Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Boo NY
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Dec;38(3):223-227.
    PMID: 28028291 MyJurnal
    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most commonly acquired gastrointestinal disease of neonates, particularly the very preterm (gestation <32 weeks) and/or very low birth weight (<1500g). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite improvement in neonatal care and increased use of expressed breast milk (EBM), the incidence remains high in many neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and even shows increasing trend in some countries. Numerous studies have pointed to the infective nature of NEC. Some investigators have reported an increase in the incidence of NEC in their NICU when the percentage of infants with pathogens isolated from their gut increased, and decreased when gut colonisation rate was low. Both bacteria and viruses have been reported to be associated with outbreaks of NEC. The majority (>90%) of the NEC cases occurred in neonates on enteral feeding. Studies have shown that milk (whether EBM or formula) fed to neonates was not sterile and were further contaminated during collection, transport, storage and/or feeding. Other investigators have reported a reduction in the incidence of NEC when they improved infection control measures and hygienic procedures in handling milk. It is, therefore, hypothesised that the most common cause of NEC is due to the feeding of neonates, particularly the vulnerable very preterm small neonates, with milk heavily contaminated during collection at source, transport, storage and/or feeding. Because of the immaturity of the immune system of the neonates, excessive inflammatory response to the pathogen load in the gut leads to the pathogenesis of NEC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/microbiology*
  2. Hamzah Sendut, I., Singh, Surinder, Chan, Patrick
    At the University Hospital only 24.3% of Malays, 3.8% Chinese and 5.9% Indians are fully breast fed at 6-8 weeks postnatally. The majority of Chinese infants are exclusively on infant formula (68.6%) and this holds true for the Indians (52.9 %).These figures were obtained 3-4 months after the introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital. Comparing our data with previous studies we believe that there has been a decline in breast feeding in urban Kuala Lumpur, especially amongst the Indians and Chinese.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula
  3. Botteman M, Detzel P
    Ann. Nutr. Metab., 2015;66 Suppl 1:26-32.
    PMID: 25925338 DOI: 10.1159/000370222
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin conditions among infants. Proteins found in cow's milk formula (CMF) have been found to be attributable to heightened AD risk, particularly in infants with familial AD heredity. Previous studies have suggested that intervention with partially hydrolyzed formula in nonexclusively breastfed infants can have a protective effect against AD development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/economics*; Infant Formula/chemistry
  4. Odeyemi OA, Sani NA
    J Infect Public Health, 2016 Jan-Feb;9(1):110-2.
    PMID: 26235961 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2015.06.012
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/microbiology
  5. Abdullah Sani N, Hartantyo SH, Forsythe SJ
    J Dairy Sci, 2013 Jan;96(1):1-8.
    PMID: 23141821 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2012-5409
    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/standards*
  6. Vandenplas Y, Latiff AHA, Fleischer DM, Gutiérrez-Castrellón P, Miqdady MS, Smith PK, et al.
    Nutrition, 2019 01;57:268-274.
    PMID: 30223233 DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.05.018
    OBJECTIVES: Guidance and evidence supporting routine use of partially hydrolyzed formula (pHF) versus intact cows' milk protein (CMP) formula are limited in non-exclusively breastfed infants. The aim of this review was to better clarify issues of routine use of pHF in non-exclusively breastfed infants who are not at risk for allergic disease by using a systematic review and Delphi Panel consensus.

    METHODS: A systematic review and Delphi consensus panel (consisting of eight8 international pediatric allergists and gastroenterologists) was conducted to evaluate evidence supporting growth, tolerability, and effectiveness of pHF in non-exclusively breastfed infants.

