Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

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  1. Sharma JN, Buchanan WW
    Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., 1994 Dec;46(6):421-33.
    PMID: 7703672 DOI: 10.1016/S0940-2993(11)80053-9
    Excessive release of kinin (BK) in the synovial fluid can produce oedema, pain and loss of functions due to activation of B1 and B2 kinin receptors. Activation of the kinin forming system could be mediated via injury, trauma, coagulation pathways (Hageman factor and thrombin) and immune complexes. The activated B1 and B2 receptors might cause release of other powerful non-cytokine and cytokine mediators of inflammation, e.g., PGE2, PGI2, LTs, histamine, PAF, IL-1 and TNF, derived mainly from polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells and synovial tissue. These mediators are capable of inducing bone and cartilage damage, hypertrophic synovitis, vessel proliferation, inflammatory cell migration and, possibly, angiogenesis in pannus formation. These pathological changes, however, are not yet defined in the human model of chronic inflammation. The role of kinins and their interacting inflammatory mediators would soon start to clarify the detailed questions they revealed in clinical and experimental models of chronic inflammatory diseases. Several B1 and B2 receptor antagonists are being synthesized in an attempt to study the molecular functions of kinins in inflammatory processes, such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, inflammatory diseases of the gut and osteomyelitis. Future development of specific potent and stable B1 and B2 receptor antagonists or combined B1 and B2 antagonists with y-IFN might serve as a pharmacological basis for more effective treatment of joint inflammatory and related diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  2. Sharma JN
    Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm, 1991;11(2):30-7.
    PMID: 1365470
    Components of the kallikrein-kininogen-kinin are activated in response to noxious stimuli (chemical, physical or bacterial), which may lead to excessive release of kinins in the synovial joints that may produce inflammatory joint disease. The inflammatory changes observed in synovial tissue may be due to activation of B2 receptors. Kinins also stimulate the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory agents (PGs, LTs, histamine, EDRF, PGI2 and PAF) in the inflamed joint. B2 receptor antagonists may provide valuable agents as new analgesic drugs. Further, it is suggested that substances directed to reduce the activation of KKS may provide a pharmacological basis for the synthesis of novel anti-rheumatic or anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  3. Leong XF, Ng CY, Badiah B, Das S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:768237.
    PMID: 24526921 DOI: 10.1155/2014/768237
    This review is to examine the current literatures on the relationship between periodontitis and hypertension as well as to explore the possible biological pathways underlying the linkage between these health conditions. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are among the critical components in the development of hypertension. Inflammation has received much attention recently and may contribute to a pivotal role in hypertension. Periodontitis, a chronic low-grade inflammation of gingival tissue, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, with blood pressure elevation and increased mortality risk in hypertensive patients. Inflammatory biomarkers are increased in hypertensive patients with periodontitis. Over the years, various researches have been performed to evaluate the involvement of periodontitis in the initiation and progression of hypertension. Many cross-sectional studies documented an association between hypertension and periodontitis. However, more well-designed prospective population trials need to be carried out to ascertain the role of periodontitis in hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism*
  4. Zakaria R, Wan Yaacob WM, Othman Z, Long I, Ahmad AH, Al-Rahbi B
    Physiol Res, 2017 Sep 22;66(4):553-565.
    PMID: 28406691
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary cause of dementia in the middle-aged and elderly worldwide. Animal models for AD are widely used to study the disease mechanisms as well as to test potential therapeutic agents for disease modification. Among the non-genetically manipulated neuroinflammation models for AD, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced animal model is commonly used. This review paper aims to discuss the possible factors that influence rats' response following LPS injection. Factors such as dose of LPS, route of administration, nature and duration of exposure as well as age and gender of animal used should be taken into account when designing a study using LPS-induced memory impairment as model for AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  5. A/L B Vasanth Rao VR, Tan SH, Candasamy M, Bhattamisra SK
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2018 11 30;13(1):754-762.
    PMID: 30641802 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.11.054
    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease and affects a large number of individuals with diabetes. However, the development of specific treatments for DN has not yet been identified. Hence, this review is concisely designed to understand the molecular pathways leading to DN in order to develop suitable therapeutic strategies. Extensive literature search have been carried in regard with the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of DN, drug targets and updates on clinical trials, the consequences associated with DN and the potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction of DN are discussed in this review. DN is characterised by microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and morphological changes such as glomerular thickening, interstitial fibrosis, formation of nodular glomerulosclerosis and decreased endothelial cell fenestration. Besides, the involvement of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation and genetic factors are the key pathways in the progression of DN. In regard with drug development drugs targeted to epidermal growth factor, inflammatory cytokines, ACTH receptor and TGFβ1 receptors are in pipeline for clinical trials whereas, several drugs have also failed in phase III and phase IV of clinical trials due to lack of efficacy and severe adverse effect. The research on DN is limited with respect to its pathogenesis and drug development. Thus, a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of DN is very essential to progress in the drug development process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  6. Sejari N, Kamaruddin K, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Neoh CF, Ming LC
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Jan 15;16:16.
    PMID: 26767971 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-0988-1
    BACKGROUND: The treatment of low back pain is very challenging due to the recurrent nature of the problem. It is believed that traditional Malay massage helps to relieve such back pain but there is a lack of scientific evidence to support both the practice of traditional Malay massage and the mechanism by which it exerts its effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the immediate effect of traditional Malay massage on the pain scale, substance P, inflammatory mediators, and functional outcomes among low back pain patients.

