In this study, a novel Type II deep eutectic solvent (DES) namely, choline chloride:copper(II) chloride dihydrate (ChCl:CuCl2·2H2O) was used to pretreat oil palm fronds (OPFs). The sequential pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (0.25 vol%, 90 min) at ambient conditions and a Type II DES (90 °C, 3 h) at a later stage resulted in a delignification of 55.14% with high xylan (80.79%) and arabinan (98.02%) removals. The characterizations of pretreated OPFs confirmed the excellent performance of DES in OPF fractionation. Thus, the application of a Type II DES at ambient pressure and relatively lower temperature was able to improve the lignin and hemicellulose removals from OPFs.
A green approach using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to intensify the fuel properties of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) through torrefaction is developed in this study to minimize environmental pollution. Meanwhile, a neural network (NN) is used to minimize bulk density at different combinations of operating conditions to show the accurate and reliable model of NN (R2 = 0.9994). The biochar produced from SCGs torrefied at temperatures of 200-300 °C, duration of 30-60 min, and H2O2 concentrations of 0-100 wt% is examined. The results reveal that the higher heating value (HHV) of biochar increases with rising temperature, duration, or H2O2 concentration, whereas the bulk density has an opposite trend. The HHV, ignition temperature, and bulk density of biochar from torrefaction at 230 °C for 30 min with a 100 wt% H2O2 solution (230-100%-TSCG) are 27.00 MJ∙kg-1, 292 °C, and 120 kg∙m-3, respectively. This HHV accounts for a 29% improvement compared to that of untorrefied SCG. The contact angle (126°), water activity (0.51 aw), and moisture content (7.69%) of the optimized biochar indicate that it has higher resistance against biodegradation, and thereby can be stored longer. Overall, H2O2 is a green treatment additive for SCGs solid fuel. This study has successfully produced biochar with greater HHV and low bulk density at low temperatures. The green additive development can effectively reduce environmental pollutants and upgrade wastes into resources, and achieve "3E", namely, environmental (non-polluting green additives), energy (biofuel), and circular economy (waste upgrade). In addition, the produced biochar has great potential in the fields of bioadsorbents and soil amendments.
Biodiesel commercialization is questionable due to poor brake thermal efficiency. Biodiesel utilization should be improved with the addition of fuel additives. Hydrogen peroxide is a potential fuel additive due to extra hydrogen and oxygen content, which improves the combustion process. In this experimental study, biodiesel has been produced from Jatropha oil employing catalyzed transesterification homogeneously to examine its influence on the performance and emissions at engine loads with 1500 rpm utilizing a four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine. D60B40 (having 60% diesel and 40% biodiesel) and D60B30A10 (60% diesel, 30% biodiesel and 10% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)), are the fuel mixtures in the current study. The addition of H2O2 reduces emissions and enhances the combustion process. This effect occurred due to the micro-explosion of the injected fuel particles (which increases in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR)). An increase of 20% in BTE and 25% reduction in BSFC for D60B30A10 was observed compared to D60B40. Significant reduction in emissions of HC up to 17.54%, smoke by 24.6% CO2 by 3.53%, and an increase in NOx was noticed when the engine is operated with D60B30A10. The HRR increased up to 18.6%, ID reduced by 10.82%, and in-cylinder pressure increased by 8.5%. Test runs can be minimized as per Taguchi's design of experiments. It is possible to provide the estimates for the full factorial design of experiments. Exhaust gas temperature standards are evaluated and examined for all fuel blends.
The novel phosphonium-based ionic liquid (IL), triphenyl methyl phosphonium tosylate ([TPMP][Tos]), has been synthesized and applied as a phase transfer catalyst (PTC) in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAODS). Oxidation of model fuel (MF) containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out using an equimolar mixture of H2O2-CH3COOH as an oxidant at 40-70 °C in the presence of IL. The sulfur compound is converted into polar sulfone, and the maximum desulfurization efficiency was examined. The effect of process parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio of oxidant to sulfur (n(O/S)), and the mass ratio of ionic liquid to model fuel (m(IL/MF)) was studied, and the conditions for maximizing the DBT conversion rate were found. Maximum conversion (> 99%) was obtained at a temperature of 70 °C with m(IL/MF) of 0.8. The oxidation reactivity of various sulfur compounds was studied at different time intervals. To verify the effect of ionic liquid and ultrasound irradiation, extractive desulfurization (EDS), oxidative desulfurization (ODS), and UAODS in the presence of IL were carried out. The experimental results show that the UAODS process gives the highest desulfurization efficiency. A kinetic study was performed to estimate the rate constant and the order of oxidation reaction.