    RESULTS: None of the studies reviewed identified potential harm of pHF use compared with CMP in non-exclusively breastfed infants. There was an expert consensus that pHF use is likely as safe as intact CMP formula, given studies suggesting these have comparable nutritional parameters. No high-quality studies were identified evaluating the use of pHF to prevent allergic disease in non-exclusively breastfed infants who are not at risk for allergic disease (e.g., lacking a parental history of allergy). Limited data suggest that pHF use in non-exclusively breastfed infants may be associated with improved gastric emptying, decreased colic incidence, and other common functional gastrointestinal symptoms compared with CMP. However, because the data are of insufficient quality, the findings from these studies have to be taken with caution. No studies were identified that directly compared the different types of pHF, but there was an expert consensus that growth, allergenicity, tolerability, effectiveness, and clinical role among such pHF products may differ.

    CONCLUSIONS: Limited data exist evaluating routine use of pHFs in non-exclusively breastfed infants, with no contraindications identified in the systematic review. An expert consensus considers pHFs for which data were available to be as safe as CMP formula as growth is normal. The preventive effect on allergy of pHF in infants who are not at risk for allergic disease has been poorly studied. Cost of pHF versus starter formula with intact protein differs from country to country. However, further studies in larger populations are needed to clinically confirm the benefits of routine use of pHF in non-exclusively breastfed infants. These studies should also address potential consumer preference bias.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/chemistry*
  7. Goh KM, Wong YH, Ang MY, Yeo SCM, Abas F, Lai OM, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2019 07;121:553-560.
    PMID: 31108780 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.12.013
    The detection of 3- and 2-MCPD ester and glycidyl ester was transformed from selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by gas chromatography triple quadrupole spectrometry. The derivatization process was adapted from AOCS method Cd 29a-13. The results showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of all detected compounds obtained from both detection mode was comparable, which falls between 0.997 and 0.999. The limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were improved in MRM mode as compared to SIM mode. In MRM mode, the LOD of 3- and 2-MCPD ester was achieved 0.01 mg/kg while the LOQ was 0.05 mg/kg. Besides, LOD and LOQ of glycidyl ester were 0.024 and 0.06 mg/kg respectively. A blank spiked with MCPD esters (0.03, 0.10 and 0.50 mg/kg) and GE (0.06, 0.24 and 1.20 mg/kg) were chosen for repeatability and recovery tests. MRM mode showed better repeatability in area ratio and recovery with relative standard deviation (RSD %) infant formula products showed certain level of MCPD esters and GE, and their detection was more precisely quantitated based on MRM mode. Besides, margarine products showed a higher level of contaminations due to the high fat content in these products. MRM mode detection was proven to provide precise data with low RSD % in different food matrices. MRM mode detection was robust and selective for MCPD esters and GE analyses, it should be applied to determine the concentration of MCPD esters and GE contaminations in food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/chemistry
  8. Sokol E, Clark D, Aguayo VM
    Food Nutr Bull, 2008 Sep;29(3):159-62.
    PMID: 18947028
    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes out of concern that inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes was contributing to the alarming decline in breastfeeding worldwide and the increase in child malnutrition and mortality, particularly in developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/legislation & jurisprudence*
  9. Tao L, Ma J, Kunisue T, Libelo EL, Tanabe S, Kannan K
    Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008 Nov 15;42(22):8597-602.
    PMID: 19068854
    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from Germany and Canada. The highest estimated daily intakes of PFOS and PFOA by infants from seven Asian countries studied were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the tolerable daily intake values recommended by the U.K. Food Standards Agency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/chemistry*
  10. Fatimah S, Siti Saadiah HN, Tahir A, Hussain Imam MI, Ahmad Faudzi Y
    Malays J Nutr, 2010 Aug;16(2):195-206.
