Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Ho WK, Chai HH, Kendabie P, Ahmad NS, Jani J, Massawe F, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2017 02 20;18(1):192.
    PMID: 28219341 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-3393-8
    BACKGROUND: Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.] is an indigenous legume crop grown mainly in subsistence and small-scale agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa for its nutritious seeds and its tolerance to drought and poor soils. Given that the lack of ex ante sequence is often a bottleneck in marker-assisted crop breeding for minor and underutilised crops, we demonstrate the use of limited genetic information and resources developed within species, but linked to the well characterised common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genome sequence and the partially annotated closely related species; adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) and mung bean (Vigna radiata). From these comparisons we identify conserved synteny blocks corresponding to the Linkage Groups (LGs) in bambara groundnut genetic maps and evaluate the potential to identify genes in conserved syntenic locations in a sequenced genome that underlie a QTL position in the underutilised crop genome.

    RESULTS: Two individual intraspecific linkage maps consisting of DArTseq markers were constructed in two bambara groundnut (2n = 2x = 22) segregating populations: 1) The genetic map of Population IA was derived from F2lines (n = 263; IITA686 x Ankpa4) and covered 1,395.2 cM across 11 linkage groups; 2) The genetic map of Population TD was derived from F3lines (n = 71; Tiga Nicuru x DipC) and covered 1,376.7 cM across 11 linkage groups. A total of 96 DArTseq markers from an initial pool of 142 pre-selected common markers were used. These were not only polymorphic in both populations but also each marker could be located using the unique sequence tag (at selected stringency) onto the common bean, adzuki bean and mung bean genomes, thus allowing the sequenced genomes to be used as an initial 'pseudo' physical map for bambara groundnut. A good correspondence was observed at the macro synteny level, particularly to the common bean genome. A test using the QTL location of an agronomic trait in one of the bambara groundnut maps allowed the corresponding flanking positions to be identified in common bean, mung bean and adzuki bean, demonstrating the possibility of identifying potential candidate genes underlying traits of interest through the conserved syntenic physical location of QTL in the well annotated genomes of closely related species.

    CONCLUSIONS: The approach of adding pre-selected common markers in both populations before genetic map construction has provided a translational framework for potential identification of candidate genes underlying a QTL of trait of interest in bambara groundnut by linking the positions of known genetic effects within the underutilised species to the physical maps of other well-annotated legume species, without the need for an existing whole genome sequence of the study species. Identifying the conserved synteny between underutilised species without complete genome sequences and the genomes of major crops and model species with genetic and trait data is an important step in the translation of resources and information from major crop and model species into the minor crop species. Such minor crops will be required to play an important role in future agriculture under the effects of climate change.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  2. Campanella G, Gunter MJ, Polidoro S, Krogh V, Palli D, Panico S, et al.
    Int J Obes (Lond), 2018 12;42(12):2022-2035.
    PMID: 29713043 DOI: 10.1038/s41366-018-0064-7
    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for several common chronic diseases such as breast and colorectal cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases; however, the biological basis for these relationships is not fully understood. To explore the association of obesity with these conditions, we investigated peripheral blood leucocyte (PBL) DNA methylation markers for adiposity and their contribution to risk of incident breast and colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction.

    METHODS: DNA methylation profiles (Illumina Infinium® HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) from 1941 individuals from four population-based European cohorts were analysed in relation to body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip and waist-height ratio within a meta-analytical framework. In a subset of these individuals, data on genome-wide gene expression level, biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism were also available. Validation of methylation markers associated with all adiposity measures was performed in 358 individuals. Finally, we investigated the association of obesity-related methylation marks with breast, colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction within relevant subsets of the discovery population.

    RESULTS: We identified 40 CpG loci with methylation levels associated with at least one adiposity measure. Of these, one CpG locus (cg06500161) in ABCG1 was associated with all four adiposity measures (P = 9.07×10-8 to 3.27×10-18) and lower transcriptional activity of the full-length isoform of ABCG1 (P = 6.00×10-7), higher triglyceride levels (P = 5.37×10-9) and higher triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (P = 1.03×10-10). Of the 40 informative and obesity-related CpG loci, two (in IL2RB and FGF18) were significantly associated with colorectal cancer (inversely, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  3. Saleh Huddin A, Md Yusuf N, Razak MRMA, Ogu Salim N, Hisam S
    Infect Genet Evol, 2019 11;75:103952.
