011 Sep;5(3):227-43.
    PMID: 21834774
    Design of oral fast-release solid dispersion of poorly water-soluble drugs has been a great challenge over past decades on issues of drug recrystallization, drug polymorphism, formulation limited to low drug-to-carrier ratio and drug particle aggregation in matrix. The complexity in solid dispersion design is envisaged to be resolvable by the use of nanoparticulate system as solid dosage form. This manuscript reviews several patented processing approaches of nanoparticulate solid dispersion that have been reported recently. Through drug nanoencapsulation, a higher content of drug may be delivered with less aggregation via placing the same drug mass in a greater number of tinier carriers. Nanoencapsulation, by its own process of formation, brings about submicron particles. Keeping drug in these nanoparticles, a remarkable rise in specific surface area of drug is realized for dissolution. The augmentation of drug dissolution can be sufficiently high to the extent that the influences of polymorphism and crystallization phenomenon on drug dissolution in a solid dispersion may be negligible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage*
  9. Liew KB, Tan YT, Peh KK
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012 Mar;13(1):134-42.
    PMID: 22167416 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-011-9729-4
    The aim of this study was to develop a taste-masked oral disintegrating film (ODF) containing donepezil, with fast disintegration time and suitable mechanical strength, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, polyethylene glycol, lactose monohydrate and crosspovidone served as the hydrophilic polymeric bases of the ODF. The uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, drug release and the folding endurance of the ODF were examined. The in vitro results showed that 80% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 5 minutes with mean disintegration time of 44 seconds. The result of the film flexibility test showed that the number of folding time to crack the film was 40 times, an indication of sufficient mechanical property for patient use. A single-dose, fasting, four-period, eight-treatment, double-blind study involving 16 healthy adult volunteers was performed to evaluate the in situ disintegration time and palatability of ODF. Five parameters, namely taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel, ease of handling and acceptance were evaluated. The mean in situ disintegration time of ODF was 49 seconds. ODF containing 7 mg of sucralose were more superior than saccharin and aspartame in terms of taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel and acceptance. Furthermore, the ODF was stable for at least 6 months when stored at 40°C and 75% relative humidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  10. Loo Ch, Basri M, Ismail R, Lau H, Tejo B, Kanthimathi M, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:13-22.
    PMID: 23293516 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S35648
    To study the effects of varying lipid concentrations, lipid and oil ratio, and the addition of propylene glycol and lecithin on the long-term physical stability of nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLC), skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage*
  11. Zakarial Ansar FH, Latifah SY, Wan Kamal WHB, Khong KC, Ng Y, Foong JN, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:7703-7717.
    PMID: 33116496 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S262395
    Background: Thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound isolated from Nigella sativa, has been proven to exhibit various biological properties such as antioxidant. Although oral delivery of TQ is valuable, it is limited by poor oral bioavailability and low solubility. Recently, TQ-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (TQ-NLC) was formulated with the aim of overcoming the limitations. TQ-NLC was successfully synthesized by the high-pressure homogenization method with remarkable physiochemical properties whereby the particle size is less than 100 nm, improved encapsulation efficiency and is stable up to 24 months of storage. Nevertheless, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of TQ-NLC have not been studied. This study determined the bioavailability of oral and intravenous administration of thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (TQ-NLC) in rats and its distribution to organs.

    Materials and Methods: TQ-NLC was radiolabeled with technetium-99m before the administration to the rats. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics parameters were then evaluated at various time points. The rats were imaged at time intervals and the percentage of the injected dose/gram (%ID/g) in blood and each organ was analyzed.

    Results: Oral administration of TQ-NLC exhibited greater relative bioavailability compared to intravenous administration. It is postulated that the movement of TQ-NLC through the intestinal lymphatic system bypasses the first metabolism and therefore enhances the relative bioavailability. However, oral administration has a slower absorption rate compared to intravenous administration where the AUC0-∞ was 4.539 times lower than the latter.