    PMID: 22691925 MyJurnal
    In Malaysia, the National Breastfeeding Policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continued up to two years. Since the 1990s, several breastfeeding promotion programmes had been implemented in the country. This article reports the findings on the prevalence of breastfeeding practice from The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) which was conducted in 2006. A total of 2167 mothers or carers of children below two years old were interviewed representing 804,480 of the estimated population of children aged below 2 years in Malaysia. Respondents were asked whether various types of liquid or solid food were given to the child at any time during the preceding 24-hour period. The overall prevalence of ever breastfed among children aged less than 12 months was 94.7% (CI: 93.0 - 95.9). The overall prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding below 6 months was 14.5% (CI: 11.7 - 17.9). Prevalence of timely initiation was 63.7% (CI: 61.4 - 65.9) and the continued prevalence of breastfeeding up to two years was 37.4% (CI: 32.9 - 42.2). The findings suggest that the programmes implemented in the last ten years were effective in improving the prevalence of ever breastfeeding, timely initiation of breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding up to two years. However, the challenge is to improve exclusive breastfeeding practice. Longterm community-based interventions need to be carried out in partnership with the existing health care system, focusing on discouraging the use of water and infant formula, especially in the first few months of life.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula
  11. Odeyemi OA, Abdullah Sani N
    Microb Pathog, 2019 Nov;136:103665.
    PMID: 31404630 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103665
    This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance and putative virulence factors among Cronobacter sakazakii isolated from powdered infant formula and other sources. The following 9 cultures (CR1-9) were collected from our culture collection: C. sakazakii and 3 Cronobacter species: C. sakazakii ATCC® 29544™, C. muytjensii ATCC® 51329™, C. turicensis E866 were used in this study. Isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility and the following virulence factors (protease, DNase, haemolysin, gelatinase, motility and biofilm formation) using phenotypic methods. All the bacteria were able to form biofilm on agar at 37 °C and were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, fosfomycin and sulphamethoxazole. It was observed from this study that tested strains formed weak and strong biofilm with violet dry and rough (rdar), brown dry and rough (bdar), red mucoid and smooth (rmas) colony morphotypes on Congo red agar. Rdar expresses curli and fimbriae, while bdar expresses curli. Both biofilm colony morphotypes are commonly found in Enterobacteriaceae including Salmonella species. This study also reveals a new colony morphotypes in Cronobacter species. Conclusively, there was correlation between putative virulence factors and antibiotic resistance among the tested bacteria. Further study on virulence and antibiotic resistance genes is hereby encouraged.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula/microbiology*
  12. Estuningsih S, Kress C, Hassan AA, Akineden O, Schneider E, Usleber E
    J Food Prot, 2006 Dec;69(12):3013-7.
    PMID: 17186672
    To determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella in infant formula from Southeast Asia, 74 packages of dehydrated powdered infant follow-on formula (recommended age, > 4 months) from five different manufacturers, four from Indonesia and one from Malaysia, were analyzed. None of the 25-g test portions yielded Salmonella or Shigella. However, further identification of colonies growing on selective media used for Salmonella and Shigella detection revealed the frequent occurrence of several other Enterobacteriaceae species. A total of 35 samples (47%) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Ten samples (13.5%) from two Indonesian manufacturers yielded Enterobacter sakazakii. Other Enterobacteriaceae isolated included Pantoea spp. (n = 12), Escherichia hermanii (n = 10), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 8), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (n = 3), Citrobacter spp. (n = 2), Serratia spp. (n = 2), and Escherichia coli (n = 2). To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the contamination of dehydrated powdered infant formula from Indonesia with E. sakazakii and several other Enterobacteriaceae that could be opportunistic pathogens. Improper preparation and conservation of these products could result in a health risk for infants in Indonesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula*
  13. Ghasemi Fard S, Loh SP, Turchini GM, Wang B, Elliott G, Sinclair AJ
    Nutrients, 2020 Jan 18;12(1).
