Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

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  1. Abas R, Othman F, Thent ZC
    EXCLI J, 2015;14:179-89.
    PMID: 26417358 DOI: 10.17179/excli2014-539
    Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the animals were equally divided into five groups (n = 8); Control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC) and diabetic group treated with metformin 150 g/kg (DM-Met). Oral administration of the MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg) was continued for 28 days. DM-MC group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the DM-Ctrl group. Aortic tissue NO level was significantly increased and malondialdehyde level was decreased in the DM-MC group. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in eNOS expression in the endothelial lining of the DM-MC group. Similarly, morphological deterioration of the aortic tissues was reverted to normal. In summary, treatment with the MC fruit extract exerted the significant vasculoprotective effect in the type 1 diabetic rat model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia*
  2. Kundu BC, Mohsin GM, Rahman MS, Ahamed F, Mahato AK, Hossain KMD, et al.
    Braz J Biol, 2022;84:e255605.
    PMID: 35019109 DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.255605
    Combining ability analysis provides useful information for the selection of parents, also information regarding the nature and magnitude of involved gene actions. Crops improvement involves strategies for enhancing yield potentiality and quality components. Targeting the improvement of respective characters in bitter gourd, combining ability and genetic parameters for 19 characters were estimated from a 6×6 full diallel analysis technique. The results revealed that the variances due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for most of the important characters. It indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions. GCA variances were higher in magnitude than SCA variances for all the characters studied indicating the predominance of the additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parent P2 (BG 009) appeared as the best general combiner for earliness; P1 (BG 006) for number of fruits, average single fruit weight and fruit yield; P4 (BG 027) for node number of first female flower and days to seed fruit maturity; P3 (BG 011) for fruit length and thickness of the fruit flesh; P5 (BG 033) for 100-seed weight; and P6 for number of nodes per main vine. The SCA effect as well as reciprocal effect was also significant for most of the important characters in different crosses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia*
  3. Ng ZX, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR
    Food Chem, 2014 Apr 1;148:155-61.
    PMID: 24262540 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.025
    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia/genetics; Momordica charantia/metabolism; Momordica charantia/chemistry*
  4. Aminah, A., Anna, P.K.
    MyJurnal
    Momordica charantia is known to contain with antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds to lower of diabetic diseases. Objective this study was investigate the influence of ripening stages on the phenolic bioactive substances and the corresponding antioxidant activity of bitter melon (Momordica charantia). The ripening of bitter melon fruit divided to four stages (RS1, RS2, RS3 and RS4). The results of this study were more ripened the fruit, lightness (L * ), yellowish (b * ) and chroma increased. Other ways, more ripened the fruit, the pH value and titratable acidity decreased. Total phenolic content and FRAF of RS 4 was highest compared other samples but DPPH of RS 4 was lowest among all the samples. However DPPH and FRAP value of bitter gourd on ripening stages showed no significant difference (p>0.05) among samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  5. Bachok MF, Yusof BN, Ismail A, Hamid AA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2014;23(3):369-76.
    PMID: 25164446 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.3.01
    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia*
  6. Shafie MH, Samsudin D, Yusof R, Gan CY
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Oct 15;118(Pt A):1183-1192.
    PMID: 29944943 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.06.103
    Momordica charantia bioactive polysaccharide (MCBP) was used as an alternative source for the production of bio-based plastics (BPs) with choline chloride/glycerol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a plasticizer. In this study, MCBP was initially extracted using 0.1 M citric acid at temperature 80 °C for 2 h, precipitated using ethanol, and then lyophilized. Subsequently, seven BPs were prepared: MCBP without plasticizer (MCBP), with 1% (w/w) of glycerol (MCBP-G), or with 1% (w/w) of DES at different choline chloride/glycerol molar ratios (i.e. 1.5:1, 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, and 1:3). The properties of these BPs were then investigated. Results showed that the tensile strains, stresses and moduli were in the range of 1.3-13.3%, 4.8-19.1 MPa and 132-2487 MPa, respectively. The melting temperatures were found in the range of 92.6-111.4 °C whereas the moisture absorptions and water vapour transmission rates (WVTR) of BPs were 1.4-6.5% and 3.6-5.4 mg/m2·s, respectively. The results also showed that these BPs exhibited bioactivities, such as microbial inhibitory activity (19.5-32.3 mm), free radical scavenging activity (10.3-18.3%) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 16.1-20.0 mM). In addition, it was observed that using DES as a plasticizer had improved the properties of BP, such as tensile strain (354.7-937.5%), melting temperature (4.6-20.3%), radical scavenging activity (0.6-88.6%), FRAP (0.9-18.7%) and antimicrobial activity (12.3-33.6%) compared to MCBP, due to the fact DES has caused different degrees of plasticization via hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds with the polymer chains, and induced a lower pH condition. Therefore, it was suggested that these BPs with DES could contribute to food preservation properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia/chemistry*
  7. Aminah, A., Zuhair, A., Amira, K.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activities of dietary bitter melon fruit supplemented in male rat model. In this study, three common tests for measuring antioxidant activity of the bitter melon were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH assay), total phenolic acid assay (TPC assay) and Ferric reducing ability of plasma assa. (FRAP assay). Results showed that the extracting solvent significantly (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  8. Chern, Pei Ern, Nor Ainy Mahyudin, Hazrina Ghazali, Norkhaizura Mahmud @ Ab Rashid
    MyJurnal
