Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 202 in total

  1. Irfan SA, Razali R, KuShaari K, Mansor N, Azeem B, Ford Versypt AN
    J Control Release, 2018 02 10;271:45-54.
    PMID: 29274697 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.12.017
    Nutrients released into soils from uncoated fertilizer granules are lost continuously due to volatilization, leaching, denitrification, and surface run-off. These issues have caused economic loss due to low nutrient absorption efficiency and environmental pollution due to hazardous emissions and water eutrophication. Controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) can change the release kinetics of the fertilizer nutrients through an abatement strategy to offset these issues by providing the fertilizer content in synchrony with the metabolic needs of the plants. Parametric analysis of release characteristics of CRFs is of paramount importance for the design and development of new CRFs. However, the experimental approaches are not only time consuming, but they are also cumbersome and expensive. Scientists have introduced mathematical modeling techniques to predict the release of nutrients from the CRFs to elucidate fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the release processes and to design new CRFs in a shorter time and with relatively lower cost. This paper reviews and critically analyzes the latest developments in the mathematical modeling and simulation techniques that have been reported for the characteristics and mechanisms of nutrient release from CRFs. The scope of this review includes the modeling and simulations techniques used for coated, controlled-release fertilizers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation*
  2. Ali Y, Alqudah A, Ahmad S, Abd Hamid S, Farooq U
    Des Monomers Polym, 2019;22(1):91-97.
    PMID: 31007637 DOI: 10.1080/15685551.2019.1591681
    Targeted drug delivery system improves the efficiency and safety of the therapeutic agents by managing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. Currently, numerous drug carrier systems have been developed with different sizes, architectures and characteristics surface properties. Among different systems, macromolecules have a wide range of applications in targeted drug delivery system. The optimal drug loading potential, smooth drug releasing ability and biocompatibility are the distinguishing features that ensure the drugs delivery ability of macromolecules. This review briefly introduces some of the most commonly studied macromolecules which have been recommended as drugs delivery vehicles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  3. Salma H, Melha YM, Sonia L, Hamza H, Salim N
    J Pharm Sci, 2021 06;110(6):2531-2543.
    PMID: 33548245 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2021.01.032
    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously predict the drug release and skin permeation of Piroxicam (PX) topical films based on Chitosan (CTS), Xanthan gum (XG) and its Carboxymethyl derivatives (CMXs) as matrix systems. These films were prepared by the solvent casting method, using Tween 80 (T80) as a permeation enhancer. All of the prepared films were assessed for their physicochemical parameters, their in vitro drug release and ex vivo skin permeation studies. Moreover, deep learning models and machine learning models were applied to predict the drug release and permeation rates. The results indicated that all of the films exhibited good consistency and physicochemical properties. Furthermore, it was noticed that when T80 was used in the optimal formulation (F8) based on CTS-CMX3, a satisfactory drug release pattern was found where 99.97% of PX was released and an amount of 1.18 mg/cm2 was permeated after 48 h. Moreover, Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) efficiently enhanced the performance of deep learning models and DNN was chosen as the best predictive approach with MSE values equal to 0.00098 and 0.00182 for the drug release and permeation kinetics, respectively. DNN precisely predicted PX dissolution profiles with f2 values equal to 99.99 for all the formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  4. Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Tajau, Rida, Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan, Mohd Hilmi Mahmood, Kamaruddin Hashim, Mohd Yusof Hamzah
    The use of microemulsion in the development of nanoparticle based on acrylated palm oil product is demonstrated. Acr ylated palm oil microemulsions were prepared using ionic surfactant. Combination methods of emulsion polymerization and radiation crosslinking were applied to the microemulsion system for synthesizing nanoparticle. The ionizing radiat ion technique was introduced to generate a crosslinking reaction in the development of nanoparticle. The nanoparticle was evaluated in terms of particle diameter, surface charge, pH and conductance. Their image was captured using Tra nsmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results show that the size, charge and shape of the particles are influenced by c oncentration of surfactants, monomer concentration, radiation dose and time of storage. The study showed a promising method to produced nanoparticle. This nano-sized product has the potential to be utilized as controlled-drug-release-carrier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  5. Kuche K, Maheshwari R, Tambe V, Mak KK, Jogi H, Raval N, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2018 May 17;10(19):8911-8937.
