Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

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  1. Salim NL, Azhany Y, Abdul Rahman Z, Yusof R, Liza-Sharmini AT
    PMID: 26064735 DOI: 10.1155/2015/249419
    Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  2. Fadhilah M, Mimiwati Z, Fong KC
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Dec;65(4):271-2.
    PMID: 21901943
    We report a case of a patient with hypertension and ischaemic heart disease on anti-platelet treatment, who developed uniocular profound visual loss from a submacular haemorrhage secondary to valsalva retinopathy. He was treated with a combination of intravitreal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas followed by strict prone positioning. He demonstrated significant displacement of the haemorrhage and improvement of vision postoperatively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections*
  3. Nor-Masniwati S, Shatriah I, Zunaina E
    PMID: 21847340 DOI: 10.2147/OPTH.S21057
    We report a case of myopic choroidal neovascularization that showed improvement after a single injection of ranibizumab. A 45-year-old Chinese man with high myopia presented with sudden onset painless central scotoma of his right eye of 2 weeks' duration. There was no history of trauma. His right eye vision on presentation was 6/30 which showed no improvement with pinhole. The right fundus showed myopic maculopathy at the posterior pole with subretinal hemorrhage at the inferotemporal fovea. The optic disc was tilted with inferotemporal peripapillary atrophy. There was a myopic maculopathy appearance in the macula of the left eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed choroidal neovascularization at the fovea of the right eye. A diagnosis of right eye choroidal neovascularization secondary to myopic maculopathy was made. A single intravitreal injection of ranibizumab 0.05 mL was given. Ten weeks following intravitreal injection, vision had improved to 6/7.5, and repeated fundus fluorescein angiography showed absence of choroidal neovascularization. Follow-up at 6 months showed visual acuity had normalized to 6/6 with glasses, which was maintained up to 12 months following treatment. The right fundus showed no further subretinal hemorrhage with no new lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  4. Bastion, M.L.C., Siti Aishah, S., Aida Zairani, M.Z., Barkeh, H.J.
    Medicine & Health, 2010;5(2):93-102.
    MyJurnal
    A retrospective case series review was conducted to determine the pre-operative role and safety of pre-operative adjunctive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti- VEGF) agent ranibizumab “LUCENTISTM” in patients with diabetic retinopathy requiring vitrectomy. The study involved twenty consecutive eyes of sixteen patients (age range: 46-72 years; mean 57.5 years) which received intravitreal injection of 0.5 - 1 mg of ranibizumab 3 to 8 days (mean 4.4 days) prior to vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy. There were no local or systemic post-injection complications. Indications for vitrectomy were retinal detachment (RD) [n=11; 3 combined tractional (TRD) - rhegmatogenous RD (RRD), 8 TRD], TRD with vitreous haemorrhage (VH) (n=3) ,VH (n=8) and vitreomacular traction syndrome (n=1). Inclusion criteria include all consecutive eyes of diabetic patients requiring vitrectomy receiving a first pre-operative injection of anti- VEGF. Pre-operative visual acuity (VA) ranged from 6/36 to light perception. All eyes had minimal to moderate intraoperative bleeding. Post-operative VH in eyes without tamponade or gas tamponade was nil (n=1), mild (n=13) or moderate (n=1). Silicone filled eyes had nil (n=1), moderate (n=3) or severe haemorrhages (n=1). Post-operative VA was unchanged (n=2) (10%), improved (n = 14) (70%) or worsened (n=4). VA was 2/60 or better (n=15) to no light perception (n=1). Two eyes achieved 6/12 or better vision (10%). Ten eyes (50%) had 6/36 or better vision. In conclusion, pre-operative intravitreal ranibizumab is safe and useful in diabetic vitrectomy and appears to help with perioperative bleeding leading to improvement in vision.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  5. Ngai JJ, Chong KL, Oli Mohamed S
    PMID: 30327738 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8125806
    Introduction: To report an unusual case of CMV retinitis in Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD).

    Case Report: 13-year-old child with combined T and B cell deficiencies was diagnosed of bilateral zone 1 CMV retinitis. Intravitreal injections were unable to be given in a regular and timely manner under general anaesthesia due to her underlying systemic disease. The child was treated with intravenous ganciclovir for 8 weeks until eventual resolution of the retinitis. However, visual acuity deteriorated due to progressive optic nerve involvement.

