Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 83 in total

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  1. Sun C, Song G, Pan Z, Tu M, Kharaziha M, Zhang X, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2023 Jan;368:128356.
    PMID: 36414144 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2022.128356
    The valorization of organosolv pretreatment (OP) is a required approach to the industrialization of the current enzyme-mediated lignocellulosic biorefinery. Recent literature has demonstrated that the solvolysis happening in the OP can modify the soluble components into value-added active compounds, namely organosolv modified lignin (OML) and organosolv modified sugars (OMSs), in addition to protecting them against excessive degradation. Among them, the OML is coincidental with the "lignin-first" strategy that should render a highly reactive lignin enriched with β-O-4 linkages and less condensed structure by organosolv grafting, which is desirable for the transformation into phenolic compounds. The OMSs are valuable glycosidic compounds mainly synthesized by trans-glycosylation, which can find potential applications in cosmetics, foods, and healthcare. Therefore, a state-of-the-art OP holds a big promise of lowering the process cost by the valorization of these active compounds. Recent advances in organosolv modified components are reviewed, and perspectives are made for addressing future challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation
  2. Abu Bakar N, Lefeber DJ, van Scherpenzeel M
    J Inherit Metab Dis, 2018 May;41(3):499-513.
    PMID: 29497882 DOI: 10.1007/s10545-018-0144-9
    Clinical glycomics comprises a spectrum of different analytical methodologies to analyze glycan structures, which provides insights into the mechanisms of glycosylation. Within clinical diagnostics, glycomics serves as a functional readout of genetic variants, and can form a basis for therapy development, as was described for PGM1-CDG. Integration of glycomics with genomics has resulted in the elucidation of previously unknown disorders of glycosylation, namely CCDC115-CDG, TMEM199-CDG, ATP6AP1-CDG, MAN1B1-CDG, and PGM1-CDG. This review provides an introduction into protein glycosylation and presents the different glycomics methodologies ranging from gel electrophoresis to mass spectrometry (MS) and from free glycans to intact glycoproteins. The role of glycomics in the diagnosis of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) is presented, including a diagnostic flow chart and an overview of glycomics data of known CDG subtypes. The review ends with some future perspectives, showing upcoming technologies as system wide mapping of the N- and O-glycoproteome, intact glycoprotein profiling and analysis of sugar metabolism. These new advances will provide additional insights and opportunities to develop personalized therapy. This is especially true for inborn errors of metabolism, which are amenable to causal therapy, because interventions through supplementation therapy can directly target the pathogenesis at the molecular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation; Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation
  3. Shi B, Guo X, Liu H, Jiang K, Liu L, Yan N, et al.
    Food Chem, 2024 Apr 16;438:137994.
    PMID: 37984001 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.137994
    Foods rich in carbohydrates or fats undergo the Maillard reaction during frying, which promotes the color, flavor and sensory characteristics formation. In the meanwhile, Maillard reaction intermediates and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a negative impact on food sensory quality and gut homeostasis. This negative effect can be influenced by food composition and other processing factors. Whole grain products are rich in polyphenols, which can capture carbonyl compounds in Maillard reaction, and reduce the production of AGEs during frying. This review summarizes the Maillard reaction production intermediates and AGEs formation mechanism in fried food and analyzes the factors affecting the sensory formation of food. In the meanwhile, the effects of Maillard reaction intermediates and AGEs on gut homeostasis were summarized. Overall, the innovative processing methods about the Maillard reaction are summarized to optimize the sensory properties of fried foods while minimizing the formation of AGEs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation End Products, Advanced*
  4. Dong L, Li Y, Chen Q, Liu Y, Qiao Z, Sang S, et al.
    Food Chem, 2023 Aug 15;417:135861.
    PMID: 36906946 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.135861
    Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) are a series of complex compounds which generate in the advanced phase of Maillard reaction, which can pose a non-negligible risk to human health. This article systematically encompasses AGEs in milk and dairy products under different processing conditions, influencing factors, inhibition mechanism and levels among the different categories of dairy products. In particular, it describes the effects of various sterilization techniques on the Maillard reaction. Different processing techniques have a significant effect on AGEs content. In addition, it clearly articulates the determination methods of AGEs and even discusses its immunometabolism via gut microbiota. It is observed that the metabolism of AGEs can affect the composition of the gut microbiota, which further has an impact on intestinal function and the gut-brain axis. This research also provides a suggestion for AGEs mitigation strategies, which are beneficial to optimize the dairy production, especially innovative processing technology application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation End Products, Advanced/metabolism
  5. Abdul Manas NH, Md Illias R, Mahadi NM
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2018 Mar;38(2):272-293.
    PMID: 28683572 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2017.1339664
    BACKGROUND: The increasing market demand for oligosaccharides has intensified the need for efficient biocatalysts. Glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) are still gaining popularity as biocatalyst for oligosaccharides synthesis owing to its simple reaction and high selectivity.