    PMID: 29722421 DOI: 10.1039/c8nr01383g
    The search for effective and non-invasive delivery modules to transport therapeutic molecules across skin has led to the discovery of a number of nanocarriers (viz.: liposomes, ethosomes, dendrimers, etc.) in the last few decades. However, available literature suggests that these delivery modules face several issues including poor stability, low encapsulation efficiency, and scale-up hurdles. Recently, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) emerged as a versatile tool to deliver therapeutics across skin. Superior stability, high loading capacity, well-developed synthesis protocol as well as ease of scale-up are some of the reason for growing interest in CNTs. CNTs have a unique physical architecture and a large surface area with unique surface chemistry that can be tailored for vivid biomedical applications. CNTs have been thus largely engaged in the development of transdermal systems such as tuneable hydrogels, programmable nonporous membranes, electroresponsive skin modalities, protein channel mimetic platforms, reverse iontophoresis, microneedles, and dermal buckypapers. In addition, CNTs were also employed in the development of RNA interference (RNAi) based therapeutics for correcting defective dermal genes. This review expounds the state-of-art synthesis methodologies, skin penetration mechanism, drug liberation profile, loading potential, characterization techniques, and transdermal applications along with a summary on patent/regulatory status and future scope of CNT based skin therapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  6. Abdul Khodir WKW, Abdul Razak AH, Ng MH, Guarino V, Susanti D
    J Funct Biomater, 2018 May 18;9(2).
    PMID: 29783681 DOI: 10.3390/jfb9020036
    In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is tremendously diffusing as skin substitutes. Indeed, engineered skin grafts or analogues frequently play an important role in the treatment of chronic skin wounds, by supporting the regeneration of newly formed tissue, and at the same time preventing infections during the long-term treatment. In this context, natural proteins such as collagen-natively present in the skin tissue-embedded in synthetic polymers (i.e., PCL) allow the development of micro-structured matrices able to mimic the functions and to structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Moreover, the encapsulation of drugs, such as gentamicin sulfate, also improves the bioactivity of nanofibers, due to the efficient loading and a controlled drug release towards the site of interest. Herein, we have done a preliminary investigation on the capability of gentamicin sulfate, loaded into collagen-added nanofibers, for the controlled release in local infection treatments. Experimental studies have demonstrated that collagen added fibers can be efficaciously used to administrate gentamicin for 72 h without any toxic in vitro response, thus emerging as a valid candidate for the therapeutic treatment of infected wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  7. Senjoti FG, Mahmood S, Jaffri JM, Mandal UK
    Iran J Pharm Res, 2016;15(1):53-70.
    PMID: 27610147
    An oral sustained-release floating tablet formulation of metformin HCl was designed and developed. Effervescence and swelling properties were attributed on the developed tablets by sodium bicarbonate and HPMC-PEO polymer combination, respectively. Tablet composition was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Seventeen (17) trial formulations were analyzed according to Box-Behnken design of experiment where polymer content of HPMC and PEO at 1: 4 ratio (A), amount of sodium bi-carbonate (B), and amount of SSG (C) were adopted as independent variables. Floating lag time in sec (Y1), cumulative percent drug released at 1 h (Y2) and 12 h (Y3) were chosen as response variables. Tablets from the optimized formulation were also stored at accelerated stability condition (40°C and 75% RH) for 3 months to assess their stability profile. RSM could efficiently optimize the tablet composition with excellent prediction ability. In-vitro drug release until 12 h, floating lag time, and duration of floating were dependent on the amount of three selected independent variables. Optimized tablets remained floating for more than 24 h with a floating lag time of less than 4 min. Based on best fitting method, optimized formulation was found to follow Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetic. Accelerated stability study revealed that optimized formulation was stable for three months without any major changes in assay, dissolution profile, floating lag time and other physical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  8. Setapa A, Ahmad N, Mohd Mahali S, Mohd Amin MCI
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Dec 05;12(12).
    PMID: 33291495 DOI: 10.3390/polym12122921
    Various swelling drug delivery devices are promising materials for control drug delivery because of their ability to swell and release entrapped therapeutics, in response to physiological stimuli. Previously, many mathematical models have been developed to predict the mechanism of drug release from a swelling device. However, some of these models do not consider the changes in diffusion behaviour as the device swells. Therefore, we used a two-phase approach to simplify the mathematical model considering the effect of swelling on the diffusion coefficient. We began by defining a moving boundary problem to consider the swelling process. Landau transformation was used for mitigating the moving boundary problem. The transformed problem was analytically solved using the separation of variables method. Further, the analytical solution was extended to include the drug release in two phases where each phase has distinct diffusion coefficient and continuity condition was applied. The newly developed model was validated by the experimental data of bacterial cellulose hydrogels using the LSQCURVEFIT function in MATLAB. The numerical test showed that the new model exhibited notable improvement in curve fitting, and it was observed that the initial effective diffusion coefficient of the swelling device was lower than the later effective diffusion coefficient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  9. Uyen NTT, Hamid ZAA, Tram NXT, Ahmad N
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Jun 15;153:1035-1046.