    Conclusion: Paediatric patients often do not notice subtle symptoms of CMV retinitis. Although ocular manifestations are uncommon in PIDD, recognition and high index of suspicion will allow for timely referral, diagnosis, and treatment to be instituted for better visual outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  6. Farhana, I., Nor Azita, A.T., Hamisah, I.
    Medicine & Health, 2018;13(2):158-163.
    MyJurnal
    Ocular tuberculosis is an ocular infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). About 5-10% of ocular inflammation cases are caused by ocular TB. Spectrum of ocular TB is diverse, affecting any part of the adnexa, different layers and structures of the globe, orbital contents, optic nerve to the orbital apex posteriorly. It can be associated with or without systemic manifestation. Posterior uveitis is the most common presentation of ocular tuberculosis. Subretinal haemorrhage secondary to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a rare complication in ocular tuberculosis. We report a rare case of secondary choroidal neovascularization in a 9-year-old boy with bilateral eye choroidal tuberculoma with underlying miliary tuberculosis. He was treated with intravitreal ranibizumab and intravitreal recombinant-tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA) injection. The CNV resolved, however, vision was poor due to atrophic fovea.

    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  7. Lambuk L, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal R, Bakar NS, Agarwal P, Ismail NM
    Neurotoxicology, 2019 01;70:62-71.
    PMID: 30385388 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2018.10.009
    OBJECTIVE: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) excitotoxicity has been proposed to mediate apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Taurine (TAU) has been shown to have neuroprotective properties, thus we examined anti-apoptotic effect of TAU against retinal damage after NMDA exposure.

    METHODOLOGY: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 33 each. Group 1 was administered intravitreally with PBS and group 2 was similarly injected with NMDA (160 nmol). Groups 3, 4 and 5 were injected with TAU (320 nmol) 24 hours before (pre-treatment), in combination (co-treatment) and 24 hours after (post-treatment) NMDA exposure respectively. Seven days after injection, rats were sacrificed; eyes were enucleated, fixed and processed for morphometric analysis, TUNEL and caspase-3 staining. Optic nerve morphology assessment was done using toluidine blue staining. The estimation of BDNF, pro/anti-apoptotic factors (Bax/Bcl-2) and caspase-3 activity in retina was done using ELISA technique.

    RESULTS: Severe degenerative changes were observed in retinae after intravitreal NMDA exposure. The retinal morphology in the TAU pre-treated group appeared more similar to the control retinae and demonstrated a higher number of nuclei than the NMDA group both per 100 μm length (by 1.5-fold, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections/methods*
  8. Rashid NK, Zam Z, Mdnoor SS, Siti-Raihan I, Azhany Y
    PMID: 22606491 DOI: 10.1155/2012/362369
    A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  9. Malisa, A., Mae-Lynn, C.B.
    MyJurnal
    A 37-year-old Malay woman presented with progressive deterioration in vision and was diagnosed with advanced proliferative diabetic retinopathy with neovascular glaucoma. Intravitreal ranibizumab injection (an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) was administered prior to vitrectomy. Slit lamp assessment 2 days post-injection revealed significant regression of both iris and retinal neovascularisation. This resulted in adequate reduction of intra-ocular pressure prior to surgery. In addition, the regression of retinal vessels reduced the risk of intra-operative haemorrhage, thus aiding the surgical excision of the fibrovascular membranes. Periodic post-operative assessment in the first 3 weeks showed minimal inflammation and no recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage. This case illustrates that intravitreal ranibizumab has a role as an adjunct therapy prior to diabetic vitrectomy to significantly reduce the risk of intra-ocular haemorrhage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  10. Rathna, R., Mushawiahti, M., Bastion, M.L.C., Masdar, A., Ropilah, A.R.
    Medicine & Health, 2018;13(1):243-250.
    MyJurnal
    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is uncommon among young patients. Among the young adults, CRVO tends to be more benign with good visual prognosis. Macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion is a relatively common complication that is currently being treated with intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor with good outcomes. Other complications include lamellar hole, vitreous hemorrhage and neovascular glaucoma. We report a case of central retinal vein occlusion in a young female who presented to us with the complaint of blurring of vision in the left eye for four months. Fundus examination showed hyperemic optic disc, dilated tortuous vein, extensive retinal hemorrhages with macular oedema and an inferior shallow exudative retinal detachment. One month later, intravitreal ranibizumab injection for her macular oedema, a full thickness macular hole developed with reduction of macular oedema. Four months later, the hole spontaneously closed but her macular oedema persisted. The possibility of rare complications like exudative retinal detachment and full thickness macular hole must be kept in mind to ensure early detection and effective management is provided to preserve vision.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  11. Azhan, A., Mutasim, H., Abdul-Hadi, R., Khairul-Anwar, I., Zunaina, E.
