Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 81 in total

  1. Poi PJ, Chuah SY, Srinivas P, Liam CK
    Eur. Respir. J., 1998 May;11(5):1147-9.
    PMID: 9648970
    In the world of medical literature, little has been reported about the fears of patients undergoing bronchoscopy. The aim of this study was to identify the common fears of patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy and to determine whether any factors might contribute to reducing these fears. One hundred and four consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy were interviewed. Sixty one patients expressed fear about the procedure, as follows: afraid of pain (33); afraid of breathing difficulties (11); afraid of oropharyngeal irritation (5); afraid of the bronchoscopy findings (2); afraid of sedation, cross-infection and nasal lignocaine spray, respectively (3); and unable to be specific (7). There was no difference between the "no fear" and "fearful" groups in ethnicity, source of referral, education, previous endoscopy, doctors' explanation and the patients' understanding of the procedure and its indication. "Fearful" patients were significantly younger (t=2.082, p=0.037) and female (chi2=4.180, p=0.038). Doctors were more likely to explain the indication for bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=6.403; p=0.011), and patients were more likely to understand why they needed a bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=21.505; p<0.001). Fear preceding bronchoscopy is independent of patients' demographic features except for age and gender. Doctors tend to explain "why" but not "how" the procedure is performed. Provision of detailed information about sensations that are likely to be experienced in bronchoscopy could be used to allay some of these common fears.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear*
  2. Goh HT, Nadarajah M, Hamzah NB, Varadan P, Tan MP
    PM R, 2016 12;8(12):1173-1180.
    PMID: 27268565 DOI: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.05.012
    BACKGROUND: Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors.

    DESIGN: Case-control observational study.

    SETTING: Primary teaching hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested.

    METHODS: Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ2 test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments.

    RESULTS: Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P < .01). Participants with stroke reported greater concern for falling than did nonstroke control participants (P < .01). Female gender was associated with falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance. Functional ambulation level alone explained 22% of variance in fear of falling in the stroke group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared with persons without a stroke, patients with stroke were significantly more likely to experience recurrent falls and fear of falling. Falls in patients with stroke were not explained by any of the outcome measures used, whereas fear of falling was predicted by functional ambulation level. This study has identified potentially modifiable risk factors with which to devise future prevention strategies for falls in patients with stroke.