    PMID: 31794824 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.10.233
    Alginate microspheres (AMs) have received much attention as a novel drug delivery system owing to various advantages of alginate such as inexpensiveness, nontoxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. The well-designed fabrication method is essential to achieve desired AMs suitable for specific drug delivery system. Reports on AMs preparation techniques have increased rapidly in the last decade. A number of synthesis parameters have been investigated for the improvement of physical, chemical and biological properties of AMs. Hence, this review summarizes the work to date on the fabrication techniques of AMs for drug delivery system, including spray-drying, extrusion and emulsification/gelation technique. Besides, the influence of various factors such as alginate concentration, oil phase, surfactant, cross-linker concentrations, cross-linking time, stirring speed, model drug and drug content on the morphologies, properties and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of AMs via extrusion and emulsification/gelation technique are summarized. Before embarking on the development of any drug delivery system, a thorough understanding of drug release mechanism and factors that impact the drug release profile are essential, which are also covered in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  10. Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Abadi Gumah Abadi, Naveed Ahmad, Haliza Katas, Jamia Azdina Jamal
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:561-568.
    There has been an increasing interest in the use of natural materials as drug delivery vehicles due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility and ready availability. These properties make bacterial cellulose (BC), from nata de coco, a promising biopolymer for drug delivery applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the film-coating and drug release properties of this biopolymer. Physicochemical, morphological and thermal properties of BC films were studied. Model tablets were film coated with BC, using a spray coating technique, and in vitro drug release studies of these tablets were investigated. It was found that BC exhibited excellent ability to form soft, flexible and foldable films without the addition
    of any plasticizer. They were comparable to Aquacoat ECD (with plasticizer) in tensile strength, percentage elongation and elasticity modulus. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) BC showed a high Tg value indicating thermally stability of films. These results suggest that BC can be used as novel aqueous film-coating agent with lower cost and better film forming properties than existing film-coating agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  11. Parham S, Kharazi AZ, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Ghayour H, Ismail AF, Nur H, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 May 06;13(9).
    PMID: 32384813 DOI: 10.3390/ma13092153
    Pharmaceutical nano-fibers have attracted widespread attention from researchers for reasons such as adaptability of the electro-spinning process and ease of production. As a flexible method for fabricating nano-fibers, electro-spinning is extensively used. An electro-spinning unit is composed of a pump or syringe, a high voltage current supplier, a metal plate collector and a spinneret. Optimization of the attained nano-fibers is undertaken through manipulation of the variables of the process and formulation, including concentration, viscosity, molecular mass, and physical phenomenon, as well as the environmental parameters including temperature and humidity. The nano-fibers achieved by electro-spinning can be utilized for drug loading. The mixing of two or more medicines can be performed via electro-spinning. Facilitation or inhibition of the burst release of a drug can be achieved by the use of the electro-spinning approach. This potential is anticipated to facilitate progression in applications of drug release modification and tissue engineering (TE). The present review aims to focus on electro-spinning, optimization parameters, pharmacological applications, biological characteristics, and in vivo analyses of the electro-spun nano-fibers. Furthermore, current developments and upcoming investigation directions are outlined for the advancement of electro-spun nano-fibers for TE. Moreover, the possible applications, complications and future developments of these nano-fibers are summarized in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  12. Sampath Udeni Gunathilake TM, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Rahman NA, Liou NS
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 May 07;158:670-688.
    PMID: 32389655 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.010
    The limitations of existing drug delivery systems (DDS) such as non-specific bio-distribution and poor selectivity have led to the exploration of a variety of carrier platforms to facilitate highly desirable and efficient drug delivery. Stimuli-responsive DDS are one of the most versatile and innovative approach to steer the compounds to the intended sites by exploiting their responsiveness to a range of various triggers. Preparation of stimuli-responsive DDS using celluloses and their derivatives offer a remarkable advantage over conventional polymer materials. In this review, we highlight on state-of-art progress in developing cellulose/cellulose hybrid stimuli-responsive DDS, which covers the preparation techniques, physicochemical properties, basic principles and, mechanisms of stimuli effect on drug release from various types of cellulose based carriers, through recent innovative investigations. Attention has been paid to endogenous stimuli (pH, temperature, redox gradient and ionic-strength) responsive DDS and exogenous stimuli (light, magnetic field and electric field) responsive DDS, where the cellulose-based materials have been extensively employed. Furthermore, the current challenges and future prospects of these DDS are also discussed at the end.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  13. Musa N, Wong TW
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Nov 01;247:116673.
