In civil engineering, many geotechnical and forensic projects employ polyurethane (PU) for ground improvement, and the results have shown to be effective in terms of time and cost savings. However, similar to many other chemical stabilisers, the use of PU for soil stabilisation may have environmental repercussions. Therefore, this paper utilised a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) to investigate the potential for ground contamination resulting from the application of PU for the stabilisation of marine clay. Furthermore, the hazardousness of PU during the stabilisation of marine clay was investigated by testing its reactivity, ignitability, corrosivity and physical properties. The results reveal that the quantity of heavy metals present in PU is far below the regulatory limits. The results further confirm that PU is odourless and non-corrosive and that it is non-cyanide and non-sulphide-bearing. However, PU is capable of igniting. Overall, the potential application of PU for ground improvement is promising due to its environmental friendliness.
This study depicts a profile of existence of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, Mn, Fe, Na, Ca, and Mg) in some important herbal plants like (H. Integrifolia, D. regia, R. communis, C. equisetifolia, N. oleander, T. populnea, M. elengi, H. schizopetalus, P. pterocarpum) from Pakistan and an antidiabetic Malaysian herbal drug product containing (Punica granatum L. (Mast) Hook, Momordica charantia L., Tamarindus indica L., Lawsonia inermis L.) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metals in these herbal plants and Malaysian product were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppm of Cu, 0.00-0.02 ppm of Ni, 0.02-0.29 ppm of Zn, 0.00-0.04 ppm of Cd, 0.00-1.33 ppm of Hg, 0.00-0.54 ppm of Mn, 0.22-3.16 ppm of Fe, 0.00-9.17 ppm of Na, 3.27-15.63 ppm of Ca and 1.85-2.03 ppm of Mg. All the metals under study were within the prescribed limits except mercury. Out of 10 medicinal plants/product under study 07 were beyond the limit of mercury permissible limits. Purpose of this study is to determine heavy metals contents in selected herbal plants and Malaysian product, also to highlight the health concerns related to the presence of toxic levels of heavy metals.
Leaf samples of tropical trees, i.e. Dryobalanops lanceolata (Kapur paji), Dipterocarpaceae and Macaranga spp. (Mahang), Euphorbiaceae were analyzed for 21 chemical elements. The pioneer Macaranga spp. exhibited higher concentrations for the majority of elements compared to the emergent species of Dryobalanops lanceolata, which was attributed to the higher physiological activity of the fast growing pioneer species compared to emergent trees. Lead showed rather high concentrations in several samples from the Bakam re-forestation site. This is suggested to be caused by emissions through brick manufacturing and related activities in the vicinity. A comparison of Dryobalanops lanceolata samples collected in 1993, 1995 and 1997 in the Lambir Hills National Park revealed that certain heavy metals, i.e. Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Ti showed higher values in 1997 compared to the previous years, which could indicate an atmospheric input from the haze caused by the extensive forest fires raging in Borneo and other parts of Southeast Asia.
Two hundred ten samples of selected vegetables (okra, pumpkin, tomato, potato, eggplant, spinach, and cabbage) from Faisalabad, Pakistan, were analyzed for the analysis of heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used for the analysis of heavy metals. The mean levels of Cd, Pb, As, and Hg were 0.24, 2.23, 0.58, and 7.98 mg/kg, respectively. The samples with Cd (27%), Pb (50%), and Hg (63%) exceeded the maximum residual levels set by the European Commission. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the current study are high and may pose significant health concerns for consumers. Furthermore, considerable attention should be paid to implement comprehensive monitoring and regulations.
Heavy metal in rice studies has attracted a greater concern worldwide. However, there have been limited studies on marketed rice samples although it represents a vital ingestion portion for a real estimation of human health risk. This study was aimed to determine both total and bioaccessible of trace elements and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Al, Zn, As, Pb and Fe) in 22 varieties of cooked rice using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Both total and bioaccessible of trace elements and heavy metals were digested using closed-nitric acid digestion and Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) in vitro digestion model, respectively. Human health risks via Health Risk Assessment (HRA) were conducted to understand exposure risks involving adults and children representing Malaysian population. Zinc was the highest while As was the lowest contents for total and in their bioavailable forms. Four clusters were identified: (1) Pb, As, Co, Cd and Cr; (2) Cu and Al; (3) Fe and (4) Zn. For HRA, there was no any risks found from single element exposure. While potential carcinogenic health risks present for both adult and children from single As exposure (Life time Cancer Risk, LCR>1×10(-4)). Total Hazard Quotient values for adult and children were 27.0 and 18.0, respectively while total LCR values for adult and children were 0.0049 and 0.0032, respectively.
