METHODS: Different electronic databases were searched in a non-systematic way to find out the literature of interest.
RESULTS: The level of ferritin rises in many inflammatory conditions including autoimmune disorders. However, in four inflammatory diseases (i.e., adult-onset Still's diseases, macrophage activation syndrome, catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, and sepsis), high levels of ferritin are observed suggesting it as a remarkable biomarker and pathological involvement in these diseases. Acting as an acute phase reactant, ferritin is also involved in the cytokine-associated modulator of the immune response as well as a regulator of cytokine synthesis and release which are responsible for the inflammatory storm.
CONCLUSION: This review article presents updated information on the role of ferritin in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with an emphasis on hyperferritinaemic syndrome.
DESIGN: A case-controlled study of the iron levels (microgram/mL) in the pelvic PF of 12 patients with moderate-to-severe disease, 15 patients with minimal-to-mild disease and in 17 women with normal pelvises were compared. As an index of free radical reactions through lipid peroxidation, the levels of malondialdehyde levels (ng/mL) were assessed simultaneously in the same specimens.
RESULTS: Controlling for the phase of the menstrual cycle, significantly higher levels of iron were seen in patients with endometriosis, the levels being correlated with the severity of the disease. However no such corresponding relationship was seen in the malondialdehyde levels in the PF.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that raised iron levels in the PF do not play a role in catalyzing free radical reactions as judged by the degree of lipid peroxidation.