    PMID: 32829801 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116673
    Microencapsulation of polysaccharidic nanoparticles is met with nanoscale and biological performance changes. This study designs soft agglomerates as nanoparticle vehicle without nanoparticles undergoing physical processes that alter their geometry. The nanoparticles were made of high molecular weight chitosan/pectin with covalent 5-fluorouracil/folate. Nanoparticle aggregation vehicle was prepared from low molecular weight chitosan. The nanoparticles and aggregation vehicle were blended in specific weight ratios to produce soft agglomerates. Nanoparticles alone are unable to agglomerate. Adding aggregation vehicle (< 2 μm) promoted soft agglomeration with nanoparticles deposited onto its surfaces with minimal binary coalescence. The large and rough-surfaced aggregation vehicle promoted nanoparticles deposition and agglomeration. A rounder vehicle allowed assembly of nanoparticles-on-aggregation vehicle into agglomerates through interspersing smaller between larger populations. Soft agglomeration reduced early drug release, and was responsive to intracapsular sodium alginate coat to further sustain drug release. The soft agglomerates can serve as a primary oral colon-specific vehicle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  14. Almurisi SH, Doolaanea AA, Akkawi ME, Chatterjee B, Ahmed Saeed Aljapairai K, Islam Sarker MZ
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2020 Aug;46(8):1373-1383.
    PMID: 32619118 DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2020.1791165
    OBJECTIVE: Paracetamol is a common antipyretic and analgesic medicine used in childhood illness by parents and physicians worldwide. Paracetamol has a bitter taste that is considered as a significant barrier for drug administration. This study aimed to develop an oral dosage form that is palatable and easy to swallow by pediatric patients as well as to overcome the shortcomings of liquid formulations.

    METHODS: The paracetamol was encapsulated in beads, which were prepared mainly from alginate and chitosan through electrospray technique. The paracetamol beads were sprinkled on the instant jelly prepared from glycine, ι-carrageenan and calcium lactate gluconate. The paracetamol instant jelly characteristics, in terms of physical appearance, texture, rheology, in vitro drug release and palatability were assessed on a human volunteer.

    RESULTS: The paracetamol instant jelly was easily reconstituted in 20 mL of water within 2 min to form jelly with acceptable consistency and texture. The jelly must be ingested within 30 min after reconstitution to avoid the bitter taste. The palatability assessment carried out on 12 human subjects established the similar palatability and texture of the paracetamol instant jelly dosage comparable to the commercial paracetamol suspension and was found to be even better in overcoming the aftertaste of paracetamol.

    CONCLUSION: Such findings indicate that paracetamol instant jelly will compensate for the use of sweetening and flavoring agents as well as develop pediatric dosage forms with limited undesired excipients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation
  15. Dabbagh A, Abdullah BJ, Abu Kasim NH, Abdullah H, Hamdi M
    Int J Hyperthermia, 2015 Jun;31(4):375-85.
    PMID: 25716769 DOI: 10.3109/02656736.2015.1006268
    The aim of this paper was to introduce a new mechanism of thermal sensitivity in nanocarriers that results in a relatively low drug release at physiological temperature and rapid release of the encapsulated drug at hyperthermia and thermal ablation temperature range (40-60 °C).
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation*
  16. Siddiqui NA, Billa N, Roberts CJ
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2017 Jun;28(8):781-793.
    PMID: 28278045 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1301774
    The principal challenge for the use of boronic acids (BA) as glucose sensors is their lack of specificity for glucose. We examined the selectivity of and insulin release from two boronic acids- (2-formyl-3-thienylboronic acid (FTBA) and 4-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA)) conjugated chitosan scaffolds to glucose and fructose. Adsorption of glucose to BA: chitosan conjugates was dose-dependent up to 1:1 at 35 and 42% for FPBA and FTBA respectively but the FTBA conjugates adsorbed more glucose and fructose at respective FPBA ratios. The affinity of both BA conjugates to glucose decreased with increase in BA ratio. On the other hand, the affinity of both BA conjugates for fructose decreased from ratio 1:1 to 2:1 then rose again at 3:1. Insulin release from FPBA nanoparticles (FPBAINP) and FTBA nanoparticles (FTBAINP) were both concentration-dependent within glyceamically relevant values (1-3 mg/ml glucose and 0.002 mg/ml fructose). Furthermore, the total amounts of insulin released from FPBAINP in both the media were higher than from FTBAINP. Both FPBAINP and FTBAINP have the potential for development as a glucose-selective insulin delivery system in physiological settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation*
  17. Siddiqa AJ, Shrivastava NK, Ali Mohsin ME, Abidi MH, Shaikh TA, El-Meligy MA
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2019 Jul 01;179:445-452.