    Diabetes mellitus has a high prevalence in Malaysia and is expected to rise in the future due to lifestyle changes. Thus, consumers are turning to alternative methods in the prevention and cure of the disease. The Momordica charantia has been studied for its anti-diabetic activity both in vitro and in vivo and is shown to be effective in inhibiting glucose absorption. Therefore, the MC is used as a main ingredient in the development of health beverages to offer alternatives for patients or the health conscious. The microbial quality of the product is examined to ensure the safety of the product and to find methods to enhance its shelf life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  9. Liew KY, Hafiz MF, Chong YJ, Harith HH, Israf DA, Tham CL
    PMID: 33193799 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8257817
    Sepsis refers to organ failure due to uncontrolled body immune responses towards infection. The systemic inflammatory response triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, is accompanied by the release of various proinflammatory mediators that can lead to organ damage. The progression to septic shock is even more life-threatening due to hypotension. Thus, sepsis is a leading cause of death and morbidity globally. However, current therapies are mainly symptomatic treatment and rely on the use of antibiotics. The lack of a specific treatment demands exploration of new drugs. Malaysian herbal plants have a long history of usage for medicinal purposes. A total of 64 Malaysian plants commonly used in the herbal industry have been published in Malaysian Herbal Monograph 2015 and Globinmed website (http://www.globinmed.com/). An extensive bibliographic search in databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus revealed that seven of these plants have antisepsis properties, as evidenced by the therapeutic effect of their extracts or isolated compounds against sepsis-associated inflammatory responses or conditions in in vitro or/and in vivo studies. These include Andrographis paniculata, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, Momordica charantia, and Centella asiatica. Among these, Z. officinale is the most widely studied plant and seems to have the highest potential for future therapeutic applications in sepsis. Although both extracts as well as active constituents from these herbal plants have demonstrated potential antisepsis activity, the activity might be primarily contributed by the active constituent(s) from each of these plants, which are andrographolide (A. paniculata), 6-gingerol and zingerone (Z. officinale), curcumin (C. longa), piperine and pellitorine (P. nigrum), biflorin (S. aromaticum), and asiaticoside, asiatic acid, and madecassoside (C. asiatica). These active constituents have shown great antisepsis effects, and further investigations into their clinical therapeutic potential may be worthwhile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  10. Siti Rashima R, Maizura M, Kang WM, Fazilah A, Tan LX
    J Food Sci Technol, 2017 Jan;54(1):228-235.
    PMID: 28242920 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-016-2454-y
    The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) (3.5%) solution and polysaccharides, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) and gum arabic (5, 10 and 15%), on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of bitter gourd juice were investigated. An increase in the concentration of CMC and gum arabic significantly was observed to increase the lightness (L value) and the viscosity (mPas) of bitter gourd juice at all levels. Increased concentrations of gum arabic significantly increased the total soluble solids. The bitter gourd fruit treated with NaCl solution produced the highest lightness (L value) and scavenging activity of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl of bitter gourd juice. Increased concentration of gum arabic up to 15% significantly increased the total phenolic content. The addition of 5% gum arabic effectively reduced the bitterness of the bitter gourd juice. Viscosity of the juice resulted in negative correlation for bitterness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  11. Tsan, F.Y., Ngilah, E.I., Gundadon, H., Choo, C.Y., Ahmad Nazarudin, M.R.
    Science Letters, 2018;12(1):1-16.
    MyJurnal
    Mango as a climacteric fruit is known to have increased auxins with concomitant increased ethylene and carbon dioxide production during ripening. Such hormonal properties alongside many other nutritional benefits prepared in the form of compost extract were tested for enhancing production of medicinal bitter gourd of Momordica charantia. This cucurbit was planted on field beds at 0.8 x 0.5 m followed by application of compost extract prepared with anaerobic decomposition of rotting mango fruits, fish wastes of gills and internal organs and brown sugar at different ratios in plastic containers. The results obtained showed that mango:fish wastes:sugar compost extract of 2:1:1 applied to soil around the root collar at 10 ml at fortnight intervals allowed the plants to gain the highest mean number of fruits per plant of 18.3, mean individual fruit weight of 25.95 g or mean yield of 11.80 tonnes per hectare. Mango compost extract is, hence, beneficial in organic production of this medicinal bitter gourd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  12. Thiagarajan SK, Rama Krishnan K, Ei T, Husna Shafie N, Arapoc DJ, Bahari H
    PMID: 31186668 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9152757
    Momordica charantia Linn., commonly known as bitter gourd, has many protective roles due to its medicinal value as it contains bioactive components. However, this extract showed possible toxicity effect on zebrafish embryo. Thus this study was designed to differentiate the toxicity activities in two types of M. charantia sample which are Indian and Chinese M. charantia, as well as to compare between two different aqueous extraction methods, hot and cold aqueous method, using zebrafish embryo assay assessment. It was observed that the survival rate of zebrafish embryo decreased as the concentration of test extract increased for all samples of M. charantia. The LC50 values of hot aqueous Chinese M. charantia, hot aqueous Indian M. charantia, and cold aqueous Chinese M. charantia were 144.54 μg/ml, 199.53 μg/ml, and 251.19 μg/ml, respectively. However, cold aqueous Indian M. charantia has a higher LC50 which was not in the range of the tested concentration. Hatchability of Danio rerio embryo reduced as the concentration of M. charantia extract increased while no hatching was observed in the highest concentration (1000 μg/ml). Scoliosis of zebrafish larvae was only seen in higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) of extract. The heartbeat of zebrafish larvae treated with M. charantia extract was within the normal range, 120-180 bpm, but at higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) the heartbeat differed for all samples of test extract. Hence, although this plant extract was safe to be consumed due to its pharmaceutical effect, it still exhibited mild toxicity effect at higher concentration when it was evaluated on zebrafish embryo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  13. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 20166099 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007845.pub2
    Background: Momordica charantia is not only a nutritious vegetable, but is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control.