    PURPOSE: Over the years, research has advanced mainly directing to one goal; to reduce hydrolysis activity of GHs for increased transglycosylation activity in achieving high production of oligosaccharides.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: This review concisely presents the strategies to increase transglycosylation activity of GHs for oligosaccharides synthesis, focusing on controlling the reaction equilibrium, and protein engineering. Various modifications of the subsites of GHs have been demonstrated to significantly modulate the hydrolysis and transglycosylation activity of the enzymes. The clear insight of the roles of each amino acid in these sites provides a platform for designing an enzyme that could synthesize a specific oligosaccharide product.

    CONCLUSIONS: The key strategies presented here are important for future improvement of GHs as a biocatalyst for oligosaccharide synthesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation
  6. Taha M, Naz H, Rasheed S, Ismail NH, Rahman AA, Yousuf S, et al.
    Molecules, 2013;19(1):1286-301.
    PMID: 24451249 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19011286
    A series of 4-methoxybenzoylhydrazones 1-30 was synthesized and the structures of the synthetic derivatives elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds showed a varying degree of antiglycation activity, with IC50 values ranging between 216.52 and 748.71 µM, when compared to a rutin standard (IC50=294.46±1.50 µM). Compounds 1 (IC50=216.52±4.2 µM), 3 (IC50=289.58±2.64 µM), 6 (IC50=227.75±0.53 µM), 7 (IC50=242.53±6.1) and 11 (IC50=287.79±1.59) all showed more activity that the standard, and these compounds have the potential to serve as possible leads for drugs to inhibit protein glycation in diabetic patients. A preliminary SAR study was performed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation/drug effects
  7. Angelopoulou E, Paudel YN, Piperi C
    J Mol Med (Berl), 2020 03;98(3):325-334.
    PMID: 32036391 DOI: 10.1007/s00109-020-01885-z
    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased and unstable CAG DNA expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene, resulting in an elongated polyglutamine tract in huntingtin protein. Despite its monogenic cause, HD pathogenesis remains elusive and without any approved disease-modifying therapy as yet. A growing body of evidence highlights the emerging role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in HD pathology. HMGB1, being a nuclear protein, is primarily implicated in DNA repair, but it can also translocate to the cytoplasm and participate into numerous cellular functions. Cytoplasmic HMGB1 was shown to directly interact with huntingtin under oxidative stress conditions and induce its nuclear translocation, a key process in the HD pathogenic cascade. Nuclear HMGB1 acting as a co-factor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and base excision repair (BER) complexes can exert dual roles in CAG repeat instability and affect the final DNA repair outcome. HMGB1 can inhibit mutant huntingtin aggregation, protecting against polyglutamine-induced neurotoxicity and acting as a chaperon-like molecule, possibly via autophagy regulation. In addition, HMGB1 being a RAGE and TLR-2, TLR-3, and TLR-4 ligand may further contribute to HD pathogenesis by triggering neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore, HMGB1 participates at the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and can induce protein degradation and apoptosis associated with HD. In this review, we discuss the multiple role of HMGB1 in HD pathology, providing mechanistic insights that could direct future studies towards the development of targeted therapeutic approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor/metabolism
  8. Deo P, Fenech M, Dhillon VS
    Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res, 2021 01 29;787:108369.
    PMID: 34083054 DOI: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2021.108369
    Micronucleus assay has been used as a biomarker of DNA damage, chromosomal instability, cancer risk and accelerated aging. In this review, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between micronuclei (MNi) and diseases with increased advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and HbA1c. The review identified eight studies with 632 subjects with disease and 547 controls. The Mean Ratio (MRi) for AGE levels (MRi = 2.92, 95 %CI: 2.06-4.13, P < 0.00001) and HbA1c levels (MRi = 1.32, 95 %CI: 1.12-1.56, P = 0.001) were significantly higher in the disease group compared to healthy controls. The meta-analysis indicated that the overall estimates of MRi for MNi was 1.83 (95 %CI: 1.38-2.42, p < 0.0001) in subjects with disease compared to controls. Significant increases in MRi for MNi were also observed in the following sub-groups: subjects with disease for elevated AGEs (MRi = 1.62, 95 %CI: 1.12-2.35, P = 0.01), elevated HbA1c (MRi = 2.13, 95 %CI: 1.33-3.39, P = 0.002), lymphocytes MNi (MRi = 1.74, 95 %CI: 1.29-2.33, P = 0.0003), exfoliated buccal cells MNi (MRi = 2.86, 95 %CI: 1.19-6.87, P = 0.02), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MRi = 1.99, 95 %CI: 1.17-3.39, P = 0.01), chronic renal disease (MRi = 1.68, 95 %CI: 1.18-2.38, P = 0.004) and other disease groups (MRi = 2.52, 95 %CI: 1.28-4.96, P = 0.008). The results of this review suggest that MNi could be used as a biomarker of DNA damage and chromosomal instability in degenerative disease where increased AGEs and HbA1c are implicated. The lack of heterogeneity for MN frequency when considered either for all studies or subgroup strengthened the MRi of the meta-analysis. However, the lack of significant association between MRi for MNi and MRi for AGEs or HbA1c indicates that the case-control studies investigated may be confounded by other variables. Thus, larger studies with long term AGE exposure is warranted to further understand the role of MN formation in the initiation and progression of diseases caused by excessive glycation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation End Products, Advanced/metabolism
  9. Hua Z, Wang S, Yuan X
    J Affect Disord, 2024 Apr 01;350:831-837.
    PMID: 38242215 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2024.01.009
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the spatial distribution and temporal trends in the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) of depression in adolescents aged 10-24 worldwide.

