METHODS: A non-blinded, randomised controlled trial will be conducted. A total of sixty-six patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be recruited. The participants will be randomly allocated into intervention (traditional Malay massage) and control (relaxation position) groups. Blood and saliva samples will be collected before and immediately after intervention. All collected samples will be analysed. The primary outcomes are the changes in the level of substance P in both saliva and blood samples between both groups. The secondary outcomes include the levels of inflammatory mediators [i.e. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6 and IL-10, and the soluble form of the intercellular adhesion molecule], the pain intensity as measured by a visual analogous scale and functional outcomes using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.
DISCUSSION: Massage is a type of physical therapy that has been proven to be potentially capable of reducing unpleasant pain sensations by a complex sensory response and chemical mediators such as substance P and various inflammatory mediators. Previous studies conducted using Thai, Swedish, or other forms of massage therapies, have showed inconsistent findings on substance P levels pre and post the interventions. Each massage genre varies in terms of massage and joint mobilization points, as well as the lumbar spinous process. Traditional Malay massage, known locally as "Urut Melayu", involves soft-tissue manipulation of the whole body applied using the hands and fingers. This massage technique combines both deep muscular tissue massage and spiritual rituals. This trial is expected to give rise to new knowledge underlying the mechanisms for pain and inflammation relief that are activated by traditional Malay massage.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials ACTRN12615000537550 .
METHODS: Endotoxemic shock was induced in sheep by administration of an escalating dose of lipopolysaccharide, after which they subsequently received either no fluid bolus resuscitation or a 0.9% saline bolus. Lung tissue, bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) and plasma were analysed by real-time PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical staining to assess inflammatory cells, cytokines, hyaluronan and matrix metalloproteinases.
RESULTS: Endotoxemia was associated with decreased serum albumin and total protein levels, with activated neutrophils, while the glycocalyx glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan was significantly increased in BAL. Quantitative real-time PCR studies showed higher expression of IL-6 and IL-8 with saline resuscitation but no difference in matrix metalloproteinase expression. BAL and tissue homogenate levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β were elevated.
CONCLUSIONS: This data shows that the inflammatory response is enhanced when a host with endotoxemia is resuscitated with saline, with a comparatively higher release of inflammatory cytokines and endothelial/glycocalyx damage, but no change in matrix metalloproteinase levels.
METHODS: Release of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoblot technique was executed to determine the activation of MAPKs molecules, NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. Determination of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 relative gene expression levels was by performing the real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated to standardize the T. crispa extract and chemical profiling of its secondary metabolites was performed by LC-MS/MS.
RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatographic data indicated that syringin and magnoflorine were found as the major components of the extract. T. crispa-treatment prompted activation of NF-κB by enhancing IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation, and degradation of IκBα. The extract upregulated COX-2 protein expression, release of pro-inflammatory mediators and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) phosphorylation as well as Akt dose-dependently. T. crispa extract also upregulated the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88. T. crispa-treatment also upregulated the pro-inflammatory markers mRNA expression.
CONCLUSION: The results suggested that T. crispa extract stimulated the MyD88-dependent signaling pathways by upregulating the various immune inflammatory related parameters.