Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Goh KL, Mahendra Raj S, Parasakthi N, Kew ST, Kandasami P, Mazlam Z
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):302-10.
    PMID: 10968173
    The Working Party Report on the Management of Helicobacter pylori serves as a clinical practice guideline for Malaysian doctors. H. pylori is not uncommon in the Malaysian population. Marked racial differences and the consistently low prevalence rates amongst Malays are noted. The working party recommends that if endoscopy is to be performed, a rapid urease test should be used for diagnosis. Where suspicion of the infection is strong and the urease test is negative, histology should be performed on gastric biopsies. Culture should be used to monitor resistance patterns to antibiotics and regional laboratories should assume this responsibility. The urea breath tests are highly accurate tests for diagnosis of H. pylori but is as yet not widely available in Malaysia. The working party strongly recommends that all peptic ulcer patients infected with H. pylori whether active, in remission and complicated ulcers should be treated for the infection. Patients with low-grade gastric mucosal lymphoid tissue lymphoma should also be treated for H. pylori infection. It is considered advisable that patients on long term nonsteroidal antinflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment with a history of peptic ulcers or dyspepsia and patients following resection of early gastric cancer or those with a family history of gastric cancer should also be tested and treated for H. pylori. The working party recommends, as first line treatment a 7-day combination therapy of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and metronidazole or amoxicillin. High metronidazole resistance rates locally may adversely affect regimens containing the antibiotic. It should also be noted that regimens that yield lower eradication rates may result in higher long term expenditure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  2. Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Peh SC, Ong KK
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Sep;50(3):208-11.
    PMID: 8926896
    Sixty-three breath samples were collected from patients who underwent a 14C-urea breath test. Following ingestion of a radiolabelled 14C-labelled urea solution, breath samples containing 14C-labelled carbon dioxide were trapped in a solution containing hyamine hydroxide. Samples were then counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Breath samples were collected at 2, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes following ingestion of the urea solution. The presence or absence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection was determined on the basis of endoscopic biopsy tests which included culture, histological examination, rapid urease test and a gram stain of a fresh tissue smear. Thirty-two HP positive and 31 HP negative samples were collected. The mean counts at 15, 20, 12 and 30 minutes time points were: 4413, 4458, 4109 and 3795 dpm respectively for the positive samples and 1275, 877, 690 and 565 dpm respectively for the negative samples. Based on a cutoff value (mean of the negative samples + 3 standard deviations) for every time point, HP positive and negative samples could be clearly differentiated giving a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The 14C-urea breath test is a reliable and convenient diagnostic test for H. pylori.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  3. Suhaila N, Hussin S, Rahman MM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2010 Nov 01;13(21):1057-61.
    PMID: 21313878
    Abstract: A total number of 157 samples were examined by 4 different tests-In-house rapid urease (iRUT), Culture, Histopathology and Immunochromatography (Immuno CardSTAT) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori from the patients reported to Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2007 to 2008. Out of the samples examined 47 (29.9%) were positive for H. pylori by the tests used in the laboratory. Efficacy of detection of the bacteria by the tests- In-house rapid urease, Culture, Histopathology and Immuno CardSTAT were 31.8, 13.9, 30.3 and 32.8%, respectively. However, sensitivity and specificity of the iRUT were 91.5 and 93.6%, respectively and the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was 86% and the Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 96.3%. The sensitivity for Immuno CardSTAT rapid test was 100% and the specificity was 79.3%. The PPV was 50% and the NPV was 100%. Convenient methods to the authors were 'In house rapid urease test and Immunochromatography though variability of specificities were observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  4. Abd Rahim MA, Johani FH, Shah SA, Hassan MR, Abdul Manaf MR
    Ann Glob Health, 2019 Jul 24;85(1).
    PMID: 31348624
    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known to be associated with peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Detection of H. pylori infection is a significant part of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer prevention and management. 13C-urea breath test (UBT) provides a good option for the pathogen detection due to its accuracy and safety.

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims to evaluate the 13C-UBT diagnostic accuracy studies conducted among Asian population and validate its use for the Asian population.

    METHODS: Original articles were systematically searched in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using the PICOS strategy by applying relevant keywords. Only studies published in English and conducted in Asia were included. Our search returned 276 articles. After assessment, 11 articles which answered our research question and met the criteria set for systematic review and meta-analysis were accepted. A total of 15 study protocols were extracted from the 11 accepted articles.

