Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 68 in total

  1. Tee ES
    Malays J Nutr, 1999 Dec;5(1):87-109.
    PMID: 22692361 MyJurnal
    Rapid and marked socioeconomic advancements in Malaysia for the past two decades have brought about significant changes in the lifestyles of communities. These include significant changes in the dietary patterns of Malaysians, eg the increase in consumption of fats and oils and refined carbohydrates and a decreased intake of complex carbohydrates. This resulted in a decline in the proportion of energy from carbohydrates, while an increase in the percentage contribution of fat has been observed. Changes in meal patterns are also evident: more families eat out, busy executives skip meals, the younger generation miss breakfasts and rely too much on fast foods. Many Malaysians have the mistaken belief that the taking of vitamin and mineral supplements can make up for the lack of these nutrients in their daily diets. In addition, communities have become generally more sedentary. All these changes have brought about undesirable effects with significant proportions of the affluent segments of the population being afflicted with various non-communicable diseases associated with overnutrition, namely obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease and cancers. Nutrition activities and programmes are now being directed to tackle this increasing trend, whilst still attempting to eliminate the undernutrition problems. The ultimate strategy towards achieving a healthy nation is the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, including inculcating a culture of healthy eating. Comprehensive long term programmes, including a series of Healthy Lifestyle (HLS) Programmes have been carried out by the government. Launched in 1991 for six consecutive years, the first phase of the Programme comprised one thematic campaign each year, commencing with coronary heart disease and ending with diabetes mellitus. To further strengthen this long-term strategy, another series of activities to be carried out under the second phase of the HLS programme from 1997 to 2002 was launched within the framework of the National Plan of Action on Nutrition (NPAN) for Malaysia. The implementation of these programmes is, however, a challenge to health and nutrition workers. There is a need to examine the strategies for nutrition education to ensure more effective dissemination of information. The challenge is to determine how best to promote healthy eating within the present scenerio of rapid urbanisation, "western" dietary pattern influence, a whole barrage of convenience and "health" foods and nutrition misinformation. Malaysia continues to march ahead with its development plans to elevate the nation and its people to an even higher level of socio-economic status. The crucial question is: are we able to arrest the increase in these diet-related chronic diseases ? Or are we heading towards further deterioration in dietary pattern and increase in these diseases ? It will be a difficult and challenging journey ahead, requiring the concerted effort of all in the country. It is hoped that through this conference of sharing experiences with other Asian countries, a better understanding and improved strategies could be arrived at.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy
  2. Binns CW, Lee MK, Kagawa M, Low WY, Liqian Q, Guldan GS, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2017 Mar;29(2):98-101.
    PMID: 28325079 DOI: 10.1177/1010539517694295
    Nutrition is a major determinant of health throughout all stages of life and together with smoking is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the Asia Pacific Region. The workshop participants examined Dietary Guidelines and Food Guides that are in use in our region, together with additional materials from the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the World Cancer Research Foundation. The resulting set of guidelines is meant as a reminder of the main issues to be covered in a general public health education program. It may also be of value in reminding public health practitioners, educators, administrators, and policy makers of current nutrition issues. It may additionally be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs and regulations. The main areas of nutrition that are included in the Guidelines are eating a variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, and nuts. Choose fish, poultry, and meats grown in a sustainable way. Appropriate growth, including avoiding obesity, and physical activity are important. Breastfeeding is the basis of infant nutrition and nutrition of mothers is an important public health measure. Negative factors in the Asian diet include salt, refined sugar, alcohol and fats. The APACPH Dietary Guidelines will need to be kept under review and modified to meet regional differences in food supply. The Guidelines will be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs, addressing both acute and chronic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  3. Binns CW, Lee MK, Maycock B, Torheim LE, Nanishi K, Duong DTT
    Annu Rev Public Health, 2021 04 01;42:233-255.
    PMID: 33497266 DOI: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-012420-105044
    Food production is affected by climate change, and, in turn, food production is responsible for 20-30% of greenhouse gases. The food system must increase output as the population increases and must meet nutrition and health needs while simultaneously assisting in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Good nutrition is important for combatting infection, reducing child mortality, and controlling obesity and chronic disease throughout the life course. Dietary guidelines provide advice for a healthy diet, and the main principles are now well established and compatible with sustainable development. Climate change will have a significant effect on food supply; however, with political commitment and substantial investment, projected improvements will be sufficient to provide food for the healthy diets needed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Some changes will need to be made to food production, nutrient content will need monitoring, and more equitable distribution is required to meet the dietary guidelines. Increased breastfeeding rates will improve infant and adult health while helping to reduce greenhouse gases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  4. Chandrasekharan N
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Sep;54(3):408-27; quiz 428.