In this study, the synthesis of Fe3O4@GO@g-C3N4 ternary nanocomposite for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of phenol has been investigated. The surface modification of Fe3O4 was performed through layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition meanwhile the heterojunction structure of ternary nanocomposite was obtained through sonicated assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalysts were characterized for their crystallinity, surface morphology, chemical functionalities, and band gap energy. The Fe3O4@GO@g-C3N4 ternary nanocomposite achieved phenol degradation of ∼97%, which was significantly higher than that of Fe3O4@GO (∼75%) and Fe3O4 (∼62%). The enhanced photoactivity was due to the efficient charge carrier separation and desired band structure. The photocatalytic performance was further enhanced with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, in which phenol degradation up to 100% was achieved in 2 h irradiation time. The findings revealed that operating parameters have significant influences on the photocatalytic activities. It was found that lower phenol concentration promoted higher activity. In this study, 0.3 g of Fe3O4@GO@g-C3N4 was found to be the optimized photocatalyst for phenol degradation. At the optimized condition, the reaction rate constant was reported as 6.96 × 10-3 min-1. The ternary photocatalyst showed excellent recyclability in three consecutive cycles, which confirmed the stability of this ternary nanocomposite for degradation applications.
The application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a management tool to control Microcystis blooms has become increasingly popular due to its short lifetime and targeted action. H2O2 increases intracellular reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress and subsequently cell death. H2O2 is naturally produced in freshwater bodies as a result of photocatalytic reactions between dissolved organic carbon and sunlight. Previously, some studies have suggested that this environmental source of H2O2 selectively targets for toxigenic cyanobacteria strains in the genus Microcystis. Also, past studies only focused on the morphological and biochemical changes of H2O2-induced cell death in Microcystis with little information available on the effects of different H2O2 concentrations on growth, esterase activity and membrane integrity. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of non-lethal (40-4000 nM) concentrations on percentage cell death; with a focus on sub-lethal (50 μM) and lethal (275 μM; 500 μM) doses of H2O2 on growth, cells showing esterase activity and membrane integrity. The non-lethal dose experiment was part of a preliminary study. Results showed a dose- and time-dependent relationship in all three Microcystis strains post H2O2 treatment. H2O2 resulted in a significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species, decreased chlorophyll a content, decreased growth rate and esterase activity. Interestingly, at sub-lethal (50 μM H2O2 treatment), percentage of dead cells in microcystin-producing strains was significantly higher (p
Silicon nanomaterial was prepared using the peroxide/acid/salt technique in which an aqueous silicon-based salt solution was added to H2O2/HF etchants. In order to optimize the experimental conditions for silicon nanomaterial production, the amount of nanomaterial produced was studied as a function of the volume of the silicon salt solution used in the synthesis. A set of samples was prepared using: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mL of an aqueous 1 mg/L metasilicate solution. The area under the corresponding peaks in the infrared (ir) absorption spectra was used as a qualitative indicator to the amount of the nanomaterial present. The results indicated that using 10 mL of the metasilicate solution produced the highest amount of nanomaterial. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the peroxide/acid/salt technique results in the enhancement of the production yield of silicon nanomaterial at a reduced power demand and with a higher material to void ratio. A model in which the silicon salt forms a secondary source of silicon nanomaterial is proposed. The auxiliary nanomaterial is deposited into the porous network causing an increase in the amount of nanomaterial produced and a reduction in the voids present. Thus a reduction in the resistance of the porous layer, and consequently reduction in the power required, are expected.
The decolorization of reactive orange 16 dye (RO16) from aqueous solution by CuO/H2O2 was investigated. The amount of dye removed was determined by measuring the concentration of the dye at its characteristic wavelengths by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The effects of CuO dose, H2O2 concentration and UV light on the decolorization of the dye were investigated. It was found that the removal rate increased with increasing mass of CuO and increasing concentration of H2O2. The combination of CuO, H2O2 and UV light was the best system with dye removal of 100% after 6 h. The removal efficiency observed was in the order: CuO/UV/H2O2 > CuO/H2O2 > CuO/UV = CuO > UV/H2O2 > H2O2 > UV.
Kajian pengoptimuman tindak balas pengepoksidaan minyak sawit olein (POo) dengan menggunakan mangkin asid performik (HCOOOH) telah dijalankan. Kesan tindak balas terhadap nisbah kepekatan HCOOH : H2O2 dan masa tindak balas telah dikaji pada suhu 45oC. Kandungan oksigen oksirana (OOC) optimum sebanyak 3.61% diperoleh dengan menggunakan nisbah mol 1 : 5 : 2 pada 150 min dan sebanyak 96.5% penukaran dapat dicapai. Hasil tindak balas adalah sebanyak 91.3%. Puncak kromatografi cecair berprestasi tinggi (HPLC) bagi minyak sawit olein terepoksida (EPOo) telah berubah sepenuhnya berbanding puncak HPLC POo. Spektrum transformasi Fourier infra-merah (FTIR) telah menunjukkan kehadiran puncak ikatan gelang oksirana pada 844 cm-1.