    MyJurnal
    Macular branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), a type of retinal vein occlusion, is rarely recognised as a distinct entity. Macular BRVO has unique clinical features and different natural courses than the major BRVO. We report a case of a young patient with macular BRVO with macular oedema who was successfully treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injection. A 43 year-old Chinese man with no underlying medical illness presented with 2 weeks history of left eye painless reduced central vision which was worsening over time. On examination, his left eye visual acuity was 6/30 and Amsler chart drawing showed a lower central scotoma. Dilated fundus examination found marked flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages with cotton wool spot over the superior macular area bounded superiorly by superior arcade and macular thickening. An optical coherence tomography revealed cystoid macular oedema; and fundus fluorescein angiography showed occlusion of a small venous branch draining a superior part of macula to superior temporal venous arcade. A complete medical investigation found that he has hypertriglyceridemia and he was managed accordingly. His vision had improved to 6/6 after receiving 3 injections of intravitreal ranibizumab with no residual central scotoma and complete resolution of macular oedema.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  12. Jirjees F, Soliman K, Wang Y, Sonawane R, Sheshala R, Jones D, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2019 Sep 10;174:145-150.
    PMID: 31167158 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2019.05.038
    Bevacizumab is a full-length human monoclonal antibody used to treat various neovascular diseases such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic eye disease and other problems of the retina. Monthly intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin®) are effective in the treatment of wet AMD. However, there is a growing demand in the development of sustained release ophthalmic formulations. Therefore, this study aims, for the first time, to develop a rapid, simple, and sensitive method using size exclusion chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection for routine quantification of bevacizumab in ophthalmic formulations and during in vitro release studies. The selected chromatographic conditions included an aqueous mobile phase composed of 35 mM sodium phosphate buffer and 300 mM sodium chloride (pH 6.8), a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and the fluorescence detector was operated at excitation and emission wavelengths of 280 and 340 nm, respectively. The peak area-concentration relationship maintained its linearity over concentration range of 0.1-20 μg/mL (R2 = 0.9993), and the quantitation limit was 100 ng/mL. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The developed method had a run time of 6 min at temperature 25 °C, making it a unique validated method for rapid and cost-effective quantification of bevacizumab.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  13. Yap JF, Wai YZ, Ng QX, Lim LT
    J Med Case Rep, 2019 May 06;13(1):131.
    PMID: 31056080 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-019-2064-1
    BACKGROUND: This is a case report of an iatrogenic intralenticular broken steroid (Ozurdex™) implant in a patient with uveitis. There are only a few case reports on broken Ozurdex™ implants in the vitreous cavity, with none of them involving the crystalline lens. A few authors have described the accidental injection of an Ozurdex™ implant into the crystalline lens, but all of the implants remained in one piece in the lens and none of them were broken. We report an unusual case of an Ozurdex™ implant which was injected inadvertently into the crystalline lens, resulting in a broken Ozurdex™ implant with an entry and exit wound through the posterior capsule of the lens.

    CASE PRESENTATION: An ophthalmic trainee performed an Ozurdex™ intravitreal injection into a 48-year-old Asian man's right eye under aseptic conditions. This patient was then followed up for further management. On day 7 post-procedure, a slit lamp examination revealed that the Ozurdex™ implant was injected into the intralenticular structure of his right eye and had fractured into two pieces. The posterior capsule of the right lens was breached, with one half of the Ozurdex™ implant stuck at the entry and the other stuck at the exit wound of the posterior capsule. This patient underwent right eye cataract extraction and repositioning of the fractured implant; he made an uneventful recovery.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists should be aware of the potential risk of injecting an Ozurdex™ implant into an anatomical structure other than the vitreous cavity. Adequate training and careful administration of the Ozurdex™ implant are necessary to avoid such a complication, which fortunately is rare.

    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  14. Sarojini K, Ling KP, Teh WM, Ali H, Zunaina E
    Cureus, 2020 Sep 07;12(9):e10297.