    METHODS: A non-blinded, randomised controlled trial will be conducted. A total of sixty-six patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be recruited. The participants will be randomly allocated into intervention (traditional Malay massage) and control (relaxation position) groups. Blood and saliva samples will be collected before and immediately after intervention. All collected samples will be analysed. The primary outcomes are the changes in the level of substance P in both saliva and blood samples between both groups. The secondary outcomes include the levels of inflammatory mediators [i.e. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6 and IL-10, and the soluble form of the intercellular adhesion molecule], the pain intensity as measured by a visual analogous scale and functional outcomes using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.

    DISCUSSION: Massage is a type of physical therapy that has been proven to be potentially capable of reducing unpleasant pain sensations by a complex sensory response and chemical mediators such as substance P and various inflammatory mediators. Previous studies conducted using Thai, Swedish, or other forms of massage therapies, have showed inconsistent findings on substance P levels pre and post the interventions. Each massage genre varies in terms of massage and joint mobilization points, as well as the lumbar spinous process. Traditional Malay massage, known locally as "Urut Melayu", involves soft-tissue manipulation of the whole body applied using the hands and fingers. This massage technique combines both deep muscular tissue massage and spiritual rituals. This trial is expected to give rise to new knowledge underlying the mechanisms for pain and inflammation relief that are activated by traditional Malay massage.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials ACTRN12615000537550 .