    METHODS: Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 were analyzed, adopting Sawyer's broad definition of adolescence encompassing ages 10 to 24. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were used to assess temporal trends.

    RESULTS: Globally, from 1990 to 2019, there was a decrease in the ASIR of depression in adolescents (EAPC = -0.23). Notably, this decrease was more pronounced in female adolescents compared to their male counterparts (EAPC = -0.12 and - 0.29, respectively). Conversely, high Sociodemographic Index (SDI) regions experienced a significant increase in the ASIR of depression among adolescents (EAPC = 0.87). Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that individuals aged 20-24 exhibited the highest incidence rate for depression followed by those aged 15-19 and then those aged 10-14. The largest increases in the ASIRs of depression occurred in High-income North America (EAPC = 1.19) and Malaysia (EAPC = 2.4), respectively.

    LIMITATIONS: Mathematical models were used to reconstruct and adjust data of different qualities, which might have introduced bias.

    CONCLUSIONS: The global burden of disease for depression among adolescents aged 10-24 years declined from 1990 to 2019. Special attention must be paid to older adolescents and areas with higher SDIs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation End Products, Advanced*
  10. Ikram FZ, Arulsamy A, Retinasamy T, Shaikh MF
    Curr Neuropharmacol, 2022;20(11):2221-2245.
    PMID: 35034598 DOI: 10.2174/1570159X20666220114153308
    BACKGROUND: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that plays an important role in the repair and regeneration of tissue injury. It also acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine through the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), to elicit the neuroinflammatory response. HMGB1 may aggravate several cellular responses, which may lead to pathological inflammation and cellular death. Thus, there have been a considerable amount of research into the pathological role of HMGB1 in diseases. However, whether the mechanism of action of HMGB1 is similar in all neurodegenerative disease pathology remains to be determined.