    PMID: 33047087 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.10297
    We report a case of optic disc drusen (ODD) associated with peripapillary polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). A 62-year-old Malay lady presented with both eye ODD and the left eye associated with peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage. Ultrasound B-scan and red-free photography confirmed the optic nerve head drusen findings bilaterally. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the left eye showed sharply elevated peripapillary pigment epithelial detachment with subretinal fluid. The presence of peripapillary polyps with branching vascular network in indocyanine green angiography of the left eye further confirmed the diagnosis of PCV and excluded choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to ODD. Subsequently, the patient was treated with a combination of verteporfin photodynamic therapy with three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Three months after the combined treatment, OCT showed completely resolved subretinal fluid. ODD can cause compression of the subretinal vessels at the optic disc that results in retinal ischemia and release of vascular endothelial growth factor, which may trigger the development of CNV or PCV. The rarity of this combination makes it interesting to study more cases of ODD with PCV. Importantly, a thorough evaluation in distinguishing the PCV from the CNV that mimics it is crucial for early detection and prompt intervention. In this case, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) is the diagnostic method to differentiate the PCV from CNV secondary to ODD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  15. Norlaili M, Bakiah S, Zunaina E
    BMC Ophthalmol, 2011;11:36.
    PMID: 22111945 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-11-36
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema is the leading causes of blindness. Laser photocoagulation reduces the risk of visual loss. However recurrences are common and despite laser treatment, patients with diabetic macular oedema experienced progressive loss of vision. Stabilization of the blood retinal barrier introduces a rationale for intravitreal triamcinolone treatment in diabetic macular oedema. This study is intended to compare the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the macular oedema index (MEI) at 3 month of primary treatment for diabetic macular oedema between intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) and laser photocoagulation.
    METHODS: This comparative pilot study consists of 40 diabetic patients with diabetic macular oedema. The patients were randomized into two groups using envelope technique sampling procedure. Treatment for diabetic macular oedema was based on the printed envelope technique selected for every patient. Twenty patients were assigned for IVTA group (one injection of IVTA) and another 20 patients for LASER group (one laser session). Main outcome measures were mean BCVA and mean MEI at three months post treatment. The MEI was quantified using Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II.
    RESULTS: The mean difference for BCVA at baseline [IVTA: 0.935 (0.223), LASER: 0.795 (0.315)] and at three months post treatment [IVTA: 0.405 (0.224), LASER: 0.525 (0.289)] between IVTA and LASER group was not statistically significant (p = 0.113 and p = 0.151 respectively). The mean difference for MEI at baseline [IVTA: 2.539 (0.914), LASER: 2.139 (0.577)] and at three months post treatment [IVTA: 1.753 (0.614), LASER: 1.711 (0.472)] between IVTA and LASER group was also not statistically significant (p = 0.106 and p = 0.811 respectively).
    CONCLUSIONS: IVTA demonstrates good outcome comparable to laser photocoagulation as a primary treatment for diabetic macular oedema at three months post treatment.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN05040192 (http://www.controlled-trial.com).
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  16. Ooi YL, Khang TF, Naidu M, Fong KC
    Eye (Lond), 2013 Mar;27(3):425-31.
    PMID: 23196646 DOI: 10.1038/eye.2012.260
    To compare the potential retinal toxicity of two commercially Brilliant blue G dyes (Brilliant Peel and Ocublue Plus) and Indocyanine green (ICG) at usual clinical concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  17. Thevi T, Abas AL
    Indian J Ophthalmol, 2017 Oct;65(10):920-925.
    PMID: 29044054 DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_512_17
    Traumatic endophthalmitis is a devastating condition that can occur following an open globe injury and result in loss of vision. The use of prophylactic antibiotics is empirical as most surgeons fear complications associated with the same. No systematic review has been performed in English on the role of intravitreal/intracameral antibiotics in preventing traumatic endophthalmitis. We searched for randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials comparing intracameral/intravitreal antibiotics with placebos on PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library using keywords open globe/trauma/penetrating/perforating injuries endophthalmitis. The last search was on 5 May 2017. We included patients of all ages with open globe injuries who received intracameral/intravitreal antibiotics, regardless of the dose. Quality of the trials was assessed using Cochrane collaboration tools to assess the risk of bias. The main outcome measures were endophthalmitis and visual acuity. We included three trials. Overall, intravitreal/intracameral antibiotics were noted to significantly reduce the occurrence of endophthalmitis in open globe injuries (relative risk [RR] 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.57). The use of intravitreal/intracameral antibiotics did not have an effect in improving visual acuity (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.61-2.23). Two trials (Narang 2003; Soheilan 2001) were observed to have no significant effect on visual acuity while another trial (Soheilan 2007) did not list visual acuity as part of its objectives. Intracameral/intravitreal antibiotics reduce the risk of endophthalmitis in open globe injuries; although, there was no improvement in the visual acuity. We, therefore, recommend the use of intravitreal/intracameral injections in open globe injuries to prevent this devastating complication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  18. Lambuk L, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal R, Agarwal P, Peresypkina A, Pobeda A, et al.