    Matched MeSH terms: Fear*
  3. Kannan S, Muthusamy S, Muthu K, Sidhu P
    Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab, 2015 12 29;12(3):260-1.
    PMID: 26811708 DOI: 10.11138/ccmbm/2015.12.3.260
    Tori and exostoses are benign bony protuberances that arise from bone surfaces in the oral cavity. The etiology of these growths has been implicated as multifactorial, but no consensus has been reached so far. These painless overgrowths seldom present as a complaint in the dental office unless functional or esthetic complications set in, and there is a fear for cancer. Here we discuss two rare cases where bony overgrowths present in the mouth were extensive and multiple.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  4. Nor Mariah Adam, Rosli Darmawan
    One of the most prevailing issues in the operation of Nuclear Reactor is the safety of the system. Worldwide publicity on a few nuclear accidents as well as the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing have always brought about public fear on anything related to nuclear. Most findings on the nuclear reactor accidents are closely related to the reactor cooling system. Thus, the understanding of the behaviour of reactor cooling system is very important to ensure the development and improvement on safety can be continuously done. Throughout the development of nuclear reactor technology, investigation and analysis on reactor safety have gone through several phases. In the early days, analytical and experimental methods were employed. For the last three decades ID system level codes were widely used. The continuous development of nuclear reactor technology has brought about more complex system and processes of nuclear reactor operation. More detailed dimensional simulation codes are needed to assess these new reactors. This paper discusses the development of 3D CFD usage in nuclear reactor safety analysis worldwide. A brief review on the usage of CFD at Malaysia's Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI is also presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  5. Roslaini Che Romli, Chan, Siok Gim
    This quantitative-oriented research was conducted to identify factors that contributed to errors in dispensing
    medication among nurses and to understand why nurses did not report their errors in dispensing. In this
    study a total of 284 U29 nurses participated in focusing on factors contributing to medication errors and
    failure to report the errors. In this study, analysis of the data collected was made in two sections; dispensing
    errors and failure to report the errors in giving medication. According to Evans et al. (2006) although nurses
    may not admit directly to such errors, they expressed their perceptions towards situations described in the
    questionnaire items as contributing to medication errors among nurses. Almost all in the sample of 284
    chose not to report medication errors because they could not identify the cause of dispensing errors; other
    nurses perceived that the individual involved is not competent in performing the task. Other reasons include
    fear that the action will be exposed by the management, to avoid publicity from the media, and there is no
    difference in reporting or not reporting the medication errors. This study was done not only for exploring
    factors of medication errors; it also aspires to identify problems that arise in hospital services and in order to
    maintain the quality of health care. The management should consider the impact of medication errors and
    failure to report medication errors on the nursing profession and quality image of the hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  6. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff, Tan, Ying Jie, Ab Rahman Esa
    Objective: Medical housemanship training has always been regarded as a highly stressful environment to doctors. This article described findings on stress, stressors and coping strategies among house officers in a Malaysian hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on house officers in a Malaysian hospital. The 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), General Stressors Questionnaire (GSQ) and Brief COPE inventory were administered to measure perceived stress, sources of stress and coping strategies among house officers respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12. Results: Forty two house officers participated in this study. This study found that approximately 31% of the house officers were in distress. The top five stressors were fears of making mistakes that can lead to serious consequences, work overload, working with uncooperative colleagues, doing
    work that mentally straining and feeling of being underpaid. The most frequent coping strategies used by house officers were religion, acceptance and self-distraction. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high percentage of distressed house officers. It also found that major stressors were related to performance pressure. The main coping strategy used by house officer was emotion-focused coping.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  7. S.L. Tan
    ASM Science Journal, 2013;7(2):129-138.
    The paper seeks to assuage the fears and worries over living modified organisms (LMOs). It describes how any research carried out on LMOs as well as any release activity on LMOs for public use in Malaysia is controlled by the Biosafety Act 2007. Stringent risk assessment of the LMO and its product/s is carried out to eradicate or minimize the negative effects of these on animal and human health, and to biological diversity and the environment. In contrast, no such risk assessment is carried out on introduced exotic species, or on the products of other types of technology, with the exception of pharmaceuticals. Examples are given comparing risk assessment on LMOs and exotic species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  8. Lee JY, Wong CP, Tan CSS, Nasir NH, Lee SWH
    BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, 2017;5(1):e000365.
    PMID: 28761651 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000365
    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the beliefs, experience and diabetes management strategies of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Muslim patients that chose to fast during Ramadan.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A semistructured focus group interview was conducted with 53 participants with T2DM. Participants were purposefully sampled and asked to share their perspective on Ramadan fasting. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically.

    RESULTS: Participants reported optimism towards fasting during Ramadan, as they believed that fasting was beneficial to their overall well-being, and a time for family bonding. Most participants made limited attempts to discuss with their doctors on the decision to fast and self-adjusted their medication based on experience and symptoms during this period. They also reported difficulty in managing their diet, due to fear of hypoglycemia and the collective social aspect of fasting.

    CONCLUSION: Muslims are optimistic about their well-being when fasting during Ramadan. Many choose to fulfill their religious obligation despite being discouraged by their doctors. Collaboration with religious authorities should be explored to ensure patients receive adequate education before fasting during Ramadan.