    PMID: 31005739 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.04.014
    This paper focuses on the development of a drug delivery system for systemically controlled release of a poorly soluble drug, letrozole. The work meticulously describes the preparation and characterizations of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) polymerization onto hydrophilic acrylamide grafted low-density polyethylene (AAm-g-LDPE) surface for targeted drug release system. The surface morphology and thickness measurement of coated pHEMA layer were measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling study was done in deionized (DI) water and simulated uterine fluid (SUF, pH = 7.6). In vitro release of letrozole from the system was performed in SUF. Further, the release kinetics of letrozole from the system was studied using different mathematical models. The results, suggest that the rate of drug release can be altered by varying the concentrations of cross-linker in pHEMA. The optimized sample released 72% drug at the end of 72 h of measurement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation*
  18. Ansary RH, Rahman MM, Awang MB, Katas H, Hadi H, Mohamed F, et al.
    Arch Pharm Res, 2016 Sep;39(9):1242-56.
    PMID: 26818028 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-016-0710-3
    The aim of this study was to prepare a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded double-walled microspheres using a fast degrading glucose core, hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (Glu-PLGA) and a moderate-degrading carboxyl-terminated PLGA polymers to reduce the initial burst release and to eliminate the lag phase from the release profile of PLGA microspheres. The double-walled microspheres were prepared using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (w/o/o/w) method and single-polymer microspheres were prepared using a conventional water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation method. The particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, thermal properties, in vitro drug release and structural integrity of BSA were evaluated in this study. Double-walled microspheres prepared with Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers with a mass ratio of 1:1 were non-porous, smooth-surfaced, and spherical in shape. A significant reduction of initial burst release was achieved for the double-walled microspheres compared to single-polymer microspheres. In addition, microspheres prepared using Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers in a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibited continuous BSA release after the small initial burst without any lag phase. It can be concluded that the double-walled microspheres made of Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers in a mass ratio of 1:1 can be a potential delivery system for pharmaceutical proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation*
  19. Pandey M, Choudhury H, D/O Segar Singh SK, Chetty Annan N, Bhattamisra SK, Gorain B, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 May 05;26(9).
    PMID: 34062995 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26092704
    A single ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation of the colonic mucosa at the distal colon and rectum. The mainstay therapy involves anti-inflammatory immunosuppression based on the disease location and severity. The disadvantages of using systemic corticosteroids for UC treatment is the amplified risk of malignancies and infections. Therefore, topical treatments are safer as they have fewer systemic side effects due to less systemic exposure. In this context, pH sensitive and enzymatically triggered hydrogel of pectin (PC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) has been developed to facilitate colon-targeted delivery of budesonide (BUD) for the treatment of UC. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), swelling ratio, and drug release. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the grafting as well loading of BUD in hydrogel. XRD showed the amorphous nature of hydrogel and increment in crystallinity after drug loading. On the other hand, SEM showed that the hydrogels exhibited a highly porous morphology, which is suitable for drug loading and also demonstrated a pH-responsive swelling behaviour, with decreased swelling in acidic media. The in-vitro release of BUD from the hydrogel exhibited a sustained release behaviour with non-ficken diffusion mechanism. The model that fitted best for BUD released was the Higuchi kinetic model. It was concluded that enzyme/pH dual-sensitive hydrogels are an effective colon-targeted delivery system for UC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation*
  20. Abrami M, Golob S, Pontelli F, Chiarappa G, Grassi G, Perissutti B, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Mar 25;559:373-381.
    PMID: 30716402 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.01.055
    Bacterial infections represent an important drawback in the orthopaedic field, as they can develop either immediately after surgery procedures or after some years. Specifically, in case of implants, they are alleged to be troublesome as their elimination often compels a surgical removal of the infected implant. A possible solution strategy could involve a local coating of the implant by an antibacterial system, which requires to be easily applicable, biocompatible and able to provide the desired release kinetics for the selected antibacterial drug. Thus, this work focusses on a biphasic system made up by a thermo-reversible gel matrix (Poloxamer 407/water system) hosting a dispersed phase (PLGA micro-particles), containing a model antibacterial drug (vancomycin hydrochloride). In order to understand the key parameters ruling the performance of this delivery system, we developed a mathematical model able to discriminate the drug diffusion inside micro-particles and within the gel phase, eventually providing to predict the drug release kinetics. The model reliability was confirmed by fitting to experimental data, proposing as a powerful theoretical approach to design and optimize such in situ delivery systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Liberation/drug effects
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