    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism*
  7. Salim E, Kumolosasi E, Jantan I
    J Nat Med, 2014 Jul;68(3):647-53.
    PMID: 24799081 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-014-0841-0
    The inhibitory activities of the methanol extracts from 20 selected medicinal plants on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were evaluated. The major compound from the most active plant extract was also investigated. The inhibitory effect of the methanol extracts on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was tested by incubating PBMCs with the sample and then stimulating by lipopolysaccharide at 0.1 μg/ml. The level of cytokines was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among the extracts tested, Andrographis paniculata extract demonstrated the strongest inhibition of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, and IL-6 release, with IC50 values of 1.54, 1.06, and 0.74 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 value of A. paniculata extract was significantly higher than that of andrographolide on IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  8. Taha H, Arya A, Paydar M, Looi CY, Wong WF, Vasudeva Murthy CR, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2014 Apr;66:295-306.
    PMID: 24518542 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.01.054
    The current study aimed to ascertain the antidiabetic potential of Pseuduvaria monticola bark methanolic extract (PMm) using in vitro mechanistic study models. In particular, the study determined the effect of PMm on cellular viability, 2-NBDG glucose uptake, insulin secretion, and NF-κB translocation in mouse pancreatic insulinoma cells (NIT-1). Furthermore, in vivo acute toxicity and antidiabetic studies were performed using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 and STZ-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rat models to evaluate various biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Five isoquinoline alkaloids and three phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the PMm by LC/MS Triple TOF. The study results showed that PMm is non-toxic to NIT-1 cells and significantly increased the glucose uptake and insulin secretion without affecting the translocation of NF-κB. Moreover, the non-toxic effects of PMm were confirmed through an in vivo acute toxicity study, which revealed that the serum insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly upregulated in type 2 diabetic rats and that no significant changes were observed in type 1 diabetic rats. Similarly, PMm was found to downregulate the levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetic rats by alleviating hyperglycemia. Therefore, we conclude that PMm may be developed as an antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes-associated conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  9. Mohamad Isa II, Abu Bakar S, Md Tohid SF, Mat Jais AM
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Dec 24;194:469-474.
    PMID: 27732902 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.033
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Haruan, Channa striatus, is a freshwater fish which has been well-known locally to accelerate wound healing during post-operative and post-partum periods. The fish extract also has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess topical anti-inflammatory effect of Haruan cream on 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced chronic-like dermatitis in mice.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomized into six groups of five mice each: acetone (vehicle), TPA alone (negative control), three Haruan treatment groups (Haruan 1%, Haruan 5% and Haruan 10%) and hydrocortisone 1% (positive control). Briefly, both surfaces of mouse ears were applied with TPA (2.5μg/20μl acetone) for five times on alternate days and with Haruan or hydrocortisone 1% cream for the last three days. Mouse ear thickness was measured 24h after final treatment with the cream and the ears were harvested for further histological analysis and gene expression studies of TNF-α by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).

    RESULTS: Topical application of Haruan cream had reduced the mouse ear thickness 18.1-28%) with comparable effect to the positive control. In addition, histopathological comparison had shown evident reduction in various parameters of cutaneous inflammation including dermal oedema, inflammatory cells infiltration and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Furthermore, TPA application had resulted in the up-regulation of TNF-α gene expression by 353-fold, which was subsequently down-regulated by the Haruan cream (34- to 112-fold).

    CONCLUSION: Haruan is an effective topical anti-inflammatory agent in this mouse model of chronic-like dermatitis, thus suggesting its potential as a non-steroidal treatment option for chronic inflammatory dermatoses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  10. Passmore MR, Byrne L, Obonyo NG, See Hoe LE, Boon AC, Diab SD, et al.
    Respir. Res., 2018 Nov 22;19(1):231.
    PMID: 30466423 DOI: 10.1186/s12931-018-0935-4
    BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a multi-system syndrome that remains the leading cause of mortality and critical illness worldwide, with hemodynamic support being one of the cornerstones of the acute management of sepsis. We used an ovine model of endotoxemic shock to determine if 0.9% saline resuscitation contributes to lung inflammation and injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is a common complication of sepsis, and investigated the potential role of matrix metalloproteinases in this process.

    METHODS: Endotoxemic shock was induced in sheep by administration of an escalating dose of lipopolysaccharide, after which they subsequently received either no fluid bolus resuscitation or a 0.9% saline bolus. Lung tissue, bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) and plasma were analysed by real-time PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical staining to assess inflammatory cells, cytokines, hyaluronan and matrix metalloproteinases.

    RESULTS: Endotoxemia was associated with decreased serum albumin and total protein levels, with activated neutrophils, while the glycocalyx glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan was significantly increased in BAL. Quantitative real-time PCR studies showed higher expression of IL-6 and IL-8 with saline resuscitation but no difference in matrix metalloproteinase expression. BAL and tissue homogenate levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β were elevated.

    CONCLUSIONS: This data shows that the inflammatory response is enhanced when a host with endotoxemia is resuscitated with saline, with a comparatively higher release of inflammatory cytokines and endothelial/glycocalyx damage, but no change in matrix metalloproteinase levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism*
  11. Hudu SA, Niazlin MT, Nordin SA, Saeed MI, Tan SS, Sekawi Z
    Iran J Immunol, 2017 Dec;14(4):281-292.
    PMID: 29276181 DOI: IJIv14i4A3
    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis viruses are non-cytopathic viruses that lead to the infection and pathogenesis of liver diseases as a result of immunologically mediated events.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of human inflammatory cytokines in chronic hepatitis B patients according to the severity of the infection.

