HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the washout ratio in the hepatic vein (HV) measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) can distinguish between inflammatory and noninflammatory hepatic disorders in dogs.
ANIMALS: Forty-one client-owned dogs with hepatic disorders including 14 with hepatitis, 7 with primary hypoplasia of the portal vein (PHPV), 9 with congenital portosystemic shunt (cPSS), and 11 with other hepatopathy were enrolled. Six dogs without hepatic disease also were evaluated as healthy controls.
METHODS: Dogs with hepatic disorders were prospectively included. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the HV was performed for 2 minutes. Washout ratio was defined as the attenuation rate from peak intensity to the intensity at the end of the CEUS study.
RESULTS: Washout ratio in the hepatitis group (median, 18.0%; range, 2.0-37.0%) was significantly lower than that of the PHPV (median, 52.2%; range, 11.5-86.3%), cPSS (median, 60.0%; range, 28.6-77.4%), other hepatopathy (median, 70.5%; range, 26.6-88.4%), and normal (median, 78.0%; range, 60.7-91.7%) groups. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for hepatitis was 0.960, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.853-0.990. Washout ratio ≤37.1% resulted in a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 78.5-100%) and specificity of 85.2% (95% CI, 67.5-94.1%) for the prediction of hepatitis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Washout ratio can distinguish hepatitis from the other noninflammatory disorders with high accuracy. This result might reflect impaired Kupffer cell phagocytosis in dogs with hepatitis.
METHODS: Endotoxemic shock was induced in sheep by administration of an escalating dose of lipopolysaccharide, after which they subsequently received either no fluid bolus resuscitation or a 0.9% saline bolus. Lung tissue, bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) and plasma were analysed by real-time PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical staining to assess inflammatory cells, cytokines, hyaluronan and matrix metalloproteinases.
RESULTS: Endotoxemia was associated with decreased serum albumin and total protein levels, with activated neutrophils, while the glycocalyx glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan was significantly increased in BAL. Quantitative real-time PCR studies showed higher expression of IL-6 and IL-8 with saline resuscitation but no difference in matrix metalloproteinase expression. BAL and tissue homogenate levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β were elevated.
CONCLUSIONS: This data shows that the inflammatory response is enhanced when a host with endotoxemia is resuscitated with saline, with a comparatively higher release of inflammatory cytokines and endothelial/glycocalyx damage, but no change in matrix metalloproteinase levels.