Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

  1. Ramanathan M, Wahinuddin S, Kew ST
    Med J Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):140-3.
    PMID: 10967995
    A 43-year-old lady with long standing non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on glibenclamide presented with cholestatic liver disease. Initially she was thought to have developed primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). When she made a spontaneous recovery following the withdrawal of glibenclamide, it became obvious that the patient had been suffering from drug-induced chronic cholestasis (DICC). The subtle differences between PBC and DICC are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/adverse effects*
  2. Helmi MAM, Hussain S
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2020;35(1):125-128.
    PMID: 33442181 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.035.01.22
    Developmental delay, Epilepsy and Neonatal Diabetes (DEND) syndrome is the most severe form of Permanent Neonatal Diabetes with KCNJ11 gene mutation which accounts for most of the cases. We report the first DEND syndrome in Malaysia with heterozygous missense mutation Q52R at KCNJ11 (Kir6.2) gene with delayed presentation beyond 6 months of age and failure to transition to glibenclamide. This report signifies the phenotypical variability among patients with the same genetic mutation and the different response to treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide
  3. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 20166099 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007845.pub2
    Background: Momordica charantia is not only a nutritious vegetable, but is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control.

    Objectives: To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Search strategy: Several electronic databases were searched, among these The Cochrane Library (issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to November 2009), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.

    Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials that compared momordica charantia with a placebo or a control intervention with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions were included.

    Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently extracted the data. Risk of bias of trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice).

    Main results: Three randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 350 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only one study was published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effect of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plants and placebo on the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference compared to placebo. The effects of preparation from the leaves of the plant and glibenclamide were comparable in the third trial. No serious adverse effects were reported in all the trials. There were no documentations of death from any cause, morbidity, (health-related) quality of life and costs.

    Authors' conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to recommend momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are therefore required to address the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. For medical nutritional therapy, further observational trials evaluating the effects of momordica charantia are needed before RCTs are established to guide any recommendations in clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/therapeutic use
  4. Lim JMH, Tayob Y, O'Brien PM, Shaw RW
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):377-81.
    PMID: 10968114
    The pregnancy outcome of 33 women with gestational diabetes who were treated with glibenclamide and changed to insulin if glibenclamide failed, were compared with the pregnancy outcome of 21 women with gestational diabetes treated conventionally with insulin. The pregnancy outcome, with regard to the overall glycaemic control, rates of preterm labour, neonatal hypoglycaemia, fetal macrosomia, perinatal morbidity and mortality, were not statistically different between the two treatment groups. The limited number of women studied, and the non-random allocation of these women to each treatment group however, could have influenced these results. There were a few observed differences in the pregnancy outcome between the two treatment groups, which although were not statistically significant, caused some concern. In particular we noted an increased rate of fetal macrosomia in the glibenclamide treated group, which in theory could have been drug mediated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/therapeutic use*
  5. Edueng K, Mahlin D, Larsson P, Bergström CAS
    J Control Release, 2017 06 28;256:193-202.
    PMID: 28412224 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.04.015
    We developed a step-by-step experimental protocol using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic vapour sorption (DVS), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and a small-scale dissolution apparatus (μDISS Profiler) to investigate the mechanism (solid-to-solid or solution-mediated) by which crystallization of amorphous drugs occurs upon dissolution. This protocol then guided how to stabilize the amorphous formulation. Indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide and glipizide were selected as model drugs and HPMC (Pharmacoat 606) and PVP (K30) as stabilizing polymers. Spray-dried amorphous indapamide, metolazone and glibenclamide crystallized via solution-mediated nucleation while glipizide suffered from solid-to-solid crystallization. The addition of 0.001%-0.01% (w/v) HPMC into the dissolution medium successfully prevented the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of indapamide and metolazone whereas it only reduced the crystallization rate for glibenclamide. Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of glipizide and PVP K30, at a ratio of 50:50% (w/w) reduced but did not completely eliminate the solid-to-solid crystallization of glipizide even though the overall dissolution rate was enhanced both in the absence and presence of HPMC. Raman spectroscopy indicated the formation of a glipizide polymorph in the dissolution medium with higher solubility than the stable polymorph. As a complementary technique, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of indapamide and glibenclamide with HPMC was performed. It was revealed that hydrogen bonding patterns of the two drugs with HPMC differed significantly, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may play a role in the greater stabilizing effect on supersaturation of indapamide, compared to glibenclamide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/chemistry*
  6. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 22895968 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007845.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is not only a nutritious vegetable but it is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    SEARCH METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice).