    FINDINGS: Majority of the studies were conducted in Hong Kong (six), followed by Taiwan (five), Japan (two), and one each in Singapore and Israel. All studies had used histology as part of its gold standard of reference. All but one study was performed on adult populations. The summary estimate for sensitivity was 97% (95% CI: 96, 98%), and specificity was 96% (95% CI: 95, 97%), with significant heterogeneity between studies. Adjusting for the dose (50 mg) and breath sample collection time (20 minutes) had improved both accuracy estimates and significantly reduced heterogeneity.

    CONCLUSION: This review supports the test-and-treat strategy for H. pylori infection management. Prevalence and cost-effectiveness studies are mandatory for health authorities to adopt this strategy into national policy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  5. Lee YY, Mahendra Raj S, Graham DY
    Helicobacter, 2013 Oct;18(5):338-46.
    PMID: 23607896 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12058
    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis
  6. Boey CC, Goh KL
    Dig Liver Dis, 2001 4 17;33(1):83-4.
    PMID: 11303982
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis
  7. Chow TK, Lambert JR, Wahlqvist ML, Hsu-Hage BH
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1995 9 1;10(5):562-9.
    PMID: 8963032
    The Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in a representative population of 328 Melbourne Chinese immigrants (162 men and 166 women) aged 25 years and older were studied. The population consisted of Chinese people born in China/Hong Kong (n = 110, 33.5%), Vietnam (n = 79, 24.1%), Malaysia/Singapore (n = 102, 31.1%), and elsewhere (n = 37, 11.3%). The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 59.5%; 60.5% in men and 58.4% in women. Gender specific analysis showed associations between higher seroprevalence and several socio-demographic factors; in men, age (P < 0.0001), lower education level (P < 0.002), cigarette smoking (P < 0.042), the use of antibiotics (P < 0.015) and chopsticks (P < 0.047), and in women, lower socioeconomical status [education level (P < 0.030), gross household income (P < 0.0001) and occupational status (P < 0.0001)] and use of chopsticks (P < 0.002). Seroprevalence differed between immigrants of various birthplaces (P < 0.001); those born in Malaysia/Singapore (43.1%) were lower than those born in China/Hong Kong (68.2%), Vietnam (68.4%), and elsewhere (59.5%). Immigrants of various birthplaces also differed in their pattern of socio-demographics. Multivariate analyses showed that risk factors for H. pylori infection within the Melbourne Chinese immigrants were, in men, age (B = 1.081) and birthplace (B = 1.769) and, in women, household income (B = 0.541) and use of chopsticks (B = 1.654). This study suggests person-to-person transmission of H. pylori via the oral-oral route with ethno-specific food practices an important risk factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis
  8. Said RM, Cheah PL, Chin SC, Goh KL
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 Feb;16(2):195-9.
    PMID: 15075994
    BACKGROUND: The gastric biopsy urease test is the most frequently used test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in routine gastrointestinal endoscopy practice. In Malaysia up to recently, only one commercial biopsy urease test was available: the CLO test (Ballard Medical Products, Draper, Utah, USA). Large endoscopy units use their own 'homemade' unbuffered ultra rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy and reaction time of a new biopsy urease test, Pronto Dry (Medical Instruments Corporation, Solothurn, Switzerland) and the CLO test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

    METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with dyspepsia to the endoscopy unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre were recruited for the study. Patients who were previously treated for H. pylori infection or who had received antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors or bismuth compounds in the preceding 4 weeks were excluded. H. pylori diagnosis was made based on the ultra rapid urease test and histological examination of gastric biopsies. Four antral and four corpus biopsies were taken for this purpose from all patients. A diagnosis of H. pylori infection was made when both the ultra rapid urease test and histology were positive in either the antral or corpus biopsies. A negative diagnosis of H. pylori was made when both tests from antral and corpus biopsies were all negative. Another four antral and four corpus biopsies (two each) were taken for the Pronto Dry and CLO tests. The Pronto Dry and CLO tests were stored and performed according to the manufacturer's instruction.