    PMID: 31963702 DOI: 10.3390/nu12010248
    : Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential component for brain and visual acuity development during foetal and early postnatal life. A newly released directive under the European Commission stipulates DHA as a mandatory ingredient in infant formula. This poses challenges to manufacturers in preserving the stability and bioavailability of DHA at levels akin to human breast milk. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the bioavailability of microencapsulated omega-3 DHA formulations in healthy toddlers compared with high DHA fish oil for a one-month period and (b) to assess the effect of DHA supplementation on children's sleep and cry patterns. Sixty toddlers were randomly allocated to four groups: 1. unfortified formula, 2. unfortified formula plus high DHA tuna oil, 3. fortified formula with dairy-based microencapsulated high DHA tuna oil powder, and 4. fortified formula with allergenic-free microencapsulated high DHA tuna oil powder. Bioavailability was assessed from both blood and faecal fatty acid levels. The results showed an enhanced bioavailability with significantly greater concentrations of blood DHA levels in formulas with microencapsulated powders. There were no significant effects of treatment on sleep and cry patterns. Application and delivery of microencapsulated DHA tuna oil powder in toddlers' formula provided better bioavailability of the active DHA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula*
  14. Shamekhi F, Shuhaimi M, Ariff A, Manap YA
    Folia Microbiol. (Praha), 2013 Mar;58(2):91-101.
    PMID: 22843029 DOI: 10.1007/s12223-012-0183-9
    The purpose of this study was to improve the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 10140 during freeze-drying process by microencapsulation, using a special pediatric prebiotics mixture (galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides). Probiotic microorganisms were encapsulated with a coat combination of prebiotics-calcium-alginate prior to freeze-drying. Both encapsulated and free cells were then freeze-dried in their optimized combinations of skim milk and prebiotics. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to produce a coating combination as well as drying medium with the highest cell viability during freeze-drying. The optimum encapsulation composition was found to be 2.1 % Na-alginate, 2.9 % prebiotic, and 21.7 % glycerol. Maximum survival predicted by the model was 81.2 %. No significant (p > 0.05) difference between the predicted and experimental values verified the adequacy of final reduced models. The protection ability of encapsulation was then examined over 120 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C and exposure to a sequential model of infantile GIT conditions including both gastric conditions (pH 3.0 and 4.0, 90 min, 37 °C) and intestinal conditions (pH 7.5, 5 h, 37 °C). Significantly improved cell viability showed that microencapsulation of B. lactis 10140 with the prebiotics was successful in producing a stable symbiotic powdery nutraceutical.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula
  15. Shahidan, H., Mahani, Y., Noriah, B., Haw, A.B.
    A diarrhoea outbreak had occurred among neonates delivered in a private hospital in Kedah from 15 August to 8 September 2002 involving 27 (55.1%) cases out of a total of 49 deliveries. Thirteen of them (48.1%) were admitted to either government or private hospitals for treatnzent while fourteen of them (51.9%) were managed at home. The main presenting feature was frequent yellowish to greenish watery stool not associated with vomitting. Investigations include active case finding, environmental inspection, sampling of stool specimens, identifying causative agents and identuying human carriers. All the diarrhoea eases (100%) were noted to have received infant formula feeding while in the private hospital. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated hom the milk scoop which was used for milk preparation. Nasal swabs of four (50%) nursing personnel were also positive for Staphylococcus aureus. One of them was positive for methycilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The milk and water samples showed no signuicant bacterial contamination. Stool samples of these cases were negative for Rotavirus, Vibrio sp., Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and Entamoeba coli. This outbreak of diarrhoea was noted to have a strong association with infant formula feeding in the hospital. Breastfeeding should be continuously promoted. Baby friendly hospital initiatives in private hospital settings need to be initiated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula
  16. Ay, Eeng Tan, Wai, Kwong Choong, Pooi, Yan Leong, Wei, Mui Ng, Soon, Leong Yong
    Medicine & Health, 2008;3(1):30-37.
