Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

  1. Goh HT, Nadarajah M, Hamzah NB, Varadan P, Tan MP
    PM R, 2016 12;8(12):1173-1180.
    PMID: 27268565 DOI: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.05.012
    BACKGROUND: Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors.

    DESIGN: Case-control observational study.

    SETTING: Primary teaching hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested.

    METHODS: Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ2 test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments.

    RESULTS: Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P < .01). Participants with stroke reported greater concern for falling than did nonstroke control participants (P < .01). Female gender was associated with falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance. Functional ambulation level alone explained 22% of variance in fear of falling in the stroke group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared with persons without a stroke, patients with stroke were significantly more likely to experience recurrent falls and fear of falling. Falls in patients with stroke were not explained by any of the outcome measures used, whereas fear of falling was predicted by functional ambulation level. This study has identified potentially modifiable risk factors with which to devise future prevention strategies for falls in patients with stroke.


    Matched MeSH terms: Fear*
  2. Poi PJ, Chuah SY, Srinivas P, Liam CK
    Eur. Respir. J., 1998 May;11(5):1147-9.
    PMID: 9648970
    In the world of medical literature, little has been reported about the fears of patients undergoing bronchoscopy. The aim of this study was to identify the common fears of patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy and to determine whether any factors might contribute to reducing these fears. One hundred and four consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy were interviewed. Sixty one patients expressed fear about the procedure, as follows: afraid of pain (33); afraid of breathing difficulties (11); afraid of oropharyngeal irritation (5); afraid of the bronchoscopy findings (2); afraid of sedation, cross-infection and nasal lignocaine spray, respectively (3); and unable to be specific (7). There was no difference between the "no fear" and "fearful" groups in ethnicity, source of referral, education, previous endoscopy, doctors' explanation and the patients' understanding of the procedure and its indication. "Fearful" patients were significantly younger (t=2.082, p=0.037) and female (chi2=4.180, p=0.038). Doctors were more likely to explain the indication for bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=6.403; p=0.011), and patients were more likely to understand why they needed a bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=21.505; p<0.001). Fear preceding bronchoscopy is independent of patients' demographic features except for age and gender. Doctors tend to explain "why" but not "how" the procedure is performed. Provision of detailed information about sensations that are likely to be experienced in bronchoscopy could be used to allay some of these common fears.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear*
  3. Nor Mariah Adam, Rosli Darmawan
    One of the most prevailing issues in the operation of Nuclear Reactor is the safety of the system. Worldwide publicity on a few nuclear accidents as well as the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing have always brought about public fear on anything related to nuclear. Most findings on the nuclear reactor accidents are closely related to the reactor cooling system. Thus, the understanding of the behaviour of reactor cooling system is very important to ensure the development and improvement on safety can be continuously done. Throughout the development of nuclear reactor technology, investigation and analysis on reactor safety have gone through several phases. In the early days, analytical and experimental methods were employed. For the last three decades ID system level codes were widely used. The continuous development of nuclear reactor technology has brought about more complex system and processes of nuclear reactor operation. More detailed dimensional simulation codes are needed to assess these new reactors. This paper discusses the development of 3D CFD usage in nuclear reactor safety analysis worldwide. A brief review on the usage of CFD at Malaysia's Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI is also presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  4. Roslaini Che Romli, Chan, Siok Gim
    This quantitative-oriented research was conducted to identify factors that contributed to errors in dispensing
    medication among nurses and to understand why nurses did not report their errors in dispensing. In this