    PMID: 31279818 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.103952
    It has been discovered that Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) is transmitted from macaque to man. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine P. knowlesi genetic diversity in both human (n = 147) and long-tailed macaque (n = 26) samples from high- and low-endemicity localities. Genotyping was performed using seven neutral microsatellite loci markers. The size of the alleles, multiplicity of infection (MOI), mean number of alleles (Na), expected heterozygosity (HE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), and genetic differentiation (FST) were determined. In highly endemic P. knowlesi localities, the MOI for human and long-tailed macaque isolates was 1.04 and 1.15, respectively, while the Na was 11.14 and 7.86, respectively. Based on the allele frequency distribution for all loci, and with FST 
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics*
  4. Amstutz U, Shear NH, Rieder MJ, Hwang S, Fung V, Nakamura H, et al.
    Epilepsia, 2014 Apr;55(4):496-506.
    PMID: 24597466 DOI: 10.1111/epi.12564
    To systematically review evidence on genetic risk factors for carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) and provide practice recommendations addressing the key questions: (1) Should genetic testing for HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-A*31:01 be performed in patients with an indication for CBZ therapy to reduce the occurrence of CBZ-induced HSRs? (2) Are there subgroups of patients who may benefit more from genetic testing for HLA-B*15:02 or HLA-A*31:01 compared to others? (3) How should patients with an indication for CBZ therapy be managed based on their genetic test results?
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  5. Khan FA, Phillips CD, Baker RJ
    Syst Biol, 2014 Jan 1;63(1):96-110.
    PMID: 24149076 DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syt062
    Phylogenetic comparisons of the different mammalian genetic transmission elements (mtDNA, X-, Y-, and autosomal DNA) is a powerful approach for understanding the process of speciation in nature. Through such comparisons the unique inheritance pathways of each genetic element and gender-biased processes can link genomic structure to the evolutionary process, especially among lineages which have recently diversified, in which genetic isolation may be incomplete. Bulldog bats of the genus Noctilio are an exemplar lineage, being a young clade, widely distributed, and exhibiting unique feeding ecologies. In addition, currently recognized species are paraphyletic with respect to the mtDNA gene tree and contain morphologically identifiable clades that exhibit mtDNA divergences as great as among many species. To test taxonomic hypotheses and understand the contribution of hybridization to the extant distribution of genetic diversity in Noctilio, we used phylogenetic, coalescent stochastic modeling, and divergence time estimates using sequence data from cytochrome-b, cytochrome c oxidase-I, zinc finger Y, and zinc finger X, as well as evolutionary reconstructions based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) data. No evidence of ongoing hybridization between the two currently recognized species was identified. However, signatures of an ancient mtDNA capture were recovered in which an mtDNA lineage of one species was captured early in the noctilionid radiation. Among subspecific mtDNA clades, which were generally coincident with morphology and statistically definable as species, signatures of ongoing hybridization were observed in sex chromosome sequences and AFLP. Divergence dating of genetic elements corroborates the diversification of extant Noctilio beginning about 3 Ma, with ongoing hybridization between mitochondrial lineages separated by 2.5 myr. The timeframe of species' divergence within Noctilio supports the hypothesis that shifts in the dietary strategies of gleaning insects (N. albiventris) or fish (N. leporinus) are among the most rapid instances of dietary evolution observed in mammals. This study illustrates the complex evolutionary dynamics shaping gene pools in nature, how comparisons of genetic elements can serve for understanding species boundaries, and the complex considerations for accurate taxonomic assignment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  6. Zaki NM, Singh R, Rosli R, Ismail I
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(4):4069-88.
    PMID: 22605966 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13044069
    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (H(o)) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (F(is)) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  7. Hatin WI, Nur-Shafawati AR, Zahri MK, Xu S, Jin L, Tan SG, et al.
    PLoS One, 2011;6(4):e18312.
    PMID: 21483678 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018312
    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  8. Adibah AB, Ling LP, Tan SG, Faridah QZ, Christianus A
    Mol Biol Rep, 2012 Apr;39(4):3815-20.
    PMID: 21744263 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-1159-6
    Horseshoe crabs are said to be declining worldwide. However, there is still no published report on the status of horseshoe crabs in Malaysia. Thus, we report here eight informative microsatellite markers that were developed using the 5'-anchored ISSR-PCR enrichment procedure to diagnose the population genetic structure of the mangrove horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda from Peninsular Malaysia. This set of markers was tested on 127 samples and showed polymorphism in this species. Hence they should be useful in future essential population genetic studies of these living fossils in the Southeast Asian region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  9. Yong HS, Eamsobhana P, Song SL, Prasartvit A, Lim PE
    Acta Trop, 2015 Aug;148:66-71.