    METHODS: We recruited a total of 120 patients, 40 of whom from cirrhotic, 40 non-cirrhotic, and 40 acute flare chronic hepatitis B and 40 healthy controls. For all groups total cellular RNA was extracted from whole blood samples, genomic DNA was eliminated, and cDNA was synthesized using the RT2 first strand kit, as instructed by the manufacturer. The real-time profiler PCR array was performed on a master cycler ep realplex and the data were analyzed using an online data analysis software.

    RESULTS: Non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B patients were found to significantly upregulate interleukin 10 receptors that regulate the balance between T helpers 1 and 2. On the other hand, patients with cirrhosis were found to have significant upregulated interleukin 3 gene expression.

    CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that upregulation of anti-inflammatory and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the progression of non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B patients to cirrhotic and acute flare. However, a multi-center study with a larger sample size is needed to confirm our findings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  12. Sweeney S, Leo BF, Chen S, Abraham-Thomas N, Thorley AJ, Gow A, et al.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016 Sep 01;145:167-75.
    PMID: 27182651 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.04.040
    Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  13. Simarmata D, Ng DC, Kam YW, Lee B, Sum MS, Her Z, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 05 16;6:26097.
    PMID: 27180811 DOI: 10.1038/srep26097
    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  14. Kharitonova M, Iezhitsa I, Zheltova A, Ozerov A, Spasov A, Skalny A
    J Trace Elem Med Biol, 2015 Jan;29:227-34.
    PMID: 25127069 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.06.026
    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is implicated in the development of numerous disorders of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, the data regarding the efficacy of different magnesium compounds in the correction of impaired functions due to low magnesium intake are often fragmentary and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the most bioavailable Mg compounds (Mg l-aspartate, Mg N-acetyltaurate, Mg chloride, Mg sulphate and Mg oxybutyrate) on systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in rats fed a low Mg diet for 74 days. A low Mg diet decreased the Mg concentration in the plasma and erythrocytes, which was accompanied by a reduced concentration of eNOs and increased levels of endothelin-1 level in the serum and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. These effects increased the concentration of proinflammatory molecules, such as VCAM-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP, indicating the development of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The increased total NO level, which estimated from the sum of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the serum, may also be considered to be a proinflammatory marker. Two weeks of Mg supplementation partially or fully normalised the ability of the vascular wall to effect adequate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and reversed the levels of most endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory markers (except CRP) to the mean values of the control group. Mg sulphate had the smallest effect on the endothelin-1, TNF-α and VCAM-1 levels. Mg N-acetyltaurate was significantly more effective in restoring the level of eNOS compared to all other studied compounds, except for Mg oxybutyrate. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that all Mg compounds equally alleviate endothelial dysfunction and inflammation caused by Mg deficiency. Mg sulphate tended to be the least effective compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  15. Ming-Tatt L, Khalivulla SI, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2012 Mar;110(3):275-82.
    PMID: 21967232 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00804.x
    This study investigated the potential antinociceptive efficacy of a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue, 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (BHMC), using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception test models in mice. BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) administered via intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced significant dose-related inhibition in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice with an ID(50) of 0.15 (0.13-0.18) mg/kg. It was also demonstrated that BHMC produced significant inhibition in both neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory phases (second phase) of the formalin-induced paw licking test with an ID(50) of 0.35 (0.27-0.46) mg/kg and 0.07 (0.06-0.08) mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, BHMC also exerted significant increase in the response latency period in the hot-plate test. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of the BHMC in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot-plate test was antagonized by pre-treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Together, these results indicate that the compound acts both centrally and peripherally. In addition, administration of BHMC exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociception induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin with ID(50) of 0.66 (0.41-1.07) mg/kg and 0.42 (0.38-0.51) mg/kg, respectively. Finally, it was also shown that BHMC-induced antinociception was devoid of toxic effects and its antinociceptive effect was associated with neither muscle relaxant nor sedative action. In conclusion, BHMC at all doses investigated did not cause any toxic and sedative effects and produced pronounced central and peripheral antinociceptive activities. The central antinociceptive activity of BHMC was possibly mediated through activation of the opioid system as well as inhibition of the glutamatergic system and TRPV1 receptors, while the peripheral antinociceptive activity was perhaps mediated through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  16. Israf DA, Tham CL, Syahida A, Lajis NH, Sulaiman MR, Mohamad AS, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2010 Aug;17(10):732-9.