    OBJECTIVE: Therefore, this systematic review aimed to critically evaluate and elucidate the role of HMGB1 in the pathology of neurodegeneration based on the available literature.

    METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed on four databases; EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL Plus.

    RESULTS: A total of 85 articles were selected for critical appraisal, after subjecting to the inclusion and exclusion criteria in this study. The selected articles revealed that HMGB1 levels were found elevated in most neurodegeneration except in Huntington's disease and Spinocerebellar ataxia, where the levels were found decreased. This review also showcased that HMGB1 may act on distinctive pathways to elicit its pathological response leading to the various neurodegeneration processes/ diseases.

    CONCLUSION: While there have been promising findings in HMGB1 intervention research, further studies may still be required before any HMGB1 intervention may be recommended as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor
  11. Ali D, Al-Yahya QM, Baskaradoss JK
    Int Dent J, 2023 Oct;73(5):717-723.
    PMID: 37037698 DOI: 10.1016/j.identj.2023.03.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare peri-implant clinical and radiographic status and levels of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) in waterpipe users and cigarette smokers.

    METHODS: Waterpipe users, cigarette smokers, and never smokers were included. Demographic details were collected using a questionnaire. Characteristics of implants (dimensions, jaw location, depth of placement, insertion torque, and duration in function) were recorded. Peri-implant modified plaque and gingival indices (mPI and mGI), probing depth (PD), and crestal bone loss (CBL) were recorded in all groups. Volume of PISF and levels of AGEs were determined using standard techniques. Sample-size estimation was done on data from a pilot investigation, and correlation between clinicoradiographic and immunoinflammatory parameters was assessed using logistic regression models. Probability values