    PMID: 25930187 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.04.020
    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important emerging zoonotic parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in many parts of the world. To-date there is only a single study using mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene to determine its genetic structure in eight geographical localities in Thailand. The present study examined the molecular phylogeography of this rat lungworm and its phylogenetic relationship with congeners using CYTB gene marker. A total of 15 CYTB haplotypes was found in 37 sequences from 14 geographical localities (covering north, west, east, central and south regions) in Thailand. These CYTB haplotypes were distinct from those of A. cantonensis for China and Hawaii. In Thailand, some CYTB haplotypes appeared to be confined to specific geographical localities. The partial CYTB DNA nucleotide sequences separated unequivocally the A. cantonensis isolates of Thailand, China and Hawaii as well as the congeners Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, A. costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum, with A. malaysiensis grouped with A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis grouped with A. vasorum. Likewise the congeners of Metastrongylus and Onchocerca genera could also be clearly differentiated. The present study added two new definitive hosts (Bandicota savilei and Rattus losea) and three new localities (Mae Hong Son in the north, Tak in the west, and Phang Nga in the south) for A. malaysiensis in Thailand, indicating its wide occurrence in the country. Three CYTB haplotypes were found in the Thailand samples of A. malaysiensis. In addition to differentiation of congeners, CYTB gene marker could be used for determining the genetic diversity of a given population/taxon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics*
  10. Pearson RD, Amato R, Auburn S, Miotto O, Almagro-Garcia J, Amaratunga C, et al.
    Nat Genet, 2016 08;48(8):959-964.
    PMID: 27348299 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3599
    The widespread distribution and relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection present major challenges for the elimination of malaria. To characterize the genetic diversity of this parasite in individual infections and across the population, we performed deep genome sequencing of >200 clinical samples collected across the Asia-Pacific region and analyzed data on >300,000 SNPs and nine regions of the genome with large copy number variations. Individual infections showed complex patterns of genetic structure, with variation not only in the number of dominant clones but also in their level of relatedness and inbreeding. At the population level, we observed strong signals of recent evolutionary selection both in known drug resistance genes and at new loci, and these varied markedly between geographical locations. These findings demonstrate a dynamic landscape of local evolutionary adaptation in the parasite population and provide a foundation for genomic surveillance to guide effective strategies for control and elimination of P. vivax.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics*
  11. Koh CL, Lim ME, Ng HS, Sam CK
    Int J Legal Med, 1997;110(1):39-40.
    PMID: 9081241
    The D1S80 allele frequencies in 124 unrelated Malays from the Malaysian population were determined and 51 genotypes and 19 alleles were encountered. The D1S80 frequency distribution met Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The observed heterozygosity was 0.80 and the power of discrimination was 0.96.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics*
  12. Yap FC, Yan YJ, Loon KT, Zhen JL, Kamau NW, Kumaran JV
    Anim Biotechnol, 2010 Oct;21(4):226-40.
    PMID: 20967642 DOI: 10.1080/10495398.2010.506334
    The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to study the phylogenetic analysis of different breeds of domestic chickens in Peninsular Malaysia inferred from partial cytochrome b gene information and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Phylogenetic analysis using both neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods produced three clusters that encompassed Type-I village chickens, the red jungle fowl subspecies and the Japanese Chunky broilers. The phylogenetic analysis also revealed that majority of the Malaysian commercial chickens were randomly assembled with the Type-II village chickens. In RAPD assay, phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining produced six clusters that were completely distinguished based on the locality of chickens. High levels of genetic variations were observed among the village chickens, the commercial broilers, and between the commercial broilers and layer chickens. In this study, it was found that Type-I village chickens could be distinguished from the commercial chickens and Type-II village chickens at the position of the 27th nucleotide of the 351 bp cytochrome b gene. This study also revealed that RAPD markers were unable to differentiate the type of chickens, but it showed the effectiveness of RAPD in evaluating the genetic variation and the genetic relationships between chicken lines and populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  13. Mat Jaafar TNA, Taylor MI, Mohd Nor SA, Bruyn M, Carvalho GR
    J Fish Biol, 2020 Feb;96(2):337-349.