    study a total of 284 U29 nurses participated in focusing on factors contributing to medication errors and
    failure to report the errors. In this study, analysis of the data collected was made in two sections; dispensing
    errors and failure to report the errors in giving medication. According to Evans et al. (2006) although nurses
    may not admit directly to such errors, they expressed their perceptions towards situations described in the
    questionnaire items as contributing to medication errors among nurses. Almost all in the sample of 284
    chose not to report medication errors because they could not identify the cause of dispensing errors; other
    nurses perceived that the individual involved is not competent in performing the task. Other reasons include
    fear that the action will be exposed by the management, to avoid publicity from the media, and there is no
    difference in reporting or not reporting the medication errors. This study was done not only for exploring
    factors of medication errors; it also aspires to identify problems that arise in hospital services and in order to
    maintain the quality of health care. The management should consider the impact of medication errors and
    failure to report medication errors on the nursing profession and quality image of the hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  5. S.L. Tan
    ASM Science Journal, 2013;7(2):129-138.
    The paper seeks to assuage the fears and worries over living modified organisms (LMOs). It describes how any research carried out on LMOs as well as any release activity on LMOs for public use in Malaysia is controlled by the Biosafety Act 2007. Stringent risk assessment of the LMO and its product/s is carried out to eradicate or minimize the negative effects of these on animal and human health, and to biological diversity and the environment. In contrast, no such risk assessment is carried out on introduced exotic species, or on the products of other types of technology, with the exception of pharmaceuticals. Examples are given comparing risk assessment on LMOs and exotic species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  6. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff, Tan, Ying Jie, Ab Rahman Esa
    Objective: Medical housemanship training has always been regarded as a highly stressful environment to doctors. This article described findings on stress, stressors and coping strategies among house officers in a Malaysian hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on house officers in a Malaysian hospital. The 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), General Stressors Questionnaire (GSQ) and Brief COPE inventory were administered to measure perceived stress, sources of stress and coping strategies among house officers respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12. Results: Forty two house officers participated in this study. This study found that approximately 31% of the house officers were in distress. The top five stressors were fears of making mistakes that can lead to serious consequences, work overload, working with uncooperative colleagues, doing
    work that mentally straining and feeling of being underpaid. The most frequent coping strategies used by house officers were religion, acceptance and self-distraction. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high percentage of distressed house officers. It also found that major stressors were related to performance pressure. The main coping strategy used by house officer was emotion-focused coping.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  7. Seed, H.F., Thong, K.S., Siti-Nor Aizah, A.
    Although disturbance of consciousness in delirium patients have been well
    established, but sudden drop of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) level to three is
    frightening and mysterious. We are reporting a case of a delirious elderly
    man with multiple medical illnesses presented with acute precipitous
    decrement of GCS with pin point pupils bilaterally after given a course of
    benzodiazepines and regained full consciousness spontaneously 32 hours
    later. We discussed the use of deliriogenic medications in the context of
    delirious elderly gentleman with multiple medical illnesses. We also looked
    into the possible differentials of sudden drop of conscious level with bilateral
    pin point pupils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  8. Ismail WI, Ahmad Hassali MA, Farooqui M, Saleem F, Roslan MNF
    Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2018 Nov;33:71-76.
    PMID: 30396630 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.06.004
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigated the disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use to health care providers by Malaysian thalassemia patients.