    MAIN RESULTS: Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence on the effects of momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are therefore required to address the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. For medical nutritional therapy, further observational trials evaluating the effects of momordica charantia are needed before RCTs are established to guide any recommendations in clinical practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/therapeutic use
  7. Mafauzy M
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2002 Oct;58(1):45-53.
    PMID: 12161056
    This study compared treatment with a prandial glucose regulator (repaglinide) and a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide) in Muslim Type 2 diabetic patients who practice Ramadan fasting. Two hundred and thirty-five patients, previously treated with a sulphonylurea, were randomised to receive either repaglinide (n=116, preprandially three-times daily) or glibenclamide (n=119, preprandially once- or twice-daily) 6 weeks before Ramadan. During Ramadan, patients changed their eating pattern to two meals daily, and the daily dose of repaglinide was redistributed to two preprandial doses. After Ramadan, patients resumed their regular meal pattern and treatment dosage for 4 weeks. During Ramadan, a statistically significant reduction in mean serum fructosamine concentration from baseline was observed in the repaglinide group (-16.9+/-4.9 micromol/l, -3.8%, P<0.05) but not the glibenclamide group (-6.9+/-4.8 micromol/l, -0.8%). Difference in change in HbA(1c) from baseline was not statistically significant between groups. The number of hypoglycaemic events with midday blood glucose <4.5 mmol/l was significantly lower in the repaglinide group (2.8%) than the glibenclamide group (7.9%) (P=0.001). Apart from hypoglycaemia, both treatments were equally well tolerated. Type 2 diabetic Muslims using prandial repaglinide showed a trend towards better glycaemic control and had a lower frequency of hypoglycaemia than patients using glibenclamide during Ramadan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/adverse effects; Glyburide/therapeutic use*
  8. Visweswara Rao P, Madhavi K, Dhananjaya Naidu M, Gan SH
    PMID: 24204387 DOI: 10.1155/2013/102901
    The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200 mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50 mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide
  9. Kumar BS, Saraswathi R, Kumar KV, Jha SK, Venkates DP, Dhanaraj SA
    Drug Deliv, 2014 May;21(3):173-84.
    PMID: 24102185 DOI: 10.3109/10717544.2013.840690
    Novel LNCs (lipid nanocrystals) were developed with an aim to improve the solubility, stability and targeting efficiency of the model drug glibenclamide (GLB). PEG 20000, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin were used as polymer, surfactant and complexing agent, respectively. GLB nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by precipitation process and complexed using hot and cold melt technique. The LNCs were evaluated by drug loading, saturation solubility (SL), optical clarity, in vitro dissolution, solid state characterization, in vivo and stability analysis. LNCs exhibited a threefold increase in SL and a higher dissolution rate than GLB. The percentage dissolution efficiency was found to decrease with increase in PEG 20000. The average particle size was in the range of 155-842 nm and zeta potential values tend to increase after complexation. X-ray powder diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry results proved the crystallinity prevailed in the samples. Spherical shaped particles (<1000 nm) with a lipid coat on the surface were observed in scanning electron microscopy analysis. Fourier transform infrared results proved the absence of interaction between drug and polymer and stability study findings proved that LNCs were stable. In vivo study findings showed a decrease in drug concentration to pancreas in male Wistar rats. It can be concluded that LNCs are could offer enhanced solubility, dissolution rate and stability for poorly water soluble drugs. The targeting efficiency of LNCs was decreased and further membrane permeability studies ought to be carried out.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/administration & dosage; Glyburide/metabolism; Glyburide/chemistry*
  10. Ali RB, Atangwho IJ, Kaur N, Abraika OS, Ahmad M, Mahmud R, et al.
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):4986-5002.
    PMID: 22547320 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17054986