Urban road dust contains anthropogenic components at toxic concentrations which can be hazardous to human health. A total of 36 road dust samples from five different urban areas, a commercial (CM), a high traffic (HT), a park (GR), a rail station (LRT), and a residential area (RD), were collected in Kuala Lumpur City followed by investigation into compositions, sources, and human health risks. The concentrations of trace metals in road dust and the bioaccessible fraction were determined using inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) while ion concentrations were determined using ion chromatography (IC). The trace metal concentrations were dominated by Fe and Al with contributions of 53% and 21% to the total trace metal and ion concentrations in road dust. Another dominant metal was Zn while the dominant ion was Ca2+ with average concentrations of 314 ± 190 μg g-1 and 3470 ± 1693 μg g-1, respectively. The most bioaccessible fraction was Zn followed by the sequence Sr > Cd > Cr > Cu > Ni > Co > Mn > As > V > Pb > Fe > Al > U. The results revealed that the highest trace metal and ion concentrations in road dust and in the bioaccessible fraction were found at the LRT area. Based on the source apportionment analysis, the major source of road dust was vehicle emissions/traffic activity (47%), and for the bioaccessible fraction, the major source was soil dust (50%). For the health risk assessments, hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk (CR) values for each element were
Bauxite and iron ore mining is the major contributor to metal pollution in Tasik Chini, Malaysia. Deforestation of the protected zone of reserve forest exacerbates the problem. The current study is to understand the speciation of metals spatially in sediment to analyse the risk associated in terms of its mobility and bioavailability. The samples of sediment are collected from Sungai Jemberau, Laut Jemberau, and Laut Gumum of Tasik Chini. Four samplings were conducted for a year, by collecting the surface sediment. Sequential extraction method was followed for speciation of sediment and classified it into exchangeable, reducible, Fe-Mn oxides, organic and residual fractions. The results were also analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). The result reveals that Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, and Pb are the primary constituents of sediment contributing to about 98% of residual fraction. Co, Cd, Cr, As, and Ni are found in trace metal concentration and are identified to be mainly released from anthropogenic sources nearby. Although the individual proportion is less than major metals in exchangeable and carbonate fraction, they possess geochemically significant concentration above the permissible limit. More than 70-80% of all its total concentration proportion is hence found in mobile and bioavailable state. These possess toxic and have chronic effects to aquatic life and public health even in trace elemental concentration. Hence, these metals are the most toxic and bioavailable metals pausing risk for aquatic and public health. PCA analysis highlights that the enrichment of heavy metals in bioavailable fraction is mostly contributed from anthropogenic sources. The same results are emphasized by cluster analysis.
Crude extract of ChE from the liver of Puntius javanicus was purified using procainamide-sepharyl 6B. S-Butyrylthiocholine iodide (BTC) was selected as the specific synthetic substrate for this assay with the highest maximal velocity and lowest biomolecular constant at 53.49 µmole/min/mg and 0.23 mM, respectively, with catalytic efficiency ratio of 0.23. The optimum parameter was obtained at pH 7.5 and optimal temperature in the range of 25 to 30°C. The effect of different storage condition was assessed where ChE activity was significantly decreased after 9 days of storage at room temperature. However, ChE activity showed no significant difference when stored at 4.0, 0, and -25°C for 15 days. Screening of heavy metals shows that chromium, copper, and mercury strongly inhibited P. javanicus ChE by lowering the activity below 50%, while several pairwise combination of metal ions exhibited synergistic inhibiting effects on the enzyme which is greater than single exposure especially chromium, copper, and mercury. The results showed that P. javanicus ChE has the potential to be used as a biosensor for the detection of metal ions.
The concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc in surface sediments collected from the east coast of peninsular Malaysia, along the South China Sea, were measured by two methods instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The obtained results were use to determine the areal distribution of the metals of in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia and potential sources of these metals to this environment. The geochemical data propose that most of the metals found in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a redistribution of territorial materials within the ecosystem. Then, the metal concentrations can be considered to be present at natural background levels in surface sediments.
An effort to analyze selected heavy metal accumulation by the razor clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur was conducted on January to April 2010. A total of fifty individuals of Razor clam Solen brevis were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) Concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Among the metals Fe occurred in elevated concentration in the soft tissue of razor clam followed by Zn. Cd was found to be in least concentration in the sample. Mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the soft tissue were 415.2 +/- 56.52, 87.74 +/- 11.85, 18.71 +/- 2.10, 8.64 +/- 1.75, 0.67 +/- 0.29 and 1.61 +/- 0.45 microg g(-1) dw, respectively indicating that the bioaccumulation of essential metals in the soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals. Metal accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam followed Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cd order in present study. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was lower than the permissible limit recommended by National and international standards proved that this species could be utilized for human consumption.
Present study was conducted to evaluate current status of trace elements contamination in the surface sediments of the Johor Strait. Iron (2.54 +/- 1.24%) was found as the highest occurring element, followed by those of zinc (210.45 +/- 115.4 microg/g), copper (57.84 +/- 45.54 microg/g), chromium (55.50 +/- 31.24 microg/g), lead (52.52 +/- 28.41 microg/g), vanadium (47.76 +/- 25.76 microg/g), arsenic (27.30 +/- 17.11 microg/g), nickel (18.31 +/- 11.77 microg/g), cobalt (5.13 +/- 3.12 microg/g), uranium (4.72 +/- 2.52 microg/g), and cadmium (0.30 +/- 0.30 microg/g), respectively. Bioavailability of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were higher than 50% of total concentration. Vanadium, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were found significantly different between the eastern and western part of the strait (p < 0.05). Combining with other factors, Johor Strait is suitable as a hotspot for trace elements contamination related studies.
This paper presents a preliminary result carried out in the Besut River basin, Terengganu, Malaysia to determine the selected trace metal concentrations. Concentrations of dissolved Pb, Cu, and Fe during the present study were in the range of 3.3-8.3 microg/L Pb, 0.1-0.3 microg/L Cu, and 1.1-12.3 microg/L Fe. For the particulate fraction concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Fe ranged from 1.0 to 3.6 microg/L, 0.3 to 2.8 microg/L, and 114 to 1,537 microg/L, respectively. The concentrations of metals in this study area, in general, were lower than those reported for other study areas. Higher metal concentrations measured in the wet monsoon season suggest that the input was mainly due to terrestrial runoff.
Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe were determined in the surface sediments to investigate the distributions, concentrations and the pollution status of heavy metals in Dumai coastal waters. Sediment samples from 23 stations, representing 5 different site groups of eastern, central and western Dumai and southern and northern Rupat Island, were collected in May 2005. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations (in microg/g dry weight; Fe in %) were 0.88 (0.46-1.89); 6.08 (1.61-13.84); 32.34 (14.63-84.90); 53.89 (31.49-87.11); 11.48 (7.26-19.97) and 3.01 (2.10-3.92) for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, respectively. Generally, metal concentrations in the coastal sediments near Dumai city center (eastern and central Dumai) which have more anthropogenic activities were higher than those at other stations. Average concentration of Cd in the eastern Dumai was slightly higher than effective range low (ERL) but still below effective range medium (ERM) value established by Long et al. (Environmental Management 19(1):81-97, 1995; Environmental Toxicology Chemistry 17(4):714-727, 1997). All other metals were still below ERL and ERM. Calculated enrichment factor (EF), especially for Cd and Pb, and the Pollution load index (PLI) value in the eastern Dumai were also higher than other sites. Cd showed higher EF when compared to other metals. Geo-accumulation indices (I(geo)) in most of the stations (all site groups) were categorized as class 1 (unpolluted to moderately polluted environment) and only Cd in Cargo Port was in class 2 (moderately polluted). Heavy metal concentrations found in the present study were comparable to other regions of the world and based on the calculated indices it can be classified as unpolluted to moderately polluted coastal environment.