    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  9. Seed, H.F., Thong, K.S., Siti-Nor Aizah, A.
    Although disturbance of consciousness in delirium patients have been well
    established, but sudden drop of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) level to three is
    frightening and mysterious. We are reporting a case of a delirious elderly
    man with multiple medical illnesses presented with acute precipitous
    decrement of GCS with pin point pupils bilaterally after given a course of
    benzodiazepines and regained full consciousness spontaneously 32 hours
    later. We discussed the use of deliriogenic medications in the context of
    delirious elderly gentleman with multiple medical illnesses. We also looked
    into the possible differentials of sudden drop of conscious level with bilateral
    pin point pupils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  10. Zhang JW, Chen S, Tomova TK, Bilgin B, Chai WJ, Ramis T, et al.
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 2019 Jan 18.
    PMID: 30658553 DOI: 10.1177/0146167218820914
    Theory and research converge to suggest that authenticity predicts positive psychological adjustment. Given these benefits of authenticity, there is a surprising dearth of research on the factors that foster authenticity. Five studies help fill this gap by testing whether self-compassion promotes subjective authenticity. Study 1 found a positive association between trait self-compassion and authenticity. Study 2 demonstrated that on days when people felt more self-compassionate, they also felt more authentic. Study 3 discovered that people experimentally induced to be self-compassionate reported greater state authenticity relative to control participants. Studies 4 and 5 recruited samples from multiple cultures and used a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design, respectively, and found that self-compassion predicts greater authenticity through reduced fear of negative evaluation (Study 4) and heightened optimism (Study 5). Across studies, self-compassion's effects on authenticity could not be accounted for by self-esteem. Overall, the results suggest that self-compassion can help cultivate subjective authenticity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  11. Ogawa S, Nathan FM, Parhar IS
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2014 Mar 11;111(10):3841-6.
    PMID: 24567386 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1314184111
    Kisspeptin, a neuropeptide encoded by the KISS1/Kiss1, and its cognate G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R), are critical for the control of reproduction in vertebrates. We have previously identified two kisspeptin genes (kiss1 and kiss2) in the zebrafish, of which kiss1 neurons are located in the habenula, which project to the median raphe. kiss2 neurons are located in the hypothalamic nucleus and send axonal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and regulate reproductive functions. However, the physiological significance of the Kiss1 expressed in the habenula remains unknown. Here we demonstrate the role of habenular Kiss1 in alarm substance (AS)-induced fear response in the zebrafish. We found that AS-evoked fear experience significantly reduces kiss1 and serotonin-related genes (plasmacytoma expressed transcript 1 and solute carrier family 6, member 4) in the zebrafish. Furthermore, Kiss1 administration suppressed the AS-evoked fear response. To further evaluate the role of Kiss1 in fear response, zebrafish Kiss1 peptide was conjugated to saporin (SAP) to selectively inactivate Kiss-R1-expressing neurons. The Kiss1-SAP injection significantly reduced Kiss1 immunoreactivity and c-fos mRNA in the habenula and the raphe compared with control. Furthermore, 3 d after Kiss1-SAP injection, the fish had a significantly reduced AS-evoked fear response. These findings provide an insight into the role of the habenular kisspeptin system in inhibiting fear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear/drug effects*; Fear/physiology
  12. Loh LC, Ali AM, Ang TH, Chelliah A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2006 Jul;13(2):30-6.
    PMID: 22589602 MyJurnal
    The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) had caused fear and anxiety of unprecedented proportion. To examine the impact of SARS on the medical students in a private medical university, a self-reporting questionnaire study was carried out to assess the factual knowledge, anxiety level and perception of the crisis, among the students. The two-week study (between 12 and 23 May, 2003) was carried out three weeks after the first reported SARS-related death in Malaysia. Ninety-one Phase I (junior) and 113 Phase II (senior) students completed the questionnaires. A large majority of students of Phase I and II were correct in their factual knowledge and were sensible in their perception of the future and the handling of the crisis by government(s). However, phase 1 students expressed significantly greater degree of anxiety compared to Phase II in relation to attendance and personal protection in hospital, and in meeting people coughing in public places. The lesser degree of anxiety expressed by phase II senior students may be due in part, to a more realistic assessment of SARS risk brought about by maturity, time spent in hospital and interaction with clinical lecturers and medical staff.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  13. Ho E
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2010 Jul-Sep;6(3):e8.
    PMID: 21611049 DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.3.e8
    When x-rays were first discovered, the harmful effects of radiation had to be manifest in the early users before they were known. Today, radiation protection and safety have been established and the effects of radiation, as well as its risks, are known. Even so, medical radiation, in particular the growth in the use of computed tomography (CT), has resulted in soaring radiation doses received by the population in general. Inappropriate use has resulted in overuse, overdose and, perhaps, overdiagnosis, especially when used in screening. In the quest to control and curb the use of procedures involving radiation, however, we must be careful not to provoke a pandemic of irrational fear of radiation. Overreaction to the overuse and overdose of radiation might deter patients from life-saving procedures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  14. Ramli M, Nora M, Roszaman R, Hatta S
    Malays Fam Physician, 2012;7(1):24-7.
    PMID: 25606241 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the features of patients with vaginismus first presented to a gynaecologist for infertility before being referred for psychiatric evaluation and management. The case series aim to provide some insight on features and presentations of Asian women with vaginismus. Vaginismus is characterised by persistent or recurrent difficulties in vaginal penetration despite the woman's wish for coitus. Avoidance, phobia, anticipatory fear of pain and involuntary pelvic muscle contraction are the most common symptoms.