    RESULTS: Two hundred and eight patients were recruited in the study. Eighty-six of the patients were males and 122 were females. The mean age was 46.3 years with a range of 15-82 years. The results for both the Pronto Dry and the CLO tests were completely concordant with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of 98.1%, 100%, 100%, 98.1% and 99%, respectively. The Pronto Dry test showed a faster reaction time to positive compared with the CLO test, with 96.2% positive reaction by 30 min versus 70.8% and 100% positive reaction time by 55 min versus 83%. The colorimetric change was also more distinct with the Pronto Dry test compared with the CLO test.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both the Pronto Dry and the CLO tests were highly accurate for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The Pronto Dry test showed a quicker positive reaction time and the positive colour change was more distinct.

    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  9. Kaur G, Raj SM
    Singapore Med J, 2002 Feb;43(2):090-2.
    PMID: 11993896
    The concordance between endoscopic and histological gastritis was determined in 52 patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The study was conducted in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia, an area with a low background prevalence of H. pylori infection. Endoscopic and histological gastritis were assessed in accordance with the Sydney System. The results showed poor concordance between endoscopic and histological gastritis even after reclassifying mild endoscopic gastritis as normal. The low prevalence of H. pylori was validated in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  10. Goh KL, Cheah PL, Navaratnam P, Chin SC, Xiao SD
    J Dig Dis, 2007 Aug;8(3):139-42.
    PMID: 17650225
    The gastric biopsy urease test is an accurate and robust diagnostic test for Helicobacter pylori infection. Large endoscopy units use their own homemade unbuffered ultra-rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection but several commercial rapid urease tests are available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  11. Jamaludin S, Mustaffa N, Che Hamzah NA, Syed Abdul Aziz SH, Lee YY
    BMC Gastroenterol, 2015;15:101.
    PMID: 26264957 DOI: 10.1186/s12876-015-0332-0
    Unchanged substrate in a negative rapid urease test may be reused to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). This could potentially reduce costs and wastage in low prevalence and resource-poor settings. We thus aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of reused Pronto Dry and CLOtest kits, comparing this to the use of new Pronto Dry test kits and histopathological evaluation of gastric mucosal biopsies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  12. Kang JY, Yeoh KG, Ho KY, Guan R, Lim TP, Quak SH, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1997 Oct;12(9-10):655-9.
    PMID: 9407329
    The aim of this study was to determine, first, whether racial differences exist in the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Singapore, and second, whether these differences correlate with racial differences in peptic ulcer frequency. A commercial serological test for immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody to H. pylori which was 90% sensitive and 83% specific in our population was used to screen 403 adult blood donors of Chinese, Malay and Indian origin, aged between 15-60 years. Serum specimens from 84 paediatric patients admitted to the Paediatrics Department, National University of Singapore, with non-gastroenterological illnesses were also tested. In all three races, seroprevalence of H. pylori increased with age. Indians have the highest prevalence of infection followed by Chinese and Malays. Peptic ulcer prevalences are known to be highest in Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. The Malays have the lowest prevalence of H. pylori and peptic ulcer among the three races in Singapore. Indians have a higher prevalence of H. pylori antibodies but a lower frequency of peptic ulcer than the Chinese. Racial differences in peptic ulcer frequency between Chinese and Indians are not explained by the prevalence of H. pylori infection; other environmental or genetic factors may be involved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  13. Uyub AM, Anuar AK, Aiyar S
    PMID: 7855648
    Two commercial serological kits, Pylori-set (Orion Diagnostica, Finland) and Helico-G (Cambridge Biomedical Ltd, UK), and an in-house ELISA were evaluated with sera from 24 Helicobacter pylori-positive and 146 H. pylori-negative dyspeptic patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Pylori-set were lower than that of Helico-G and in-house ELISA. Helico-G was more sensitive (91.7%) than in-house ELISA (83.3%) and both had comparable negative predictive values of 98.3% and 97.3%, respectively. However, specificity (97.9%) and positive predictive value (86.9%) of an in-house ELISA were much higher than specificity (80.1%) and positive predictive value (43.1%) of Helico-G. Kappa index of agreement between the three serological tests (Pylori-set, Helico-G or in-house ELISA) and the presence of H. pylori in antral biopsies was very low (k = 0.13; z = 1.9; p > 0.05), moderate (k = 0.49; z = 7.1; p < 0.0001), or substantial (k = 0.82; z = 10.8; p < 0.0001), respectively. Overall, statistical evaluations demonstrated that both commercial kits were not as reliable as the in-house ELISA for serodiagnosing H. pylori infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  14. Thevakumar K, Chandren JR, Perez-Perez GI, Chua EG, Teh LK, Salleh MZ, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(7):e0159830.
    PMID: 27441568 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159830
    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis
  15. Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Ong KK
    Am J Gastroenterol, 1996 Feb;91(2):268-70.
    PMID: 8607491
    The aims of the study were, first, to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) among endoscopy personnel and a group of non-endoscopy volunteers and, second, to evaluate the usefulness of two noninvasive tests of diagnosis: serology and the urea breath test.