The purpose of this paper are to determine the concentration of heavy metals namely cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in water and sediment; and to investigate the effect of sediment pH and sediment organic matter on concentration of cadmium, copper and lead in sediment at oxidation fraction. For this purpose the concentration of heavy metals were measured in water and sediments at 15 sites from Tasik Chini, Peninsular Malaysia. The sequential extraction procedure used in this study was based on defined fractions: exchangeable, acid reduction, oxidation, and residual. The concentration of heavy metals in residual fraction was higher than the other fractions. Among the non-residual fractions, the concentration of heavy metals in organic matter fraction was much higher than other fractions collected from all sampling sites. The pH of the sediment in all sites was acidic. The mean pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.5 with the higher value observed at site 15. Results of organic matter analysis showed that the percentage of organic matter present in sediment samples varies throughout the lake and all sites of sediments were relatively rich in organic matter ranging from 13.0% to 34.2%. The highest mean percentage of organic matter was measured at sampling site 15, with value of 31.78%.
Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the water column (including the sea-surface microlayer, subsurface, mid-depth and bottom water) and sediments from Singapore's coastal environment. The concentration ranges for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the seawater dissolved phase (DP) were 0.34-2.04, 0.013-0.109, 0.07-0.35, 0.23-1.16, 0.28-0.78, 0.009-0.062 and 0.97-3.66 microg L(-1) respectively. The ranges for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 0.16-0.73, 6.72-53.93, 12.87-118.29, 4.34-60.71, 1.10-6.08 and 43.09-370.49 microg g(-1), respectively. Heavy metal concentrations in sediments ranged between 0.054-0.217, 37.48-50.52, 6.30-21.01, 13.27-26.59, 24.14-37.28 and 48.20-62.36 microg g(-1) for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. The lowest concentrations of metals in the DP and SPM were most frequently found in the subsurface water while the highest concentrations were mostly observed in the SML and bottom water. Overall, heavy metals in both the dissolved and particulate fractions have depth profiles that show a decreasing trend of concentrations from the subsurface to the bottom water, indicating that the prevalence of metals is linked to the marine biological cycle. In comparison to data from Greece, Malaysia and USA, the levels of metals in the DP are considered to be low in Singapore. Higher concentrations of particulate metals were reported for the Northern Adriatic Sea and the Rhine/Meuse estuary in the Netherlands compared to values reported in this study. The marine sediments in Singapore are not heavily contaminated when compared to metal levels in marine sediments from other countries such as Thailand, Japan, Korea, Spain and China.
Runoff quality draining from 17.14 km2 urban catchment in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, was analysed. The land-use consists of residential (30.3%), agricultural (27.3%), open space (27.9%), industrial (8.1%) and commercial (6.4%) areas. Three storm events were sampled in detail. These storms produced stormflow between 0.84 mm and 27.82 mm, and peakflow from 2.19 m3/s to 42.36 m3/s. Water quality showed marked variation during storms especially for TSS, BOD and COD with maximum concentrations of 778 mg/l, 135 mg/l and 358 mg/l, respectively. Concentrations of TOC, DOC, NH3-N, Fe and level of colour were also high. In general, the river quality is badly polluted and falls in Class V based on the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standards. Event Mean Concentrations (EMC) for various parameters varied considerably between storms. The largest storm produced higher EMC for TSS, NO3-N and SS whereas the smaller storms tend to register higher EMC for BOD, COD, NH3-N, TOC, Ca, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Such variations could be explained in terms of pollutant availability and the effects of flushing and dilution. Based on a three-month average recurrence interval (ARI) of rainfall, the estimated event loadings (ton/ha) of TSS, BOD, COD, TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N were 0.055, 0.016, 0.012, 0.039, 0.010, 0.0007 and 0.0002, respectively. Heavy metals present in trace quantities. Storms with 3 months ARI could capture about 70% of the total annual loads of major pollutants.