    METHOD: We report a series of cases of Malaysian women who had been suffering from vaginismus and 'infertility'. All the cases had never been attended to medically and there were long delays in seeking intervention. There was no history of traumatic sexual experience or any major psychiatric illness in these patients. Majority of the patients had prominent symptoms of anxiety.

    CONCLUSION: The cases illustrate that it is important to rule out the possibility of vaginismus among patients with infertility. The former have unique psychological features which require psychological interventions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  15. Razak, I.A.
    Ann Dent, 1995;2(1):-.
    A postal questionnaire concerning the Malaysian dentists' attitudes towards their patients yielded a 73.1% response rate. The results of this study indicated that a majority of dentists felt that patients had more negative than positive attributes. Private practitioners attributed more negative traits to their patients than their public sector colleaques. About 88% of dentists indicated that the most negative patient attribute was fear of pain. Fear of pain was perceived to be stronger than fear of the dentist (62.2%). likewise the patients' inability to seek treatment soon enough (78.4%), to come for regular check-up (72.7%) and to follow advice on personal oral hygiene(70.1%) were worrisome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  16. Jambunathan, Stephen T., Gill, Jesjeet Singh, Kanagasundram, Sharmilla, Koh, Ong Hui
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2008;9(2):118-125.
    Dissociation, including multiple personality disorder, has long been a controversial topic. Patients with suggestive symptoms are often misdiagnosed as malingering or even having
    schizophrenia. The former as a result of the overlooking of a clinician on the fact that suggestibility itself plays a key role in the emergence and perpetuation of this illness and the latter due to the lack of knowledge of the whole dissociative disorder spectrum, often resembling that of a psychotic disorder. Another contributing factor to the small number of patients with this diagnosis is due to the reluctance of a psychiatrist to do so because of his/her lack of experience and also fear of humiliation of being accused of seeking fame from diagnosing this somewhat glamorous phenomenon. In Malaysia, various culture bound syndromes often present with similar symptoms too. This article will attempt to understand this dissociation on the local context using case studies as a reference point.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  17. Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim, Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(2):180-0.
    Objective: Postgraduate medical training has always been regarded as a highly stressful environment to students. This article described an initial finding on prevalence and sources of stress among postgraduate students. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on postgraduate students in the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Sample size as calculated for this preliminary study was 38 and convenient sampling method was applied. The 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Postgraduate Stressors Questionnaire (PSQ) were administered during a workshop involving postgraduate students. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12. Results: Thirty three participants participated in this study. This study found that the prevalence of distressed postgraduate students was 36.4%. The top ten stressors were tests and examinations, large amount of content to be learnt, time pressure to meet deadlines, doing work beyond
    ability, work overload, unfair assessment by superior, fears of making mistakes that can lead to serious consequences, doing work that mentally straining, work demands affect my personal and home life, and lack of time to review what have been learnt. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high prevalence of distressed postgraduate students. It also found that the major stressors were related to academic and performance pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  18. Choy, Y.C., Wan Nuruddin Shah, W.J., Wong, Y.M., Boey, C.Y., Noor Zuhaily, M.N., Kumutha, T., et al.