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation End Products, Advanced
  12. Wan Nazaimoon WM, Khaid BAK
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Dec;20(2):83-9.
    PMID: 10879267
    We successfully developed an in-house, competitive enzyme immunoassay to measure advanced glycosylation end-products (AGE) in serum. The assay involved coating microtitre wells with AGE-BSA at 8 micrograms/ml for 4 hours, followed by overnight incubation of 20 microliters sample (prediluted at 1:6) with 80 microliters antiserum (1:8000). HRP-labelled goat anti-rabbit was used as the second antibody and 3,5',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride as the substrate. Incubation was carried out at 4 degrees C. As suggested in an earlier study, we standardised the AGE units against normal human serum (NHS). Thus, one AGE unit was defined as the inhibition that resulted when the 1:6 diluted NHS was assayed. Mean (+/- SD) AGE level in normal subjects (n = 37) was significantly lower than in diabetes subjects with microalbuminuria (n = 57) (6.0 +/- 0.7 versus 10.2 +/- 4.7 units/ml, p = 0.0001). With the availability of in-house assay and by standardising the AGE unit with the other laboratories, more studies could be undertaken and results compared, and possibly, further elucidate the roles of AGE in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation End Products, Advanced/blood*; Glycosylation End Products, Advanced/immunology
  13. Teh SH, Fong MY, Mohamed Z
    Genet Mol Biol, 2011 Jul;34(3):464-70.
    PMID: 21931521 DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572011005000022
    The Pichia pastoris expression system was used to produce recombinant human erythropoietin, a protein synthesized by the adult kidney and responsible for the regulation of red blood cell production. The entire recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) gene was constructed using the Splicing by Overlap Extension by PCR (SOE-PCR) technique, cloned and expressed through the secretory pathway of the Pichia expression system. Recombinant erythropoietin was successfully expressed in P. pastoris. The estimated molecular mass of the expressed protein ranged from 32 kDa to 75 kDa, with the variation in size being attributed to the presence of rhEPO glycosylation analogs. A crude functional analysis of the soluble proteins showed that all of the forms were active in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation
  14. Thong MK, Fietz M, Nicholls C, Lee MH, Asma O
    J Inherit Metab Dis, 2009 Dec;32 Suppl 1:S41-4.
    PMID: 19165618 DOI: 10.1007/s10545-009-1031-1
    There are few reports of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) in the Asian population, although they have been reported worldwide. We identified a Malaysian infant female at 2 days of life with CDG type Ia. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of inverted nipples and abnormal fat distribution. She had cerebellar hypoplasia and developed coagulopathy, hypothyroidism and severe pericardial effusion and died at 7 months of life. The diagnosis was supported by abnormal serum transferrin isoform pattern that showed elevated levels of the disialotransferrin isoform and trace levels of the asialotransferrin isoform. Enzyme testing of peripheral leukocytes showed decreased level of phosphomannomutase (PMM) activity (0.6 nmol/min per mg protein, normal range 1.6-6.2) and a normal level of phosphomannose isomerase activity (19 nmol/min per mg protein, normal range 12-25), indicating a diagnosis of CDG type Ia. Mutation study of the PMM2 gene showed the patient was heterozygous for both the common p.R141H (c.422T>A) mutation and a novel sequence change in exon 7, c.618C>A. The latter change is predicted to result in the replacement of the highly conserved phenylalanine residue at position 206 with a leucine residue (p.F206L) and occurs in the same codon as the previously reported p.F206S mutation. Analysis of 100 control chromosomes has shown that the p.F206L sequence change is not present, making it highly likely that this change is functionally important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CDG in the Malay population. Prenatal diagnosis was successfully performed in a subsequent pregnancy for this family.
    Matched MeSH terms: Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation/diagnosis; Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation/enzymology*; Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation/genetics*
  15. de Costa F, Barber CJ, Reed DW, Covello PS
    Methods Mol Biol, 2016;1405:43-8.
    PMID: 26843164 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3393-8_5
    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a small annual plant that grows in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and other parts of Asia, is well-known as a medicinal herb with a long history of therapeutic uses. The bioactive compounds present in C. asiatica leaves include ursane-type triterpene sapogenins and saponins-asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside. Various bioactivities have been shown for these compounds, although most of the steps in the biosynthesis of triterpene saponins, including glycosylation, remain uncharacterized at the molecular level. This chapter describes an approach that integrates partial enzyme purification, proteomics methods, and transcriptomics, with the aim of reducing the number of cDNA candidates encoding for a glucosyltransferase involved in saponin biosynthesis and facilitating the elucidation of the pathway in this medicinal plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation
  16. Mu AK, Lim BK, Aminudin N, Hashim OH, Shuib AS
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2016 Jul;122(3):111-6.
    PMID: 26849673 DOI: 10.3109/13813455.2016.1151441
    Endometrial (ECa), ovarian (OCa) and cervical (CCa) cancers are among 10 of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide. Cancers are known to cause some proteins to be differentially glycosylated or aberrantly excreted in the urine, which can be used as biomarkers. Since ECa, OCa and CCa are difficult to diagnose at the early stage, the aim of the present study was to identify a panel of new biomarkers for early detection of the cancers using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) technology. Identification of early biomarkers that are specific and efficient can increase the survival rate of the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation
  17. Cheng HS, Ton SH, Tan JBL, Abdul Kadir K
    Nutrients, 2017 Sep 07;9(9).
    PMID: 28880217 DOI: 10.3390/nu9090984
    The clinical value of tocotrienols is increasingly appreciated because of the unique therapeutic effects that are not shared by tocopherols. However, their effect on metabolic syndrome is not well-established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil in high-fat-diet-treated rats. Male, post-weaning Sprague Dawley rats were provided high-fat (60% kcal) diet for eight weeks followed by a TRF (60 mg/kg) treatment for another four weeks. Physical, metabolic, and histological changes were compared to those on control and high-fat diets respectively. High-fat feeding for eight weeks induced all hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. The TRF reversed systolic and diastolic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic steatosis, impaired antioxidant defense, and myeloperoxidase hyperactivity triggered by the high-fat diet. It also conferred an inhibitory effect on protein glycation to reduce glycated hemoglobin A1c and advanced glycation end products (AGE). This was accompanied by the suppression of the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) expression in the liver. The treatment effects on visceral adiposity, glycemic control, triglyceride level, as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ expression were negligible. To conclude, treatment with a TRF exhibited protective effects on the cardiovascular and liver health in addition to the amelioration of plasma redox imbalance and AGE-RAGE activation. Further investigation as a therapy for metabolic syndrome is therefore worthwhile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor/metabolism*; Glycosylation End Products, Advanced/metabolism*
  18. Arumugam N, Abdul Rahim AS, Abd Hamid S, Osman H
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 17;17(8):9887-99.
    PMID: 22902883 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089887
    A series of novel 1-(2'-α-O-D-glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-arylbenzimidazoles has been prepared via one-pot glycosylation of ethyl-1-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-2-arylbenzimidazole-5-carboxylate derivatives. Synthesis of the 2-arylbenzimidazole aglycones from 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid was accomplished in four high-yielding steps. The reduction and cyclocondensation steps for the aglycone synthesis proceeded efficiently under microwave irradiation to afford the appropriate benzimidazoles in excellent yields within 2-3 min. Glycosylation of the hydroxyethyl aglycones with the perbenzylated 1-hydroxy- glucopyranose, pretreated with the Appel-Lee reagent, followed by catalytic hydrogenolysis delivered the desired 1-(2'-α-O-D-glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-aryl-benzimidazoles in a simple and straightforward manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation
  19. Ding K, Geng H, Guo W, Sun W, Zhan S, Lou Q, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2023 Aug 30;103(11):5322-5331.
    PMID: 37016806 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12600
    BACKGROUND: Fish gelatin (FG) has multifunctional properties similar to mammalian gelatin (MG), and it has been recognized as the optimal alternative to MG. While its poor surface-active and gelling properties significantly limit its application values, glycosylation has been successfully used to increase surface-active properties of FG, but the influence of ultrasonic-associated glycosylation (UAG) on the gelling and structural characteristics of FG is still rarely reported. This article explores UAG (100-200 W, 0.5-1 h) with κ-carrageenan (κC) on the functional properties (emulsifying, gelling and rheological properties) and structural characteristics of FG.