    The two noninvasive methods of HP diagnosis, serology and 14C-urea breath test (UBT), were used in a cross-sectional survey of endoscopists, nurse-assistants, and non-endoscopy personnel.

    One hundred and thirty-five volunteers were recruited for the study. In 116, results of the two tests were in agreement (kappa = 0.645). Further analysis was based on the results of the UBT. Endoscopy personnel (endoscopists and nurse-assistants) as a group had a significantly higher incidence of HP than did controls (32.9% vs. 11.3%; p = 0.004). The two groups were comparable with regard to mean age, sex, ethnic distribution, and social class.

    HP infection is more prevalent among endoscopy personnel. Both diagnostic tests (serology and UBT) were convenient and relatively simple to perform, and results gave a high level of agreement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  16. Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Peh SC, Puthucheary SD, Wong NW
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Apr;35(2):161-2.
    PMID: 7939811
    With the increasing recognition of the importance of H. pylori in gastrointestinal disease, there is a need for a reliable, efficient and yet inexpensive diagnostic test. The performance of the rapid urease test (RUT) as an endoscopy suite diagnostic test was compared to the established methods of culture, histology and Gram stain of tissue smear, in 274 gastric biopsy samples. Histology had the highest sensitivity of 99.3% followed by the RUT (96.6%). Culture and Gram stain of tissue smear had 100% specificity, while the rapid urease test had 99.2% specificity. The RUT had a positive predictive value of 99.3% and a negative predictive value of 96.2%. The RUT is an inexpensive, rapid and reliable diagnostic test of H. pylori infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  17. Osman HA, Hasan H, Suppian R, Bahar N, Hussin NS, Rahim AA, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(13):5245-7.
    PMID: 25040982
    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most important causes of dyspepsia and gastric cancer and diagnosis can be made by invasive or non-invasive methods. The Atlas Helicobacter pylori antigen test is a new rapid non-invasive method which is simple to conduct. The aim of this study was to determine its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between July 2012 and December 2013. Stool samples of 59 dyspeptic patients who underwent upper endoscopy were evaluated for H. pylori stool antigen.

    RESULTS: From the 59 patients who participated in this study, there were 36 (61%) males and 23 (39%) females. H. pylori was diagnosed in 24 (40.7%) gastric biopsies, 22 (91.7 %) of these being positive for the Atlas H. pylori antigen test. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 91.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.6% and 96.6% respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Atlas H. pylori antigen test is a new non-invasive method which is simple to perform and avails reliable results in a few minutes. Thus it can be the best option for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection due to its high sensitivity and specificity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  18. Bhewa Y, Hilmi I, Cheah PL, Navaratnam P, Goh KL
    J Dig Dis, 2007 Nov;8(4):207-10.
    PMID: 17970878
    Although well established in the West, stool antigen tests (SAT) are not widely used in Asia. Data on the accuracy of this test in Asia is sparse and, to date, there have been no studies looking at the more refined monoclonal SAT. The aim of this study is to validate the diagnostic accuracy of a stool antigen test, Hp STAR, for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
  19. Khalilpour A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Santhanam A, Vellasamy N, Noordin R
    BMC Res Notes, 2014;7:809.
    PMID: 25406411 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-809
    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen and during the process of infection, antigens from the bacterium elicit strong host humoral immune responses. In our previous report, native H. pylori UreG protein showed good reactivity with sera from H. pylori patients. This study was aimed at producing the recombinant form of the protein (rUreG) and determining its seroreactivities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis
  20. Mahadeva S, Chia YC, Vinothini A, Mohazmi M, Goh KL
    Gut, 2008 Sep;57(9):1214-20.
    PMID: 18441005 DOI: 10.1136/gut.2007.147728
    To compare a Helicobacter pylori "test and treat" strategy with prompt endoscopy in young Asians with dyspepsia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis*
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