PURPOSE: Over the years, research has advanced mainly directing to one goal; to reduce hydrolysis activity of GHs for increased transglycosylation activity in achieving high production of oligosaccharides.
DESIGN AND METHODS: This review concisely presents the strategies to increase transglycosylation activity of GHs for oligosaccharides synthesis, focusing on controlling the reaction equilibrium, and protein engineering. Various modifications of the subsites of GHs have been demonstrated to significantly modulate the hydrolysis and transglycosylation activity of the enzymes. The clear insight of the roles of each amino acid in these sites provides a platform for designing an enzyme that could synthesize a specific oligosaccharide product.
CONCLUSIONS: The key strategies presented here are important for future improvement of GHs as a biocatalyst for oligosaccharide synthesis.
METHODS: Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 were analyzed, adopting Sawyer's broad definition of adolescence encompassing ages 10 to 24. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were used to assess temporal trends.
RESULTS: Globally, from 1990 to 2019, there was a decrease in the ASIR of depression in adolescents (EAPC = -0.23). Notably, this decrease was more pronounced in female adolescents compared to their male counterparts (EAPC = -0.12 and - 0.29, respectively). Conversely, high Sociodemographic Index (SDI) regions experienced a significant increase in the ASIR of depression among adolescents (EAPC = 0.87). Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that individuals aged 20-24 exhibited the highest incidence rate for depression followed by those aged 15-19 and then those aged 10-14. The largest increases in the ASIRs of depression occurred in High-income North America (EAPC = 1.19) and Malaysia (EAPC = 2.4), respectively.
LIMITATIONS: Mathematical models were used to reconstruct and adjust data of different qualities, which might have introduced bias.
CONCLUSIONS: The global burden of disease for depression among adolescents aged 10-24 years declined from 1990 to 2019. Special attention must be paid to older adolescents and areas with higher SDIs.
OBJECTIVE: Therefore, this systematic review aimed to critically evaluate and elucidate the role of HMGB1 in the pathology of neurodegeneration based on the available literature.
METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed on four databases; EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL Plus.
RESULTS: A total of 85 articles were selected for critical appraisal, after subjecting to the inclusion and exclusion criteria in this study. The selected articles revealed that HMGB1 levels were found elevated in most neurodegeneration except in Huntington's disease and Spinocerebellar ataxia, where the levels were found decreased. This review also showcased that HMGB1 may act on distinctive pathways to elicit its pathological response leading to the various neurodegeneration processes/ diseases.
CONCLUSION: While there have been promising findings in HMGB1 intervention research, further studies may still be required before any HMGB1 intervention may be recommended as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.
METHODS: Waterpipe users, cigarette smokers, and never smokers were included. Demographic details were collected using a questionnaire. Characteristics of implants (dimensions, jaw location, depth of placement, insertion torque, and duration in function) were recorded. Peri-implant modified plaque and gingival indices (mPI and mGI), probing depth (PD), and crestal bone loss (CBL) were recorded in all groups. Volume of PISF and levels of AGEs were determined using standard techniques. Sample-size estimation was done on data from a pilot investigation, and correlation between clinicoradiographic and immunoinflammatory parameters was assessed using logistic regression models. Probability values
RESULTS: The longer time and higher power of ultrasonics accelerated the glycosylation reaction with an increase in glycosylation degree and browning index values. Compared with original FG, FG-κC mixture and bovine gelatin, UAG-modified FG possessed higher emulsification activity index, emulsion stability index, gel strength, hardness and melting temperature values. Among them, gelatin modified by appropriate ultrasonic conditions (200 W, 0.5 h) had the highest emulsifying and gelling properties. Rheological results showed that UAG contributed to the gelation process of gelatin with advanced gelation time and endowed it with high viscosity. Structural analysis indicated that UAG promoted κC to link with FG by the formation of covalent and hydrogen bonds, restricting more bound and immobilized water in the gels, exhibiting higher gelling properties.
CONCLUSION: This work showed that UAG with κC is a promising method to produce high gelling and emulsifying properties of FG that could replace MG. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.