A number of n-type Si (100) samples were prepared into porous structures via electrochemical etching process, using an electrolyte solution; HF and ethanol. The morphological properties of the samples were observed under scanning electron microscope measurement. The results showed that the pore density, pore uniformity distribution and pore size of the porous Si samples increased with time of etching. In the next stage, H2O2 was introduced into the electrolyte solution in order to investigate its effect on the morphological properties of the porous Si. From the experiment, we found that H2O2 gave finer porous structure with highly symmetrical cubic shape on the surface. Besides, H2O2 promoted smoother surface of the pore walls. Hence, the results showed that such porous Si structure could be used as a better substrate for the subsequent layer, in particular for the growth of cubic material.
The feasibility and performance of Jicama peroxidase (JP) immobilized Buckypaper/polyvinyl alcohol (BP/PVA) membrane for methylene blue (MB) dye removal was investigated in a customized multi-stage filtration column under batch recycle mode. The effect of independent variables, such as influent flow rate, ratio of H2O2/MB dye concentration, and contact time on the dye removal efficiency, were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). To capture the inherent characteristics and better predict the removal efficiency, a data-driven adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is implemented. Results indicated that the optimum dye removal efficiency of 99.7% was achieved at a flow rate of 2 mL/min, 75:1 ratio of H2O2/dye concentration with contact time of 183 min. The model predictions of ANFIS are significantly good compared with RSM, thus resulting in R2 values of 0.9912 and 0.9775, respectively. The enzymatic kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, were evaluated, which are 1.98 mg/L and 0.0219 mg/L/min, respectively. Results showed that JP-immobilized BP/PVA nanocomposite membrane can be promising and cost-effective biotechnology for the practical application in the treatment of industrial dye effluents.
In this study, the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer was synthesised on the surface of Zn plates by three different techniques, i.e. electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment. The synthesised ZnO layers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO layer was further assessed against methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was achieved up to 84%, 79% and 65% within 1 h for ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis, heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively. The reusability results show that electrolysis and heat-treated ZnO layers have considerable photocatalytic stability. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO was directly associated with the thickness and enlarged surface area of the layer. Finally, this study proved that the ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis and heat treatment had shown better operational stability and reusability.
In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD) and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. [Dye]ini, Dye:Fe(+2), H2O2:Fe(+2), and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L 9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.
The mineralisation kinetics of petroleum refinery effluent (PRE) by Fenton oxidation were evaluated. Within the ambit of the experimental data generated, first-order kinetic model (FKM), generalised lumped kinetic model (GLKM), and generalized kinetic model (GKM) were tested. The obtained apparent kinetic rate constants for the initial oxidation step (k'2), their final oxidation step (k'1), and the direct conversion to endproducts step (k3') were 10.12, 3.78, and 0.24 min(-1) for GKM; 0.98, 0.98, and nil min(-1) for GLKM; and nil, nil, and >0.005 min(-1) for FKM. The findings showed that GKM is superior in estimating the mineralization kinetics.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly contaminating wastewater due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Conventional treatment methods require longer residence time (10-15 days) and higher operating cost. Owing to this, finding a suitable and efficient method for the treatment of POME is crucial. In this investigation, ultrasound cavitation technology has been used as an alternative technique to treat POME. Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation, growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The end process of collapse leads to intense conditions of temperature and pressure and shock waves which assist various physical and chemical transformations. Two different ultrasound systems i.e. ultrasonic bath (37 kHz) and a hexagonal triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (28, 40 and 70 kHz) of 15 L have been used. The results showed a fluctuating COD pattern (in between 45,000 and 60,000 mg/L) while using ultrasound bath alone, whereas a non-fluctuating COD pattern with a final COD of 27,000 mg/L was achieved when hydrogen peroxide was introduced. Similarly for the triple frequency ultrasound reactor, coupling all the three frequencies resulted into a final COD of 41,300 mg/L compared to any other individual or combination of two frequencies. With the possibility of larger and continuous ultrasonic cavitational reactors, it is believed that this could be a promising and a fruitful green process engineering technique for the treatment of POME.