    METHODS: The semi-structured interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English.

    RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified four themes: 1) reason for CAM disclosure, 2) attempt to disclose CAM, 3) withdrawal from CAM disclosure, and 4) non-disclosure of CAM use. The reason for patients' disclosure of CAM use to healthcare providers is because they wanted to find information about CAM and were afraid of the interaction between the conventional medicine and CAM. Patients also disclosed the use of CAM because they were not satisfied with the conventional medicine that had caused them harm.

    CONCLUSION: Effective communication between patients and health care providers is important, especially for patients who are undergoing conventional thalassemia treatment, for fear that there is an interaction between conventional treatment and CAM use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  9. Ogawa S, Nathan FM, Parhar IS
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2014 Mar 11;111(10):3841-6.
    PMID: 24567386 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1314184111
    Kisspeptin, a neuropeptide encoded by the KISS1/Kiss1, and its cognate G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R), are critical for the control of reproduction in vertebrates. We have previously identified two kisspeptin genes (kiss1 and kiss2) in the zebrafish, of which kiss1 neurons are located in the habenula, which project to the median raphe. kiss2 neurons are located in the hypothalamic nucleus and send axonal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and regulate reproductive functions. However, the physiological significance of the Kiss1 expressed in the habenula remains unknown. Here we demonstrate the role of habenular Kiss1 in alarm substance (AS)-induced fear response in the zebrafish. We found that AS-evoked fear experience significantly reduces kiss1 and serotonin-related genes (plasmacytoma expressed transcript 1 and solute carrier family 6, member 4) in the zebrafish. Furthermore, Kiss1 administration suppressed the AS-evoked fear response. To further evaluate the role of Kiss1 in fear response, zebrafish Kiss1 peptide was conjugated to saporin (SAP) to selectively inactivate Kiss-R1-expressing neurons. The Kiss1-SAP injection significantly reduced Kiss1 immunoreactivity and c-fos mRNA in the habenula and the raphe compared with control. Furthermore, 3 d after Kiss1-SAP injection, the fish had a significantly reduced AS-evoked fear response. These findings provide an insight into the role of the habenular kisspeptin system in inhibiting fear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear/drug effects*; Fear/physiology
  10. Razak, I.A.
    Ann Dent, 1995;2(1):-.
    A postal questionnaire concerning the Malaysian dentists' attitudes towards their patients yielded a 73.1% response rate. The results of this study indicated that a majority of dentists felt that patients had more negative than positive attributes. Private practitioners attributed more negative traits to their patients than their public sector colleaques. About 88% of dentists indicated that the most negative patient attribute was fear of pain. Fear of pain was perceived to be stronger than fear of the dentist (62.2%). likewise the patients' inability to seek treatment soon enough (78.4%), to come for regular check-up (72.7%) and to follow advice on personal oral hygiene(70.1%) were worrisome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  11. Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim, Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(2):180-0.
    Objective: Postgraduate medical training has always been regarded as a highly stressful environment to students. This article described an initial finding on prevalence and sources of stress among postgraduate students. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on postgraduate students in the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Sample size as calculated for this preliminary study was 38 and convenient sampling method was applied. The 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Postgraduate Stressors Questionnaire (PSQ) were administered during a workshop involving postgraduate students. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12. Results: Thirty three participants participated in this study. This study found that the prevalence of distressed postgraduate students was 36.4%. The top ten stressors were tests and examinations, large amount of content to be learnt, time pressure to meet deadlines, doing work beyond
    ability, work overload, unfair assessment by superior, fears of making mistakes that can lead to serious consequences, doing work that mentally straining, work demands affect my personal and home life, and lack of time to review what have been learnt. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high prevalence of distressed postgraduate students. It also found that the major stressors were related to academic and performance pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  12. Choy, Y.C., Wan Nuruddin Shah, W.J., Wong, Y.M., Boey, C.Y., Noor Zuhaily, M.N., Kumutha, T., et al.
    Effective management of cancer pain is often hampered by patients’ lack of knowledge regarding cancer pain management and other barriers related to ethnicity and religious beliefs. This cross sectional study was performed to determine the patient-related barriers to effective cancer pain management. One hundred patients receiving cancer pain management were studied. Inclusion criteria were: patients over the age of 18 years, able to communicate, with known diagnosis of cancer, experiencing persistent pain for the past two weeks. A modified version of the Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) was used and a modified Brief Pain Inventory was used to assess the pain profile. Barriers such as, patient’s attitude and beliefs, communication skills and fear of side effects of pain medication were determined, given a score and the summation was recorded as the total patient related barriers score. Overall, 85% of respondents achieved more than 40% pain relief and the 72 of 100 patients reported low patient related barrier scores of 6 or less. Nevertheless, the main patient related barriers were: fear of tolerance to opioids (51%), ethnicity (p=0.003) and religious beliefs (p=0.002) which constituted the major components of the patient-related barriers score. Ethnicity and religious beliefs had significant influence on patient-related barriers score suggesting the need of further investigation into this area. In order to achieve a comprehensive view, other barriers to effective cancer pain management such as those related to the health systems and healthcare providers need to be assessed together.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  13. Jambunathan, Stephen T., Gill, Jesjeet Singh, Kanagasundram, Sharmilla, Koh, Ong Hui
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2008;9(2):118-125.
    Dissociation, including multiple personality disorder, has long been a controversial topic. Patients with suggestive symptoms are often misdiagnosed as malingering or even having
    schizophrenia. The former as a result of the overlooking of a clinician on the fact that suggestibility itself plays a key role in the emergence and perpetuation of this illness and the latter due to the lack of knowledge of the whole dissociative disorder spectrum, often resembling that of a psychotic disorder. Another contributing factor to the small number of patients with this diagnosis is due to the reluctance of a psychiatrist to do so because of his/her lack of experience and also fear of humiliation of being accused of seeking fame from diagnosing this somewhat glamorous phenomenon. In Malaysia, various culture bound syndromes often present with similar symptoms too. This article will attempt to understand this dissociation on the local context using case studies as a reference point.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  14. Hasan R, Napiah M
    Traffic Inj Prev, 2018 04 03;19(3):292-297.
    PMID: 28898110 DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2017.1373768
    OBJECTIVE: The footbridge is a vital structure in the road network and a cornerstone among crossing facilities. Yet, it suffers from low usage by pedestrians as they try to cross the street on the level. This study aims to analyze the perceptions of Malaysian pedestrians toward the use of footbridges with the consideration of different factors.