    Effective management of cancer pain is often hampered by patients’ lack of knowledge regarding cancer pain management and other barriers related to ethnicity and religious beliefs. This cross sectional study was performed to determine the patient-related barriers to effective cancer pain management. One hundred patients receiving cancer pain management were studied. Inclusion criteria were: patients over the age of 18 years, able to communicate, with known diagnosis of cancer, experiencing persistent pain for the past two weeks. A modified version of the Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) was used and a modified Brief Pain Inventory was used to assess the pain profile. Barriers such as, patient’s attitude and beliefs, communication skills and fear of side effects of pain medication were determined, given a score and the summation was recorded as the total patient related barriers score. Overall, 85% of respondents achieved more than 40% pain relief and the 72 of 100 patients reported low patient related barrier scores of 6 or less. Nevertheless, the main patient related barriers were: fear of tolerance to opioids (51%), ethnicity (p=0.003) and religious beliefs (p=0.002) which constituted the major components of the patient-related barriers score. Ethnicity and religious beliefs had significant influence on patient-related barriers score suggesting the need of further investigation into this area. In order to achieve a comprehensive view, other barriers to effective cancer pain management such as those related to the health systems and healthcare providers need to be assessed together.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  19. Ang CS, Lee KF
    J Genet Psychol, 2017 Sep-Oct;178(5):291-297.
    PMID: 28961083 DOI: 10.1080/00221325.2017.1355773
    Excessive technology use among young children remains a public health concern with diverse serious consequences. It is important to find out how children resist the temptation to use technology. Using focus group interviews, the authors explored what factors influence children's ability to delay gratification in using technology. Four specific themes emerged from the interview data: they found (a) fear of punishment, (b) self-directed speech, (c) reinforcement, and (d) parental modeling are effective measures to train children to forgo immediate pleasures of using technology. These findings provided some support for the hypothesis that children's self-control of technology use can be modified and improved. This study suggests methods to leverage and strengthen existing initiatives to promote self-control of technology use for children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  20. Ogawa S, Parhar IS
    PMID: 29867758 DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00222
    Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide, encoded by kisspeptin 1 (KISS1)/Kiss1 gene, which primarily acts as the regulator of reproductive functions via its receptor, kisspeptin receptor (KissR) in vertebrates. In the brain, Kiss1 gene is mainly expressed in the hypothalamic region, but KissR gene is widely distributed throughout the brain, suggesting that kisspeptin-KissR system may be involved in not only reproductive, but also non-reproductive functions. In non-mammalian vertebrates, there are two or more kisspeptin and KissR types. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) possess two kisspeptin (Kiss1 and Kiss2) and their respective receptors [Kiss1 receptor (KissR1) and KissR2]. In the brain of zebrafish, while Kiss2 is expressed in the preoptic-hypothalamic area, Kiss1 is predominantly expressed in the habenula, an evolutionarily conserved epithalamic structure. Similarly, KissR1 is expressed only in the habenula, while KissR2 is widely distributed in the brain, suggesting that the two kisspeptin systems play specific roles in the brain. The habenular Kiss1 is involved in the modulation of the raphe nuclei and serotonin-related behaviors such as fear response in the zebrafish. This review summarizes the roles of multiple kisspeptin-KissR systems in reproductive and non-reproductive functions and neuronal mechanism, and debates the biological and evolutional significance of habenular kisspeptin-KissR systems in teleost species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
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