    PMID: 20378317 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.006
    In a previous communication we showed that atrovirinone, a 1,4-benzoquinone isolated from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis, was able to inhibit several major proinflammatory mediators of inflammation. In this report we show that atrovirinone inhibits NO and PGE(2) synthesis through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. We also show that atrovirinone inhibits the secretion of IL-1beta and IL-6 in a dose dependent fashion whereas the secretion of IL-10, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, was enhanced. Subsequently we determined that the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and inducible enzyme expression was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. We also showed that atrovirinone prevented phosphorylation of I-kappaBalpha, which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as demonstrated by expression analysis. We conclude that atrovirinone is a potential anti-inflammatory drug lead that targets both the MAPK and NF-kappaB pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  17. Lee KH, Abas F, Mohamed Alitheen NB, Shaari K, Lajis NH, Israf DA, et al.
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2015 Jul;18(6):616-27.
    PMID: 24832356 DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.12341
    Synovial fibroblast has emerged as a potential cellular target in progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis development. In this study, BDMC33 (2,6-bis[2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene]cyclohexanone), a curcumin analogue with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity has been synthesized and the potency of BDMC33 on molecular and cellular basis of synovial fibroblasts (SF) were evaluated in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  18. Syam S, Bustamam A, Abdullah R, Sukari MA, Hashim NM, Mohan S, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Apr 28;153(2):435-45.
    PMID: 24607509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.051
    The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn. has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Hence, this study aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of β mangostin (βM), a major compound present in Garcinia mangostana.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  19. Abu Bakar MH, Azmi MN, Shariff KA, Tan JS
    Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2019 May;188(1):241-259.
    PMID: 30417321 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2920-2
    Withaferin A (WA), a bioactive constituent derived from Withania somnifera plant, has been shown to exhibit many qualifying properties in attenuating several metabolic diseases. The current investigation sought to elucidate the protective mechanisms of WA (1.25 mg/kg/day) on pre-existing obese mice mediated by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following dietary administration of WA, significant metabolic improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines with enhanced glucose tolerance were observed. The hepatic oxidative functions of obese mice treated with WA were improved via augmented antioxidant enzyme activities. The levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and hepatic mRNA expressions of toll-like receptor (TLR4), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-receptor, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced. Mechanistically, WA increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), fatty acid synthase (FAS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), glucokinase (GCK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) that were associated with enhanced lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results indicate that WA exhibits protective effects against HFD-induced obesity through attenuation of hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
  20. Haque MA, Jantan I, Harikrishnan H
    Int. Immunopharmacol., 2018 Feb;55:312-322.
    PMID: 29310107 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.01.001
    Zerumbone (ZER), isolated mainly from the Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) rhizomes was found to be effective against numerous inflammatory and immune disorders, however, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties have not been well studied. This study was carried out to examine the profound effects of ZER on inflammatory mediated MyD88-dependent NF-κB/MAPK/PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated U937 human macrophages. ZER significantly suppressed the up-regulation pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2, and COX-2 protein in LPS-induced human macrophages. Moreover, ZER significantly downregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65), IκBα, and IKKα/β as well as restored the degradation of IκBα. ZER correspondingly showed remarkable attenuation of the expression of Akt, JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. ZER also diminished the expression of upstream signaling molecules TLR4 and MyD88, which are prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt activation. Additionally, quantification of relative gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 indicated that, at a higher dose (50μM), ZER significantly downregulated the elevated mRNA transcription levels of the stated pro-inflammatory markers in LPS-stimulated U937 macrophages. The strong suppressive effects of ZER on the activation of inflammatory markers in the macrophages via MyD88-dependent NF-κB/MAPK/PI3K-Akt signaling pathways suggest that ZER can be a preventive and potent therapeutic candidate for the management of various inflammatory-mediated immune disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
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