    Objectives: To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Search strategy: Several electronic databases were searched, among these The Cochrane Library (issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to November 2009), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.

    Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials that compared momordica charantia with a placebo or a control intervention with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions were included.

    Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently extracted the data. Risk of bias of trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice).

    Main results: Three randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 350 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only one study was published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effect of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plants and placebo on the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference compared to placebo. The effects of preparation from the leaves of the plant and glibenclamide were comparable in the third trial. No serious adverse effects were reported in all the trials. There were no documentations of death from any cause, morbidity, (health-related) quality of life and costs.

    Authors' conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to recommend momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are therefore required to address the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. For medical nutritional therapy, further observational trials evaluating the effects of momordica charantia are needed before RCTs are established to guide any recommendations in clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia*
  14. Teoh SL, Latiff AA, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2009;160(4):283-6.
    PMID: 19795081
    Diabetic liver is associated with biochemical, physiological and pathological changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological changes following administration of Momordica charantia (MC) in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia*
  15. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 22895968 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007845.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is not only a nutritious vegetable but it is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    SEARCH METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice).

    MAIN RESULTS: Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence on the effects of momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are therefore required to address the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. For medical nutritional therapy, further observational trials evaluating the effects of momordica charantia are needed before RCTs are established to guide any recommendations in clinical practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia/chemistry*
  16. Khalivulla SI, Mohammed A, Mallikarjuna K
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(6):775-788.
    PMID: 33355047 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201222154159
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting a large population worldwide and stands as one of the major global health challenges to be tackled. According to World Health Organization, about 400 million are having diabetes worldwide and it is the seventh leading cause of deaths in 2016. Plant-based natural products have been in use from ancient times as ethnomedicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. As a result of that, there are several reports on plant-based natural products displaying antidiabetic activity. In the current review, such antidiabetic potential compounds reported from all plant sources along with their chemical structures are collected, presented and discussed. These kinds of reports are essential to pool the available information to one source, followed by statistical analysis and screening to check the efficacy of all known compounds in a comparative sense. This kind of analysis can give rise to a few potential compounds from hundreds, which can further be screened through in vitro and in vivo studies, and human trails leading to the drug development.