The mineralisation of remazol black B (RBB) was studied at concentrations ranging from 20-1000 mgL(-1). The work was aimed at investigating the Fenton-like peroxidation of RBB at a concentration typically obtained in Batik cottage industries. Other response parameters were degradation and colour removal efficiencies. The parameters that were measured included total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as absorbance for mineralisation, degradation and colour. To optimise the process, the interaction effects of several controlling variables on the treatment process were examined using dispersion matrix-optimal design and response surface analysis. Four specific variables: initial dye concentration (Dye)o; the molar ratio of oxidant to dye organic strength (H2O2):(COD); the mass ratio of the oxidant to the catalyst (H2O2):(Fe3+) and reaction time (t(r)), were observed. Three reduced empirical models, one for each response, were developed for describing the treatment process. For 20, 510 and 1000 mgL(-1), the optimum %TOC reduction and oxidation times were 44% for 95 min, 52% for 52.5 min and 68% for 10 min corresponding to 67, 81 and 75% COD reduction, respectively. The optimum COD reduction and oxidation times were 89% for 95 min, 91% for 10 min and 84% for 95 min for concentrations of 20, 510 and 1000 mg L(-1), respectively. For all concentrations, total colour removal was achieved. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with literature values for traditional Fenton, photo-Fenton and photo-Fenton-like oxidation indicated that the TOC reduction obtained using the Fenton-like process was satisfactory.
The resource availability hypothesis predicts an increase in the allocation to secondary metabolites when carbon gain is improved relative to nutrient availability, which normally occurs during periods of low irradiance. The present work was carried out to confirm this hypothesis by investigating the effects of decreasing irradiance on the production of plant secondary metabolites (flavonoids and phenolics) in the herbal plant Orthosiphon stamineus, and to characterize this production by carbohydrate, H(2)O(2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, net photosynthesis, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). Four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m(2)/s) were imposed onto two-week old seedlings for 12 weeks in a randomized complete block design experiment. Peak production of total flavonoids, phenolics, soluble sugar, starch and total non-structural carbohydrate ocurred under low irradiance of 225 µmol/m(2)/s, and decreased with increasing irradiance. The up-regulation of secondary metabolites could be explained by the concomitant increases in H(2)O(2) and MDA activities under low irradiance. This condition also resulted in enhanced C/N ratio signifying a reduction in nitrogen levels, which had established significant negative correlations with net photosynthesis, total biomass and total chlorophyll content, indicating the possible existence of a trade-off between growth and secondary metabolism under low irradiance with reduced nitrogen content. The competition between total chlorophyll and secondary metabolites production, as exhibited by the negative correlation coefficient under low irradiance, also suggests a sign of gradual switch of investment from chlorophyll to polyphenols production.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of Fenton's technique for the treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate collected from Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS), Penang, Malaysia. The Fe2+ or Fe3+ as catalyst and H2O2 as oxidizing agent are commonly used for the classical Fenton's reaction. In present study, the effect of operating conditions such as pH, reaction time, molar ratio, agitation rate, feeding mode and Fenton reagent concentrations which are important parameters that affect the removal efficiencies of Fenton method were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, the highest removals of 58.1 and 78.3% were observed for COD and color, respectively. In general, the best operating conditions were pH = 3, Fe = 560 mg L(-1), H2O2 = 1020 mg L(-1), H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio = 3, agitation rate = 400 rpm and reaction time = 120 minutes. The results highlighted that stepwise addition of Fenton's reagent was more effective than adding the entire volume in a single step. Excessive hydrogen peroxide and iron have shown scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals and reduced degradation of refractory organics in the landfill leachate.
Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important pathogenic factor in the pathophysiology of various life-threatening diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. It occurs when the production of free radicals (generated during aerobic metabolism, inflammation, and infections) overcome the antioxidant defences in the body. Although previous studies have implied that oxidative stress is present in serum of patients with parasitic infection there have been no studies confirming oxidative stress levels in the Malaysian population infected with intestinal parasites. Three biochemical assays namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (LP) and advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) assays were carried out to measure oxidative stress levels in the urine of human subjects whose stools were infected with parasites such as Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm and microsporidia. The levels of H2O2, AOPP and LP were significantly higher (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.05 respectively) in the parasite-infected subjects (n=75) compared to the controls (n=95). In conclusion, the study provides evidence that oxidative stress is elevated in humans infected by intestinal parasites. This study may influence future researchers to consider free radical-related pathways to be a target in the interventions of new drugs against parasitic infection and related diseases.
In this study, advanced oxidation process utilizing Fenton's reagent was investigated for degradation of malachite green (MG). The effects of different reaction parameters such as the initial MG concentration, initial pH, the initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, the initial ferrous concentration and the reaction temperature on the oxidative degradation of MG have been investigated. The optimal reacting conditions were experimentally found to be pH 3.40, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration=0.50mM and initial ferrous concentration=0.10mM for initial MG concentration of 20mg/L at 30 degrees C. Under optimal conditions, 99.25% degradation efficiency of dye in aqueous solution was achieved after 60 min of reaction.