    RESULTS: The longer time and higher power of ultrasonics accelerated the glycosylation reaction with an increase in glycosylation degree and browning index values. Compared with original FG, FG-κC mixture and bovine gelatin, UAG-modified FG possessed higher emulsification activity index, emulsion stability index, gel strength, hardness and melting temperature values. Among them, gelatin modified by appropriate ultrasonic conditions (200 W, 0.5 h) had the highest emulsifying and gelling properties. Rheological results showed that UAG contributed to the gelation process of gelatin with advanced gelation time and endowed it with high viscosity. Structural analysis indicated that UAG promoted κC to link with FG by the formation of covalent and hydrogen bonds, restricting more bound and immobilized water in the gels, exhibiting higher gelling properties.

    CONCLUSION: This work showed that UAG with κC is a promising method to produce high gelling and emulsifying properties of FG that could replace MG. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation
  20. An Y, Cipollo JF
    Anal Biochem, 2011 Aug 1;415(1):67-80.
    PMID: 21545787 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2011.04.018
    Here a mass spectrometry-based platform for the analysis of glycoproteins is presented. Glycopeptides and released glycans are analyzed, the former by quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (QoTOF LC/MS) and the latter by permethylation analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF MS. QoTOF LC/MS analysis reveals the stochastic distribution of glycoforms at occupied sequons, and the latter provides a semiquantitative assessment of overall protein glycosylation. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was used for unbiased enrichment of glycopeptides and was validated using five model N-glycoproteins bearing a wide array of glycans, including high-mannose, complex, and hybrid subtypes such as sulfo and sialyl forms. Sialyl and especially sulfated glycans are difficult to analyze because these substitutions are labile. The conditions used here allow detection of these compounds quantitatively, intact, and in the context of overall glycosylation. As a test case, we analyzed influenza B/Malaysia/2506/2004 hemagglutinin, a component of the 2006-2007 influenza vaccine. It bears 11 glycosylation sites. Approximately 90% of its glycans are high mannose, and 10% are present as complex and hybrid types, including those with sulfate. The stochastic distribution of glycoforms at glycosylation sites is revealed. This platform should have wide applications to glycoproteins in basic sciences and industry because no apparent bias for any glycoforms is observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosylation*
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