METHODS: A non-blinded, randomised controlled trial will be conducted. A total of sixty-six patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be recruited. The participants will be randomly allocated into intervention (traditional Malay massage) and control (relaxation position) groups. Blood and saliva samples will be collected before and immediately after intervention. All collected samples will be analysed. The primary outcomes are the changes in the level of substance P in both saliva and blood samples between both groups. The secondary outcomes include the levels of inflammatory mediators [i.e. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6 and IL-10, and the soluble form of the intercellular adhesion molecule], the pain intensity as measured by a visual analogous scale and functional outcomes using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.
DISCUSSION: Massage is a type of physical therapy that has been proven to be potentially capable of reducing unpleasant pain sensations by a complex sensory response and chemical mediators such as substance P and various inflammatory mediators. Previous studies conducted using Thai, Swedish, or other forms of massage therapies, have showed inconsistent findings on substance P levels pre and post the interventions. Each massage genre varies in terms of massage and joint mobilization points, as well as the lumbar spinous process. Traditional Malay massage, known locally as "Urut Melayu", involves soft-tissue manipulation of the whole body applied using the hands and fingers. This massage technique combines both deep muscular tissue massage and spiritual rituals. This trial is expected to give rise to new knowledge underlying the mechanisms for pain and inflammation relief that are activated by traditional Malay massage.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials ACTRN12615000537550 .
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess topical anti-inflammatory effect of Haruan cream on 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced chronic-like dermatitis in mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomized into six groups of five mice each: acetone (vehicle), TPA alone (negative control), three Haruan treatment groups (Haruan 1%, Haruan 5% and Haruan 10%) and hydrocortisone 1% (positive control). Briefly, both surfaces of mouse ears were applied with TPA (2.5μg/20μl acetone) for five times on alternate days and with Haruan or hydrocortisone 1% cream for the last three days. Mouse ear thickness was measured 24h after final treatment with the cream and the ears were harvested for further histological analysis and gene expression studies of TNF-α by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).
RESULTS: Topical application of Haruan cream had reduced the mouse ear thickness 18.1-28%) with comparable effect to the positive control. In addition, histopathological comparison had shown evident reduction in various parameters of cutaneous inflammation including dermal oedema, inflammatory cells infiltration and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Furthermore, TPA application had resulted in the up-regulation of TNF-α gene expression by 353-fold, which was subsequently down-regulated by the Haruan cream (34- to 112-fold).
CONCLUSION: Haruan is an effective topical anti-inflammatory agent in this mouse model of chronic-like dermatitis, thus suggesting its potential as a non-steroidal treatment option for chronic inflammatory dermatoses.
METHODS: We developed mouse models representing three different phenotypes of allergic airway inflammation-eosinophilic, mixed, and neutrophilic asthma via different methods of house dust mite sensitization and challenge. Transcriptomic analysis of the lungs, followed by the RT-PCR, western blot, and confocal microscopy, was performed. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells cultured in air-liquid interface were used to study the mechanisms revealed in the in vivo models.
RESULTS: By whole-genome transcriptome profiling of the lung, we found that airway tight junction (TJ), mucin, and inflammasome-related genes are differentially expressed in these distinct phenotypes. Further analysis of proteins from these families revealed that Zo-1 and Cldn18 were downregulated in all phenotypes, while increased Cldn4 expression was characteristic for neutrophilic airway inflammation. Mucins Clca1 (Gob5) and Muc5ac were upregulated in eosinophilic and even more in neutrophilic phenotype. Increased expression of inflammasome-related molecules such as Nlrp3, Nlrc4, Casp-1, and IL-1β was characteristic for neutrophilic asthma. In addition, we showed that inflammasome/Th17/neutrophilic axis cytokine-IL-1β-may transiently impair epithelial barrier function, while IL-1β and IL-17 increase mucin expressions in primary human bronchial epithelial cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that differential expression of TJ, mucin, and inflammasome-related molecules in distinct inflammatory phenotypes of asthma may be linked to pathophysiology and might reflect the differences observed in the clinic.
METHODS: Endotoxemic shock was induced in sheep by administration of an escalating dose of lipopolysaccharide, after which they subsequently received either no fluid bolus resuscitation or a 0.9% saline bolus. Lung tissue, bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) and plasma were analysed by real-time PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical staining to assess inflammatory cells, cytokines, hyaluronan and matrix metalloproteinases.
RESULTS: Endotoxemia was associated with decreased serum albumin and total protein levels, with activated neutrophils, while the glycocalyx glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan was significantly increased in BAL. Quantitative real-time PCR studies showed higher expression of IL-6 and IL-8 with saline resuscitation but no difference in matrix metalloproteinase expression. BAL and tissue homogenate levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β were elevated.
CONCLUSIONS: This data shows that the inflammatory response is enhanced when a host with endotoxemia is resuscitated with saline, with a comparatively higher release of inflammatory cytokines and endothelial/glycocalyx damage, but no change in matrix metalloproteinase levels.
METHODS: A total of 19 patients with genital C. trachomatis infection and 10 age-matched healthy controls were recruited for the study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from genital C. trachomatis-infected females were cultured in the presence of CPAF, HSP60 and MOMP antigens, and cytokines were measured by ELISA assay.
RESULTS: We reported that pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) were robustly secreted following antigenic exposure. Notably, CPAP and MOMP were more potent in triggering IL-1β, as compared to HSP60. Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines were also noted in the samples infected with plasmid-bearing C. trachomatis as compared to those infected with plasmid-free strains.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights distinct ability of chlamydial antigens in triggering pro-inflammatory response in the host immune cells.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of human inflammatory cytokines in chronic hepatitis B patients according to the severity of the infection.
METHODS: We recruited a total of 120 patients, 40 of whom from cirrhotic, 40 non-cirrhotic, and 40 acute flare chronic hepatitis B and 40 healthy controls. For all groups total cellular RNA was extracted from whole blood samples, genomic DNA was eliminated, and cDNA was synthesized using the RT2 first strand kit, as instructed by the manufacturer. The real-time profiler PCR array was performed on a master cycler ep realplex and the data were analyzed using an online data analysis software.
RESULTS: Non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B patients were found to significantly upregulate interleukin 10 receptors that regulate the balance between T helpers 1 and 2. On the other hand, patients with cirrhosis were found to have significant upregulated interleukin 3 gene expression.
CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that upregulation of anti-inflammatory and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the progression of non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B patients to cirrhotic and acute flare. However, a multi-center study with a larger sample size is needed to confirm our findings.