    PMID: 31721192 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.14202
    We examine genetic structuring in three commercially important species of the teleost family Carangidae from Malaysian waters: yellowtail scad Atule mate, bigeye scad Selar crumenophthalmus and yellowstripe scad Selaroides leptolepis, from the Indo-Malay Archipelago. In view of their distribution across contrasting habitats, we tested the hypothesis that pelagic species display less genetic divergence compared with demersal species, due to their potential to undertake long-distance migrations in oceanic waters. To evaluate population genetic structure, we sequenced two mitochondrial (mt)DNA [650 bp of cytochrome oxidase I (coI), 450 bp of control region (CR)] and one nuclear gene (910 bp of rag1) in each species. One hundred and eighty samples from four geographical regions within the Indo-Malay Archipelago including a population of yellowtail from Kuwait were examined. Findings revealed that the extent of genetic structuring among populations in the semi-pelagic and pelagic, yellowtail and bigeye were lower than demersal yellowstripe, consistent with the hypothesis that pelagic species display less genetic divergence compared with demersal species. The yellowtail phylogeny identified three distinct clades with bootstrap values of 86%-99% in mtDNA and 63%-67% in rag1. However, in bigeye, three clades were also observed from mtDNA data while only one clade was identified in rag1 dataset. In yellowstripe, the mtDNA tree was split into three closely related clades and two clades in rag1 tree with bootstraps value of 73%-99% and 56% respectively. However, no geographic structure appears in both mtDNA and rag1 datasets. Hierarchical molecular variance analysis (AMOVA), pair wise FST comparisons and the nearest-neighbour statistic (Snn ) showed significant genetic differences among Kuwait and Indo-Malay yellowtail. Within the Indo-Malay Archipelago itself, two distinct mitochondrial lineages were detected in yellowtail suggesting potential cryptic species. Findings suggests varying degrees of genetic structuring, key information relevant to management of exploited stocks, though more rapidly evolving genetic markers should be used in future to better delimit the nature and dynamics of putative stock boundaries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics*
  14. Brunke J, Russo IM, Orozco-terWengel P, Zimmermann E, Bruford MW, Goossens B, et al.
    BMC Genet, 2020 04 17;21(1):43.
    PMID: 32303177 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-020-00849-z
    BACKGROUND: Constraints in migratory capabilities, such as the disruption of gene flow and genetic connectivity caused by habitat fragmentation, are known to affect genetic diversity and the long-term persistence of populations. Although negative population trends due to ongoing forest loss are widespread, the consequence of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic structure has rarely been investigated in Bornean small mammals. To fill this gap in knowledge, we used nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers to assess genetic diversity, gene flow and the genetic structure in the Bornean tree shrew, Tupaia longipes, that inhabits forest fragments of the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. Furthermore, we used these markers to assess dispersal regimes in male and female T. longipes.

    RESULTS: In addition to the Kinabatangan River, a known barrier for dispersal in tree shrews, the heterogeneous landscape along the riverbanks affected the genetic structure in this species. Specifically, while in larger connected forest fragments along the northern riverbank genetic connectivity was relatively undisturbed, patterns of genetic differentiation and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes in a local scale indicated reduced migration on the strongly fragmented southern riverside. Especially, oil palm plantations seem to negatively affect dispersal in T. longipes. Clear sex-biased dispersal was not detected based on relatedness, assignment tests, and haplotype diversity.

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed the importance of landscape connectivity to maintain migration and gene flow between fragmented populations, and to ensure the long-term persistence of species in anthropogenically disturbed landscapes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  15. De Luca C, Thai JC, Raskovic D, Cesareo E, Caccamo D, Trukhanov A, et al.
    Mediators Inflamm, 2014;2014:924184.
    PMID: 24812443 DOI: 10.1155/2014/924184
    Growing numbers of "electromagnetic hypersensitive" (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental "sensitivity-related illnesses" (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered (P < 0.05-0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable-though milder-metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω 6/ ω 3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly (P = 0.003) altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19∗1/∗2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.I. = 1.3-74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers' panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  16. Lee KT, Tan JK, Lam AK, Gan SY
    Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 2016 Jul;103:1-9.
    PMID: 27179594 DOI: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2016.04.006
    Despite significant medical advancement, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains one of the most difficult cancers to detect and treat where it continues to prevail especially among the Asian population. miRNAs could act as tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes in NPC. They play important roles in the pathogenesis of NPC by regulating specific target genes which are involved in various cellular processes and pathways. In particular, studies on miRNAs related to the Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein one (LMP1) and EBVmiRNA- BART miRNA confirmed the link between EBV and NPC. Both miRNA and its target genes could potentially be exploited for prognostic and therapeutic strategies. They are also important in predicting the sensitivity of NPC to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The detection of stable circulating miRNAs in plasma of NPC patients has raised the potential of miRNAs as novel diagnostic markers. To conclude, understanding the roles of miRNA in NPC will identify ways to improve the management of patients with NPC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  17. Chua TH, Chong YV, Lim SH
    Pest Manag Sci, 2010 Apr;66(4):379-84.