    Neural Regen Res, 2021 Nov;16(11):2330-2344.
    PMID: 33818520 DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.310691
    Magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) has been shown to have a protective effect against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal cell apoptosis. The current study investigated the involvement of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), p53 and AP-1 family members (c-Jun/c-Fos) in neuroprotection by MgAT against NMDA-induced retinal damage. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo intravitreal injection of vehicle, NMDA or MgAT as pre-treatment to NMDA. Seven days after injections, retinal ganglion cells survival was detected using retrograde labelling with fluorogold and BRN3A immunostaining. Functional outcome of retinal damage was assessed using electroretinography, and the mechanisms underlying antiapoptotic effect of MgAT were investigated through assessment of retinal gene expression of NF-κB, p53 and AP-1 family members (c-Jun/c-Fos) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Retinal phospho-NF-κB, phospho-p53 and AP-1 levels were evaluated using western blot assay. Rat visual functions were evaluated using visual object recognition tests. Both retrograde labelling and BRN3A immunostaining revealed a significant increase in the number of retinal ganglion cells in rats receiving intravitreal injection of MgAT compared with the rats receiving intravitreal injection of NMDA. Electroretinography indicated that pre-treatment with MgAT partially preserved the functional activity of NMDA-exposed retinas. MgAT abolished NMDA-induced increase of retinal phospho-NF-κB, phospho-p53 and AP-1 expression and suppressed NMDA-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB, p53 and AP-1 family members (c-Jun/c-Fos). Visual object recognition tests showed that MgAT reduced difficulties in recognizing the visual cues (i.e. objects with different shapes) after NMDA exposure, suggesting that visual functions of rats were relatively preserved by pre-treatment with MgAT. In conclusion, pre-treatment with MgAT prevents NMDA induced retinal injury by inhibiting NMDA-induced neuronal apoptosis via downregulation of transcriptional activity of NF-κB, p53 and AP-1-mediated c-Jun/c-Fos. The experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia, UiTM CARE No 118/2015 on December 4, 2015 and UiTM CARE No 220/7/2017 on December 8, 2017 and Ethics Committee of Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, No 02/20 on January 10, 2020.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
  19. Arfuzir NN, Lambuk L, Jafri AJ, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Sidek S, et al.
    Neuroscience, 2016 06 14;325:153-64.
    PMID: 27012609 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.03.041
    Vascular dysregulation has long been recognized as an important pathophysiological factor underlying the development of glaucomatous neuropathy. Endothelin-1 (ET1) has been shown to be a key player due to its potent vasoconstrictive properties that result in retinal ischemia and oxidative stress leading to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and optic nerve (ON) damage. In this study we investigated the protective effects of magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) against retinal cell apoptosis and ON damage. MgAT was administered intravitreally prior to, along with or after administration of ET1. Seven days post-injection, animals were euthanized and retinae were subjected to morphometric analysis, TUNEL and caspase-3 staining. ON sections were stained with toluidine blue and were graded for neurodegenerative effects. Oxidative stress was also estimated in isolated retinae. Pre-treatment with MgAT significantly lowered ET1-induced retinal cell apoptosis as measured by retinal morphometry and TUNEL staining. This group of animals also showed significantly lesser caspase-3 activation and significantly reduced retinal oxidative stress compared to the animals that received intravitreal injection of only ET1. Additionally, the axonal degeneration in ON was markedly reduced in MgAT pretreated animals. The animals that received MgAT co- or post-treatment with ET1 also showed improvement in all parameters; however, the effects were not as significant as observed in MgAT pretreated animals. The current study showed that the intravitreal pre-treatment with MgAT reduces caspase-3 activation and prevents retinal cell apoptosis and axon loss in ON induced by ET1. This protective effect of ET1 was associated with reduced retinal oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Intravitreal Injections
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