    An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM) fruit indicated methanol extract (ME) as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (NBF) and aqueous (AF) fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (p < 0.05) 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (p < 0.05), similar to metformin (51.11%), glibenclamide (66.67%) and insulin (71.43%) after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI) and II (SFII), and only SFI lowered blood glucose (p < 0.05), in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/administration & dosage; Glyburide/therapeutic use; Glyburide/chemistry
  11. Giribabu N, Eswar Kumar K, Swapna Rekha S, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    PMID: 25852767 DOI: 10.1155/2015/542026
    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide
  12. Wan Mohamad WB, Tun Fizi A, Ismail RB, Mafauzy M
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2000 Aug;49(2-3):93-9.
    PMID: 10963819
    Although long acting, glibenclamide is frequently given in split doses for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This may discourage compliance. It is thus appropriate to consider dosing it less frequently. We therefore studied glibenclamide effects when used once daily and when used in split doses. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of using once daily dosing as a regimen of choice. We measured plasma glucose, insulin, glibenclamide, lipids, HbAl and body mass index associated with the regimens. We also compared the number of hypoglycemic episodes occurring with them. Thirty type 2 diabetics on multiple daily glibenclamide were enrolled. Their regimens were changed over to once daily. Blood for glucose, insulin, lipids, HbAl and glibenclamide and body weight measurements were determined before and after the crossover period. We found no major difference in the sugar and insulin profiles with the two regimens. Fasting total cholesterol and triglyceride were also similar and so were plasma glibenclamide. The HbAl levels and body mass index and number of minor and major hypoglycemic episodes and hospital admissions for hypoglycemia also did not differ. We conclude that single daily dosing of glibenclamide was equivalent to multiple daily dose regimens. It can be used to an advantage to improve patient's compliance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/adverse effects; Glyburide/blood; Glyburide/therapeutic use*
  13. Yahaya N, Mohd Dom NS, Adam Z, Hamid M
    PMID: 30046337 DOI: 10.1155/2018/3769874
    Ficus deltoidea is a traditional medicinal plant that has been proven to show antidiabetic effects. This study focus is to assess the insulin secretion activity of Ficus deltoidea standardized methanolic extracts from seven independent varieties and mechanisms that underlie the insulin secretion action of the extracts. The cytotoxicity of Ficus deltoidea extracts was tested using viability assay. The insulin secretion assay was carried out by treating clonal BRIN BD11 cell line with standardized methanolic Ficus deltoidea extracts or glybenclamide. The clonal BRIN BD11 cell was also treated with insulin agonist and antagonist to elucidate the insulin secretion mechanism. Only the viability percentage for Ficus deltoidea var. kunstleri and intermedia was identified to be toxic at 500 and 1000 μg/ml (P<0.001). The insulin secretion for Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea, angustifolia, and motleyana was dose-dependent; further evaluation suggested that Ficus deltoidea var. trengganuensis was involved in KATP-independent pathway. This study suggests that standardized methanolic extracts of Ficus deltoidea varieties have an insulinotropic effect on clonal BRIN BD11 cell line and can be utilized as a modern candidate of antidiabetic agents targeting the escalation for insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide
  14. Li X, Xu A, Sheng H, Ting TH, Mao X, Huang X, et al.
    Pediatr Diabetes, 2018 03;19(2):251-258.
    PMID: 28791793 DOI: 10.1111/pedi.12560
    BACKGROUND: Sulfonylurea therapy can improve glycemic control and ameliorate neurodevelopmental outcomes in patients suffering from neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) with KCNJ11 or ABCC8 mutations. As genetic testing results are often delayed, it remains controversial whether sulfonylurea treatment should be attempted immediately at diagnosis or doctors should await genetic confirmation.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of sulfonylurea therapy in Chinese NDM patients during infancy before genetic testing results were available.

