METHODS: A retrospective study of all hospitalized cases of EM, SJS, and TEN was conducted covering an 8-year period from 1987 to 1994.
RESULTS: There were four cases (13.8%) of EM, 22 cases (75.9%) of SJS, and three cases (10.3%) of TEN. Drugs as a definitive cause was observed in one case (25%) of EM, 12 cases (54.5%) of SJS, and two cases (66.7%) of TEN. Drugs as a probable cause was observed in seven cases (31.8%) of SJS and one case (33.3%) of TEN. The male to female ratio was equal in EM and SJS. Antiepileptics were the commonest culprits, followed by antibiotics. One patient died of SJS and one patient died of TEN, giving mortality rates of 4.5% and 33.5% respectively. Fever was noted in 18 patients (62.1%). Leukocytosis was noted in 10 patients (34.5%), and nine patients (31.0%) had elevated liver transaminase enzymes. No significant correlation was noted between these biochemical changes and cutaneous eruption. Secondary infections were observed in 11 patients (37.9%): Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest isolated organism.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that drugs remain the commonest culprit in SJS and TEN. Despite adequate treatment, the mortality rate remains high, especially in TEN. These findings are similar to those of other reported studies.
Materials and Methods: The study used a qualitative exploratory design, comprising 12 in-depth interviews. A semi-structured topic guide was used to explore all relevant aspects of the topic, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim. All the interviews were conducted in a few beauty salons in purposively selected city areas in the state of Kedah, Malaysia.
Results: Of the 12 patients, seven (58%) reported a positive experience of facial candling treatment, with improvement in the condition of their allergic rhinitis. Specific themes about the experience of facial candling treatment that were identified within the transcript data included knowledge about facial candling, options for disease treatment, effectiveness of facial candling, sources of information, comparison, application of treatment, treatment budget, and safety. The major strength lies in the fact that reasons for using facial candling were uncovered from the perspectives of people with allergic rhinitis through the in-depth interviews.
Conclusions: The motives of these participants for using facial candling are mainly due to cultural influence and its low cost of treatment. There were mixed responses from the participants about the usefulness of facial candling. Most of the respondents had not assessed the safety of prolonged use of facial candling and regarded it as a safe procedure as this has been practiced for generations.