    METHOD: The study was carried out by collecting data from field observation and questionnaire distribution on the street among the public. The data were statistically analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models and a series of chi-square tests.

    RESULTS: The study found that the most influential factor cited by pedestrians in decision making regarding using a footbridge is the existence of an escalator. Being in a hurry and the fear of heights were significantly associated with choosing not to use a footbridge. Zebra crossing was chosen as the most favorable type of crossing facility by the majority of respondents. In addition, installation of a fence and barriers was proposed as an effective procedure to prevent jaywalking. To construct new and efficient footbridges in the future, the study suggests consideration of traffic volume, posted speed limit, and the number of lanes, because these are the most influential factors to predict the usage rate.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study encourages decision makers and stakeholders to consider providing escalators for new footbridges to enhance the safety of pedestrians.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  15. Ogawa S, Parhar IS
    PMID: 29867758 DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00222
    Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide, encoded by kisspeptin 1 (KISS1)/Kiss1 gene, which primarily acts as the regulator of reproductive functions via its receptor, kisspeptin receptor (KissR) in vertebrates. In the brain, Kiss1 gene is mainly expressed in the hypothalamic region, but KissR gene is widely distributed throughout the brain, suggesting that kisspeptin-KissR system may be involved in not only reproductive, but also non-reproductive functions. In non-mammalian vertebrates, there are two or more kisspeptin and KissR types. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) possess two kisspeptin (Kiss1 and Kiss2) and their respective receptors [Kiss1 receptor (KissR1) and KissR2]. In the brain of zebrafish, while Kiss2 is expressed in the preoptic-hypothalamic area, Kiss1 is predominantly expressed in the habenula, an evolutionarily conserved epithalamic structure. Similarly, KissR1 is expressed only in the habenula, while KissR2 is widely distributed in the brain, suggesting that the two kisspeptin systems play specific roles in the brain. The habenular Kiss1 is involved in the modulation of the raphe nuclei and serotonin-related behaviors such as fear response in the zebrafish. This review summarizes the roles of multiple kisspeptin-KissR systems in reproductive and non-reproductive functions and neuronal mechanism, and debates the biological and evolutional significance of habenular kisspeptin-KissR systems in teleost species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  16. Nies YH, Ali AM, Abdullah N, Islahudin F, Shah NM
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2018;12:1955-1964.
    PMID: 30319245 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S168638
    Purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and side-effects of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy in Malaysia.