    METHODS: The medical records of NDM patients with their follow-up details were reviewed and molecular genetic analysis was performed. Sulfonylurea transfer regimens were applied in patients diagnosed after May 2010, and glycemic status and side effects were evaluated in each patient.

    RESULTS: There were 23 NDM patients from 22 unrelated families, 10 had KCNJ11 mutations, 3 harbored ABCC8 mutations, 1 had INS mutations, 4 had chromosome 6q24 abnormalities, 1 had a deletion at chromosome 1p36.23p36.12, and 4 had no genetic abnormality identified. Sixteen NDM infants were treated with glyburide at an average age of 49 days (range 14-120 days) before genetic confirmation. A total of 11 of 16 (69%) were able to successfully switch to glyburide with a more stable glucose profile. The responsive glyburide dose was 0.51 ± 0.16 mg/kg/d (0.3-0.8 mg/kg/d), while the maintenance dose was 0.30 ± 0.07 mg/kg/d (0.2-0.4 mg/kg/d). No serious adverse events were reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genetic diagnosis is recommended in all patients with NDM. However, if genetic testing results are delayed, sulfonylurea therapy should be considered before such results are received, even in infants with newly diagnosed NDM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/administration & dosage; Glyburide/adverse effects; Glyburide/therapeutic use*
  15. Shajib MS, Rashid RB, Ming LC, Islam S, Sarker MMR, Nahar L, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:85.
    PMID: 29515437 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00085
    Polymethoxylavones (PMFs) are known to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, an annual Bangladeshi herb, is rich in polymethoxyflavones that possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic activities. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of polyoxygenated flavonoids namely- 3,3',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone (1), 3,3',4',5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (exoticin) (2), 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone (3), and 3,3',4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (4), isolated and identified fromN. plumbaginifolia. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the acetic-acid induced writhing, hot plate, tail immersion, formalin and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests, whereas neuropharmacological effects were evaluated in the hole cross, open field and elevated plus maze test. Oral treatment of compounds1,3, and4(12.5-25 mg/kg b.w.) exhibited dose-dependent and significant (p< 0.01) antinociceptive activity in the acetic-acid, formalin, carrageenan, and thermal (hot plate)-induced pain models. The association of ATP-sensitive K+channel and opioid systems in their antinociceptive effect was obvious from the antagonist effect of glibenclamide and naloxone, respectively. These findings suggested central and peripheral antinociceptive activities of the compounds. Compound1,3, and4(12.5 mg/kg b.w.) demonstrated significant (p< 0.05) anxiolytic-like activity in the elevated plus-maze test, while the involvement of GABAAreceptor in the action of compound3and4was evident from the reversal effects of flumazenil. In addition, compounds1and4(12.5-25 mg/kg b.w) exhibited anxiolytic activity without altering the locomotor responses. The present study suggested that the polymethoxyflavones (1-4) fromN. Plumbaginifoliacould be considered as suitable candidates for the development of analgesic and anxiolytic agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide
  16. Al-Akwaa AA, Asmawi MZ, Dewa A, Mahmud R
    Heliyon, 2020 Jul;6(7):e04588.
    PMID: 32775735 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04588
    Background: Vitex pubescens has been used traditionally in hypertension treatment but not yet scientifically assessed. The objective of the study is to investigate the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant activities of V. pubescens, study its underlying pharmacological mechanisms, and identify the relevant vasoactive compounds.

    Methods: Successive extractions of V. pubescens leaf were carried out to produce petroleum ether (VPPE), chloroform (VPCE), methanol (VPME), and water (VPWE) extracts. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) received a daily oral administration of the extracts (500 mg/kg/day; n = 6) or verapamil (15 mg/kg/day; n = 6) for 2 weeks, while the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured using non-invasive tail-cuff method. Vasorelaxation assays of the extracts were later conducted using phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM) pre-contracted aortic ring preparation. Mechanisms of vasorelaxation by the most potent fraction were studied using vasorelaxation assays with selected blockers/inhibitors. GC-MS was conducted to determine the active compounds.

    Results: VPPE elicited the most significant diminution in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of treated SHRs and produced the most significant vasorelaxation in the aortic rings. Vasorelaxant effects of F2-VPPE were significantly reduced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by glibenclamide (1 μM), whereas calcium chloride and PE-induced contractions were significantly suppressed. Endothelium removal of the aortic rings or incubation with indomethacin (10 μM), atropine (1 μM), methylene blue (10 μM), propranolol (1μM) and L-NAME (10 μM) did not significantly alter F2-VPPE-induced vasorelaxation. Seven compounds were identified using GC-MS, including spathulenol.