    METHODS: Phytochemicals, along with their potential antidiabetic property, were classified according to their basic chemical skeleton. The chemical structures of all the compounds with antidiabetic activities were elucidated in the present review. In addition to this, the distribution and their other remarkable pharmacological activities of each species are also included.

    RESULTS: The scrutiny of literature led to the identification of 44 plants with antidiabetic compounds (70) and other pharmacological activities. For the sake of information, the distribution of each species in the world is given. Many plant derivatives may exert anti-diabetic properties by improving or mimicking insulin production or action. Different classes of compounds including sulfur compounds (1-4), alkaloids (5-11), phenolic compounds (12-17), tannins (18-23), phenylpropanoids (24-27), xanthanoids (28-31), amino acid (32), stilbenoid (33), benzofuran (34), coumarin (35), flavonoids (36-49) and terpenoids (50-70) were found to be potential active compounds for antidiabetic activity. Of the 70 listed compounds, majorly 17 compounds are obtained from triterpenoids, 13 from flavonoids and 7 from alkaloids. Among all the 44 plant species, the maximum number (7) of compounds were isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa followed by Momordica charantia (6) and S. oblonga with 5 compounds.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first paper to summarize the established chemical structures of phytochemicals that have been successfully screened for antidiabetic potential and their mechanisms of inhibition. The reported compounds could be considered as potential lead molecules for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Further, molecular and clinical trials are required to select and establish therapeutic drug candidates.

    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia*
  17. Mazlan FA, Annuar MS, Sharifuddin Y
    PeerJ, 2015;3:e1376.
    PMID: 26539336 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1376
    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  18. Tan HF, Gan CY
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Apr;85:487-96.
    PMID: 26778156 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.01.023
    Functional polysaccharide was isolated from Momordica charantia, with a yield of 36% (w/w). M. charantia bioactive polysaccharide (MCBP) was an acidic and branched heteropolysaccharide with a molecular weight of 92 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis indicated that MCBP was a pectin-like polysaccharide with an esterification degree of 53% and it contains numerous monosaccharides, predominantly glucose, galactose, and galaturonic acid. The results also showed that MCBP exhibited free radical scavenging activity (31.9%), ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.95 mM), α-amylase inhibition (89.1%), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (94.1%). In the terms of functionality, MCBP showed a lower water-holding capacity but higher in oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming capacity compared to citrus pectin. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated that MCBP formed gels with a porous structure, and flow analysis showed that the gel solution exhibited pseudoplastic shear-thinning behavior. These findings indicated that MCBP is a promising functional macromolecular carbohydrate for the food and nutraceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  19. Yeap, S.K., Beh, B.K., Liang, W.S., Ho, W.Y., Yousr, A.N., Alitheen, N.B.
    MyJurnal
    The spray-dried Vernonia amygdalina water extract was evaluated for antidiabetic effect using normoglycaemic, glucose induced hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. This effect was compared with an oral dose of Momordica charantia. Besides, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated at concentration 2000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The extract was able to reduce blood glucose level in glucose and streptozotocin induced hyperglycaemic mice without causing hypoglycemic effect on fasting normoglycaemic mice. Moreover, mice appeared to be normal and no mortality was observed in the acute toxicity study after treated with up to 5000mg/kg of extract. These results indicated that the spray-dried Vernonia amygdalina water extract was a potential antidiabetic agent which does not induce hypoglycemic and acute toxicity on normal subject.
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
  20. Bong WC, Savage G
    Food Sci Nutr, 2018 Nov;6(8):2015-2019.
    PMID: 30510702 DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.706
    The total, soluble, and insoluble oxalate contents of fresh and wok-fried bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) fruits were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Frozen bitter gourds were imported from Vietnam, and two cultivars characteristic of bitter gourd fruits grown in India and Malaysia were grown locally in the North Island of New Zealand. The mean total oxalate contents of ripe fruits from Vietnam, India, and Malaysia were 85.90 ± 8.60 mg/100 g wet matter (WM), while the mean total oxalates fell to 88.06 ± 0.95 mg/100 g FM when the fruits were wok-fried. The mean soluble oxalate content of the total oxalate was 54.42% of the ripe fruits and 58.14% of the wok-fried fruits. The three cultivars of bitter gourds were processed into juice by the addition of standard ingredients and then processed through a screw press to remove excess fiber. The final juices had an overall mean value of 27.11 mg of total oxalates/100 g WM; the mean soluble oxalate content was 85.5% of the total, which was much higher than that measured in the cooked gourds (mean 70.7%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Momordica charantia
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