    Participants and methods: Purposive sampling of 36 breast cancer patients who have completed chemotherapy and agreed to participate in semi-structured in-depth interviews. A constant comparative method and thematic analysis were used to analyze the interviews.

    Results: Data were categorized into six main themes: know nothing of chemotherapy; fear of chemotherapy; patients' beliefs in alternative treatments; symptom management; staying healthy after chemotherapy; and concerns of patients after chemotherapy.

    Conclusion: Despite complaints about the bad experiences of their chemotherapy-induced side-effects, these patients still managed to complete the entire course of chemotherapy. Moreover, there is a need for a clinical pharmacy service in the oncology clinic setting in Malaysia in order to provide relevant information to help patients understand the chemotherapy received.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  17. Maryam Sohrabi, Ahmad Farid Osman, Makmor Tumin
    Non-citizen labors in the country have been found to face difficulties in accessing healthcare services. The
    study seeks to investigate the existence of barriers in accessing primary healthcare services by non-citizen
    labors in Malaysia. This study was conducted on 323 non-citizen labors residing in the urban areas of
    Malaysia, particularly of Johor Bahru and Klang Valley from May to September 2017. Relevant information
    regarding the personal barriers (language, preference for physician's gender, difficulty taking leave from
    work), structural barriers (availability of public clinic in residential area, travel time to the public clinic,
    physician's knowledge and skill) and financial barriers (insurance coverage, fear of losing daily income,
    transportation costs) on using primary healthcare services at public clinics were obtained. The result of the
    analysis revealed that the barriers cited by non-citizens to seek primary healthcare in Malaysia were lack of
    medical insurance protection (75.1%), non-availability of a public clinic in the residential area (38.7%), not
    receiving the needed or wanted services (21.3%), long travel time to the nearest public clinic (17.3%),
    language (10.2% of respondents), negative perception about the doctors' knowledge and skills (9.9%),
    difficulty taking leave (7.8%), fear of losing daily income (7.7%), high transportation cost (3.7%) and
    different doctor gender preference (2.5%). Therefore, barriers to access healthcare services among noncitizens
    exist in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  18. Chin, Chee Kee, Dariah Mohd Yusoff, Kueh, Yee Cheng
    Blood donation is important for lives saving and the need is unceasing. However, the shortage of blood supply
    is a common issue. While the public is the main source of blood donation, it is unknown whether they are
    aware about it. This study was carried out to determine the public's knowledge, perceptions and barriers
    towards blood donation. Atotal of 384 male and female respondents were conveniently selected to participate
    in this study. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software
    version 22.0. Most of the respondents (60.9%) had never donated blood but their knowledge towards blood
    donation was high (79.9%). Some misconceptions were indicated among respondents. Afraid of the needle
    prick, pain or discomfort were the top barriers among non-donors respondents (45.3%). The majority of the
    respondents believed that blood donation is a practice or selfless concern for the well-being of others (98.7%).
    A significant relationship was indicated between age and level of education with status of blood donation
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear
  19. Singh DK, Rajaratnam BS, Palaniswamy V, Pearson H, Raman VP, Bong PS
    Maturitas, 2012 Nov;73(3):239-43.
    PMID: 22884437 DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.07.011
    The objective of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of virtual reality balance games (VRBG) to decrease risk and fear of falls among women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear*
  20. Yuvaraj R, Murugappan M, Mohamed Ibrahim N, Iqbal M, Sundaraj K, Mohamad K, et al.
    Behav Brain Funct, 2014;10:12.
    PMID: 24716619 DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-10-12
    While Parkinson's disease (PD) has traditionally been described as a movement disorder, there is growing evidence of disruption in emotion information processing associated with the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are specific electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics that discriminate PD patients and normal controls during emotion information processing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fear/physiology
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