    Conclusion: F2-VPPE exerted its endothelium-independent vasorelaxation by inhibition of vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by extracellular Ca+2 influx through trans-membrane Ca+2 channels and/or Ca+2 release from intracellular stores, and by activation of KATP channels. The vasorelaxation effects of V. pubescens could be mediated by the compound, spathulenol.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide
  17. Gopalsamy B, Chia JSM, Farouk AAO, Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK
    Molecules, 2020 Aug 26;25(17).
    PMID: 32858809 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25173880
    Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene from the wild ginger plant Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, attenuates allodynia and hyperalgesia. Currently, its mechanisms of action in neuropathic pain conditions remain unclear. This study examines the involvement of potassium channels and opioid receptors in zerumbone-induced analgesia in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) neuropathic pain mice model. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were subjected to CCI and behavioral responses were tested on day 14. Responses toward mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were tested with von Frey's filament and Hargreaves' tests, respectively. Symptoms of neuropathic pain were significantly alleviated following treatment with zerumbone (10 mg/kg; intraperitoneal, i.p.). However, when the voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA, 4 mg/kg; i.p.), ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, glibenclamide (GLIB, 10 mg/kg; i.p.); small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitor apamin (APA, 0.04 mg/kg; i.p.), or large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitor charybdotoxin (CHAR, 0.02 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered prior to zerumbone (10 mg/kg; i.p.), the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone were significantly reversed. Additionally, non-specific opioid receptors antagonist, naloxone (NAL, 10 mg/kg; i.p.), selective µ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptor antagonists; β-funaltrexamine (β-FN, 40 mg/kg; i.p.), naltrindole (20 mg/kg; s.c.), nor-binaltorphamine (10 mg/kg; s.c.) respectively attenuated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone. This outcome clearly demonstrates the participation of potassium channels and opioid receptors in the antineuropathic properties of zerumbone. As various clinically used neuropathic pain drugs also share this similar mechanism, this compound is, therefore, a highly potential substitute to these therapeutic options.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide
  18. Loh HH, Kamaruddin NA
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2020 Jul;49(7):468-476.
    PMID: 33000110
    During Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise (Sahur) to sunset (Iftar) and are required to abstain from food and fluids, including oral and injectable medications. Patients with diabetes who fast during Ramadan are at risk of developing hyperglycemia with increased risk of ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, dehydration and thrombosis. Pre-Ramadan education and preparation of a fasting patient are essential to reduce severe complications. This review paper summarizes studies to date on oral and injectable medications available for patients with type 2 diabetes during Ramadan fasting, as well as recommendations on management of these patients during Ramadan. Although there is limited data on the use of Metformin, Acarbose and Thiazolidinedione in Ramadan, they appear to be safe. Sulphonylurea, especially Glibenclamide, is associated with higher risk of hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting, hence may need adjustment in dosing and timing. The incretin group and SGLT2 inhibitor use during Ramadan fasting is associated with low risk of hypoglycemia with no increased adverse events. Insulin regimes need to be individualized for patients who fast during Ramadan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide
  19. Lim PC, Lim SL, Oiyammaal C
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):21-4.
    PMID: 22582544
    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients who were on gliclazide co-administered with metformin were changed to pre-combined glibenclamide-metformin tablets in the Endocrine Clinic, Penang Hospital. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the differences in glycaemic control and treatment cost following the change. Eighty patients (60% females) with a mean age of 55 years old were studied. Mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbAlc) reduction was -0.92% (p<0.01) and -0.83% (p<0.01) after three and six months respectively. Patients with baseline HbA1c > or =8% had greater reduction in mean HbA1c (-1.36%) after six months. The treatment cost per month was reduced by 45% at 3 months (p<0.01)) and 44% at 6 months (p<0.01). The change to pre-combined glibenclamide-metformin tablets resulted in significant improvement in glycaemia and reduction in treatment cost.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/administration & dosage*
  20. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Salam SK, Salleh MS, Gurtu S
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(1):829-43.
    PMID: 21340016 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12010829
    Hyperglycemia-induced increase in oxidative stress is implicated in diabetic complications. This study investigated the effect of metformin and/or glibenclamide in combination with honey on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in the kidneys of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were randomized into eight groups of five to seven rats and received distilled water (0.5 mL); honey (1.0 g/kg); metformin (100 mg/kg); metformin (100 mg/kg) and honey (1.0 g/kg); glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg); glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) and honey (1.0 g/kg); metformin (100 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg); or metformin (100 mg/kg), glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for four weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly elevated while catalase (CAT) activity, total antioxidant status (TAS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH:oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio was significantly reduced in the diabetic kidneys. CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TAS, and GSH remained significantly reduced in the diabetic rats treated with metformin and/or glibenclamide. In contrast, metformin or glibenclamide combined with honey significantly increased CAT, GR, TAS, and GSH. These results suggest that combination of honey with metformin or glibenclamide might offer additional antioxidant effect to these drugs. This might reduce oxidative stress-mediated damage in diabetic kidneys.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glyburide/therapeutic use*
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