    PMID: 19946858 DOI: 10.1002/ps.1886
    Identification of Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae Drew and Hancock, B. tau Walker, B. latifrons Hendel, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, B. umbrosa Fabricius and B. caudata Fabricius would pose a problem if only a body part or an immature stage were available. Analysis of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene using primers COIR, COIF, UEA7 and UEA10 and restriction enzymes (MseI, RsaI and Alu1) was carried out. The banding profiles in the electrophoresis gel were analysed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  18. Osman A, Jordan B, Lessard PA, Muhammad N, Haron MR, Riffin NM, et al.
    Plant Physiol., 2003 Mar;131(3):1294-301.
    PMID: 12644679 DOI: 10.1104/pp.012492
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack. is a treelet that grows in the forests of Southeast Asia and is widely used throughout the region because of its reported medicinal properties. Widespread harvesting of wild-grown trees has led to rapid thinning of natural populations, causing a potential decrease in genetic diversity among E. longifolia. Suitable genetic markers would be very useful for propagation and breeding programs to support conservation of this species, although no such markers currently exist. To meet this need, we have applied a genome complexity reduction strategy to identify a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genomes of several E. longifolia accessions. We have found that the occurrence of these SNPs reflects the geographic origins of individual plants and can distinguish different natural populations. This work demonstrates the rapid development of molecular genetic markers in species for which little or no genomic sequence information is available. The SNP markers that we have developed in this study will also be useful for identifying genetic fingerprints that correlate with other properties of E. longifolia, such as high regenerability or the appearance of bioactive metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics
  19. Golestan Hashemi FS, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Mohamed MT, Rahim HA, Latif MA, et al.
    Gene, 2015 Jan 25;555(2):101-7.
    PMID: 25445269 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.10.048
    MRQ74, a popular aromatic Malaysian landrace, allows for charging considerably higher prices than non-aromatic landraces. Thus, breeding this profitable trait has become a priority for Malaysian rice breeding. Despite many studies on aroma genetics, ambiguities considering its genetic basis remain. It has been observed that identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) based on anchor markers, particularly candidate genes controlling a trait of interest, can increase the power of QTL detection. Hence, this study aimed to locate QTLs that influence natural variations in rice scent using microsatellites and candidate gene-based sequence polymorphisms. For this purpose, an F2 mapping population including 189 individual plants was developed by MRQ74 crosses with 'MR84', a non-scented Malaysian accession. Additionally, qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied to obtain a phenotype data framework. Consequently, we identified two QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 8. These QTLs explained from 3.2% to 39.3% of the total fragrance phenotypic variance. In addition, we could resolve linkage group 8 by adding six gene-based primers in the interval harboring the most robust QTL. Hence, we could locate a putative fgr allele in the QTL found on chromosome 8 in the interval RM223-SCU015RM (1.63cM). The identified QTLs represent an important step toward recognition of the rice flavor genetic control mechanism. In addition, this identification will likely accelerate the progress of the use of molecular markers for gene isolation, gene-based cloning, and marker-assisted selection breeding programs aimed at improving rice cultivars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics*
  20. Li J, Lindström LS, Foo JN, Rafiq S, Schmidt MK, Pharoah PD, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014 Jun 17;5:4051.
    PMID: 24937182 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5051
    Large population-based registry studies have shown that breast cancer prognosis is inherited. Here we analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes implicated in human immunology and inflammation as candidates for prognostic markers of breast cancer survival involving 1,804 oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients treated with chemotherapy (279 events) from 14 European studies in a prior large-scale genotyping experiment, which is part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS) initiative. We carry out replication using Asian COGS samples (n=522, 53 events) and the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) study (n=315, 108 events). Rs4458204_A near CCL20 (2q36.3) is found to be associated with breast cancer-specific death at a genome-wide significant level (n=2,641, 440 events, combined allelic hazard ratio (HR)=1.81 (1.49-2.19); P for trend=1.90 × 10(-9)). Such survival-associated variants can represent ideal targets for tailored therapeutics, and may also enhance our current prognostic prediction capabilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Markers/genetics*
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