    This is a cross-sectional study on 218 pregnant mothers in an urban government Hospital.The study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes and sources of information on breastfeeding. The results could be utilised to promote breastfeeding. Almost all the respondents (96.8%) intended to breastfeed their newborns. Most of them (74.8%) were knowledgeable about breastfeeding i.e. colostrum and breast milk was the best food, good for resistance against disease and allergy, filling up stomach easily, helpful in teeth development and maternal recovery after birth, increased bonding, was easy and economical. The two main misconceptions were mothers would stop breastfeeding when infant or mother was sick, and giving clear fluid to the exclusively breastfed infants to prevent dehydration. Most mothers (83.9%) responded positively towards breastfeeding i.e. it was easier than infant formula, had no negative effect on marital relationship or family care, would commence breastfeeding straight after delivery, agreeable to the banning of bottles and teats in hospital and they would not stop breastfeeding even if husband discouraged them. Only 56.9% of the mothers believed they could breastfeed their babies with modesty anywhere. The main sources of information were attained from the mass media (34.9%), antenatal class (32.1%) and other mothers with breastfeeding experiences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula
  17. Norrakiah Abdullah Sani, Masomeh Ghassem, Abdul Salam Babji, Uma Priya Kupusamy, Norizan Jaafar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1855-1863.
    Enterobacter sakazakii previously known as 'yellow-pigmented E. cloacae' has been classified as a new genus 'Cronobacter' based on taxonomic analysis and geno-and phenotypic evaluation. This pathogenic organism has been associated with rare form of infant meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) with high mortality rate (40-80%). Some cases have been linked to the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula milk (PIF). The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Cronobacter spp. in PIF sold in Malaysia. A selective chromogenic agar, Brilliance Enterobacter sakazakii (DFI, Oxoid), was used for detection of Cronobacter strains. Presumptive Cronobacter isolates were identified using biochemical tests (API 20E and MicrogenTM) and molecular assays (SYBR Green Real-time PCR and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing). All presumptive Cronobacter strains produced typical blue-green colonies and non-Cronobacter strains produced yellow colonies on Brilliance Enterobacter sakazakii agar (DFI formulation). A total of 12 presumptive isolates were selected from DFI agar and identified with biochemical and molecular tests. The results indicated prevalence of 12.5% C. sakazakii contamination from 72 PIF samples. Molecular detection methods such as Real-time PCR and 16S rDNA proved to have higher identification percentage compared to the biochemical tests. In this study, it was observed that molecular assays were suitable means for sensitive identification of Cronobacter strains in PIF samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula
  18. Sulaiman Z, Mohamad N, Ismail TA, Johari N, Hussain NH
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2016;25(3):625-30.
    PMID: 27440698 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.08
    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula
  19. Ghassem, M., Babji, A. S., Forsythe, S. J.
    Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging food borne pathogen which has been associated with outbreaks of a rare form of infant meningitis. Although the origin of the microorganism has not been established, several
    infection cases have been associated with the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). In the present study, growth characteristics of three C. sakazakii strains isolated from PIF samples and C.
    muytjensii strain ATCC 51329, which was formerly the ATCC Preceptrol™ strain for the quality control of
    ‘Enterobacter sakazakii’ prior to the taxonomic revision, were investigated in Tryptone Soya broth (TSB) and
    reconstituted PIF at 4, 10, 25, 37, 45 and 50ºC. The viability of heat treated cells of Cronobacter strains was
    evaluated by plating on Violet Red Bile Glucose agar (VRBGA) and the Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen (DFI)
    chromogenic agar followed by incubation at 37ºC. These strains were also subjected to higher temperatures
    between 52 to 60ºC to measure their thermal tolerance. The mean generation time of all Cronobacter strains
    were slightly lower in PIF than in TSB. C. muytjensii ATCC 51329 showed lower generation time in all culture
    media and all temperatures compared to the Cronobacter food isolates, but the results were not significantly
    different (P>0.05). The results also indicated that combination of PIF: DFI culture media had higher recovery at
    all temperatures compared to other combinations. Survival study also indicated that C. muytjensii ATCC 51329
    had higher D-value compared to food isolates at all incubation temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Formula
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