    Conclusion: TQ-NLC had better absorption when administered intravenously compared to oral administration. However, oral administration showed greater bioavailability compared to the intravenous route. This study provides the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution profile of TQ-NLC in vivo which is useful to assist researchers in clinical use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  12. Md S, Haque S, Madheswaran T, Zeeshan F, Meka VS, Radhakrishnan AK, et al.
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 Aug;22(8):1274-1283.
    PMID: 28456749 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2017.04.010
    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive technique used in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant skin diseases. It offers great promise because of its simplicity, enhanced patient compliance, localisation of the photosensitizer, as well as the use of light and oxygen to achieve photocytotoxicity. Despite progress in photosensitizer-mediated topical PDT, its clinical application is limited by poor penetration of photosensitizers through the skin. Therefore, much effort has been made to develop nanocarriers that can tackle the challenges of conventional photosensitizer-mediated PDT for topical delivery. This review discusses recent data on the use of different types of lipid-based nanocarriers in delivering photosensitizer for topical PDT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage*
  13. Ngan CL, Asmawi AA
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2018 10;8(5):1527-1544.
    PMID: 29881970 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0550-4
    Inhalation therapy of lipid-based carriers has great potential in direct target towards the root of respiratory diseases, which make them superior over other drug deliveries. With the successful entry of lipid carriers into the target cells, drugs can be absorbed in a sustained release manner and yield extended medicinal effects. Nevertheless, translation of inhalation therapy from laboratory to clinic especially in drug delivery remains a key challenge to the formulators. An ideal drug vehicle should safeguard the drugs from any premature elimination, facilitate cellular uptake, and promote maximum drug absorption with negligible toxicity. Despite knowing that lung treatment can be done via systemic delivery, pulmonary administration is capable of enhancing drug retention within the lungs, while minimizing systemic toxicity with local targeting. Current inhalation therapy of lipid-based carriers can be administered either intratracheally or intranasally to reach deep lung. However, the complex dimensions of lung architectural and natural defense mechanism poise major barriers towards targeted pulmonary delivery. Delivery systems have to be engineered in a way to tackle various diseases according to their biological conditions. This review highlights on the developmental considerations of lipid-based delivery systems cater for the pulmonary intervention of different lung illnesses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage*
  14. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Chin PX, Phang YL, Cheah JY, Ooi SC, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2018 10;8(5):1545-1563.
    PMID: 29916012 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0552-2
    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a predominant challenge in chemotherapy due to the existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which restricts delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the brain together with the problem of drug penetration through hard parenchyma of the GBM. With the structural and mechanistic elucidation of the BBB under both physiological and pathological conditions, it is now viable to target central nervous system (CNS) disorders utilizing the presence of transferrin (Tf) receptors (TfRs). However, overexpression of these TfRs on the GBM cell surface can also help to avoid restrictions of GBM cells to deliver chemotherapeutic agents within the tumor. Therefore, targeting of TfR-mediated delivery could counteract drug delivery issues in GBM and create a delivery system that could cross the BBB effectively to utilize ligand-conjugated drug complexes through receptor-mediated transcytosis. Hence, approach towards successful delivery of antitumor agents to the gliomas has been making possible through targeting these overexpressed TfRs within the CNS and glioma cells. This review article presents a thorough analysis of current understanding on Tf-conjugated nanocarriers as efficient drug delivery system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  15. Ruman U, Fakurazi S, Masarudin MJ, Hussein MZ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:1437-1456.
    PMID: 32184597 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S236927
    The development of therapeutics and theranostic nanodrug delivery systems have posed a challenging task for the current researchers due to the requirement of having various nanocarriers and active agents for better therapy, imaging, and controlled release of drugs efficiently in one platform. The conventional liver cancer chemotherapy has many negative effects such as multiple drug resistance (MDR), high clearance rate, severe side effects, unwanted drug distribution to the specific site of liver cancer and low concentration of drug that finally reaches liver cancer cells. Therefore, it is necessary to develop novel strategies and novel nanocarriers that will carry the drug molecules specific to the affected cancerous hepatocytes in an adequate amount and duration within the therapeutic window. Therapeutics and theranostic systems have advantages over conventional chemotherapy due to the high efficacy of drug loading or drug encapsulation efficiency, high cellular uptake, high drug release, and minimum side effects. These nanocarriers possess high drug accumulation in the tumor area while minimizing toxic effects on healthy tissues. This review focuses on the current research on nanocarrier-based therapeutics and theranostic drug delivery systems excluding the negative consequences of nanotechnology in the field of drug delivery systems. However, clinical developments of theranostics nanocarriers for liver cancer are considered outside of the scope of this article. This review discusses only the recent developments of nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems for liver cancer therapy and diagnosis. The negative consequences of individual nanocarrier in the drug delivery system will also not be covered in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  16. Ruttala HB, Ramasamy T, Madeshwaran T, Hiep TT, Kandasamy U, Oh KT, et al.
    Arch Pharm Res, 2018 Feb;41(2):111-129.
    PMID: 29214601 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-017-0995-x
    The development of novel drug delivery systems based on well-defined polymer therapeutics has led to significant improvements in the treatment of multiple disorders. Advances in material chemistry, nanotechnology, and nanomedicine have revolutionized the practices of drug delivery. Stimulus-responsive material-based nanosized drug delivery systems have remarkable properties that allow them to circumvent biological barriers and achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery. Specifically, the development of novel nanocarrier-based therapeutics is the need of the hour in managing complex diseases. In this review, we have briefly described the fundamentals of drug targeting to diseased tissues, physiological barriers in the human body, and the mechanisms/modes of drug-loaded carrier systems. To that end, this review serves as a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems, with focus on their potential applications and impact on the future of drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  17. Chellappan DK, Prasher P, Saravanan V, Vern Yee VS, Wen Chi WC, Wong JW, et al.
    Chem Biol Interact, 2022 Jan 05;351:109706.
    PMID: 34662570 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109706
    The challenges and difficulties associated with conventional drug delivery systems have led to the emergence of novel, advanced targeted drug delivery systems. Therapeutic drug delivery of proteins and peptides to the lungs is complicated owing to the large size and polar characteristics of the latter. Nevertheless, the pulmonary route has attracted great interest today among formulation scientists, as it has evolved into one of the important targeted drug delivery platforms for the delivery of peptides, and related compounds effectively to the lungs, primarily for the management and treatment of chronic lung diseases. In this review, we have discussed and summarized the current scenario and recent developments in targeted delivery of proteins and peptide-based drugs to the lungs. Moreover, we have also highlighted the advantages of pulmonary drug delivery over conventional drug delivery approaches for peptide-based drugs, in terms of efficacy, retention time and other important pharmacokinetic parameters. The review also highlights the future perspectives and the impact of targeted drug delivery on peptide-based drugs in the coming decade.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  18. Khan I, Kumar H, Mishra G, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(35):5315-5326.
    PMID: 28875848 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170829164828
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is becoming advanced day by day. However, the challenge of the effective delivery system still does exist. In various types of cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Breast cancer is a combination of different diseases. It cannot be considered as only one entity because there are many specific patient factors, which are involved in the development of this disease. Nanotechnology has opened a new area in the effective treatment of breast cancer due to the several benefits offered by this technology.

    METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.

    RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage*
  19. Hussain Z, Katas H, Mohd Amin MC, Kumolosasi E, Sahudin S
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:5143-56.
    PMID: 25395851 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S71543
    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, noncontiguous, and exudative disorder accompanied by perivascular infiltration of immune mediators, including T-helper (Type 1 helper/Type 2 helper) cells, mast cells, and immunoglobulin E. The current study explores the immunomodulatory and histological effects of nanoparticle (NP)-based transcutaneous delivery of hydrocortisone (HC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
  20. Kura AU, Hussein Al Ali SH, Hussein MZ, Fakurazi S, Arulselvan P
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:1103-10.
    PMID: 23524513 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S39740
    A new layered organic-inorganic nanocomposite material with an anti-parkinsonian active compound, L-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine (levodopa), intercalated into the inorganic interlayers of a Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was synthesized using a direct coprecipitation method. The resulting nanocomposite was composed of the organic moiety, levodopa, sandwiched between Zn/Al-LDH inorganic interlayers. The basal spacing of the resulting nano-composite was 10.9 Å. The estimated loading of levodopa in the nanocomposite was approximately 16% (w/w). A Fourier transform infrared study showed that the absorption bands of the nanocomposite were characteristic of both levodopa and Zn/Al-LDH, which further confirmed intercalation, and that the intercalated organic moiety in the nanocomposite was more thermally stable than free levodopa. The resulting nanocomposite showed sustained-release properties, so can be used in a controlled-release formulation. Cytotoxicity analysis using an MTT assay also showed increased cell viability of 3T3 cells exposed to the newly synthesized nanocomposite compared with those exposed to pure levodopa after 72 hours of exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/administration & dosage
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