    PMID: 11045075
    Fat remains a hot topic because of concerns over associations between consumption of fats and the incidence of some chronic conditions including coronary artery disease, diabetes, cancer and obesity. Dietary fats serve multiple purposes. The effects of dietary fats generally reflect the collective influences of multiple fatty acids in the diet or food. This presentation highlights some recent developments on the role of dietary fats and oils in health and disease. Debate continues over the role of dietary modification in coronary prevention by lipid lowering. The degree to which a recommended diet will result in health benefits for an individual is difficult to predict, because the outcome will depend on the influence of other factors such as a person's genetic constitution, level of physical activity and total diet composition. There can now be little doubt about the importance of genetic factors in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and cancer. The importance of antioxidant status in the prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as many cancers is being increasingly recognised. It is now evident that not all saturated fatty acids are equally cholesterolemic. Recent accounts evaluating palm oil's effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins suggest that diets incorporating palm oil as the major dietary fat do not raise plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels to the extent expected from its fatty acid composition. Palm oil is endowed with a good mixture of natural antioxidants and together with its balanced composition of the different classes of fatty acids, makes it a safe, stable and versatile edible oil with many positive health and nutritional attributes. In recent times, adverse health concerns from the consumption of trans fatty acids arising from hydrogenation of oils and fats have been the subject of much discussion and controversy. Trans fatty acids when compared with cis fatty acids or unhydrogenated fats have been shown to lower serum HDL cholesterol, raise serum LDL cholesterol and when substituted for saturated fatty acids, increase lipoprotein Lp (a) level, an independent risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. The idea of which foods, nutrients and supplements are "healthy" is often being amended as new scientific data is presented and then simplified for the consumers. What was once perceived as a healthy diet is often no longer considered as such and vice versa. Dietary recommendations have to change with time and the evidence available. Nutritional recommendations should encourage eating a great variety of nutrient sources within our food supply in moderation. Various lifestyle options to improve health should also be promoted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy/trends*
  5. Shahar S, Jan Bin Jan Mohamed H, de Los Reyes F, Amarra MS
    Nutrients, 2018 Oct 28;10(11).
    PMID: 30373303 DOI: 10.3390/nu10111584
    The present study examined the best available evidence regarding energy and macronutrient intake during adulthood (age 19 to 59 years) in Malaysia and assessed whether intakes adhere to national recommendations, in order to develop recommendations for dietary improvement based on population consumption patterns. A literature review and meta-analysis evaluated intake based on the following characteristics, using information from food balance sheets, national surveys, and individual studies: (1) levels of intake, (2) proportion of the population whose diets adhere to/exceed/fail to meet Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) levels, and (3) sources of macronutrients observed in these studies. Food balance data suggested high levels of available energy, animal source protein, vegetable fat, and refined carbohydrates. Twenty studies (five nationwide, 15 individual) indicated that Malaysian adults generally met or exceeded recommendations for fat and protein, but were inconsistent with respect to energy and carbohydrates. Information on dietary sources was limited. Due to methodological limitations, insufficient evidence exists regarding energy and macronutrient intakes of Malaysian adults. Improved dietary assessment methods (including use of biomarkers), better data analysis, and updated food composition data, will provide more reliable information on which to base policy decisions and recommendations for improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  6. Vandevijvere S, Barquera S, Caceres G, Corvalan C, Karupaiah T, Kroker-Lobos MF, et al.
    Obes Rev, 2019 11;20 Suppl 2:57-66.
    PMID: 30609260 DOI: 10.1111/obr.12819
    The Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) aims to assess the extent of implementation of recommended food environment policies by governments compared with international best practices and prioritize actions to fill implementation gaps. The Food-EPI was applied in 11 countries across six regions (2015-2018). National public health nutrition panels (n = 11-101 experts) rated the extent of implementation of 47 policy and infrastructure support good practice indicators by their government(s) against best practices, using an evidence document verified by government officials. Experts identified and prioritized actions to address implementation gaps. The proportion of indicators at "very low if any," "low," "medium," and "high" implementation, overall Food-EPI scores, and priority action areas were compared across countries. Inter-rater reliability was good (GwetAC2 = 0.6-0.8). Chile had the highest proportion of policies (13%) rated at "high" implementation, while Guatemala had the highest proportion of policies (83%) rated at "very low if any" implementation. The overall Food-EPI score was "medium" for Australia, England, Chile, and Singapore, while "very low if any" for Guatemala. Policy areas most frequently prioritized included taxes on unhealthy foods, restricting unhealthy food promotion and front-of-pack labelling. The Food-EPI was found to be a robust tool and process to benchmark governments' progress to create healthy food environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  7. Tee ES
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(3):455-61.
    PMID: 21859667
    Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is disseminated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, educational press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  8. Koo HC, Poh BK, Lee ST, Chong KH, Bragt MC, Abd Talib R, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016 07;28(5 Suppl):8S-20S.
    PMID: 27073200 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516641504
    A large body of epidemiological data has demonstrated that diet quality follows a sociodemographic gradient. Little is known, however, about food group intake patterns among Malaysian children. This study aimed to assess consumption pattern of 7 food groups, including cereals/grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, fish, meat/poultry, and milk/dairy products, among children 7 to 12 years of age. A total of 1773 children who participated in SEANUTS Malaysia and who completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire were included in this study. A greater proportion of children aged 10 to 12 years have an inadequate intake of cereals/grains, meat/poultry, legumes, and milk/dairy products compared with children 7 to 9 years old. With the exception of meat/poultry, food consumption of Malaysian children did not meet Malaysian Dietary Guidelines recommendations for the other 6 food groups, irrespective of sociodemographic backgrounds. Efforts are needed to promote healthy and balanced dietary habits, particularly for foods that fall short of recommended intake level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  9. Sacks G, Vanderlee L, Robinson E, Vandevijvere S, Cameron AJ, Ni Mhurchu C, et al.
    Obes Rev, 2019 11;20 Suppl 2:78-89.
    PMID: 31317645 DOI: 10.1111/obr.12878
    Addressing obesity and improving the diets of populations requires a comprehensive societal response. The need for broad-based action has led to a focus on accountability of the key factors that influence food environments, including the food and beverage industry. This paper describes the Business Impact Assessment-Obesity and population-level nutrition (BIA-Obesity) tool and process for benchmarking food and beverage company policies and practices related to obesity and population-level nutrition at the national level. The methods for BIA-Obesity draw largely from relevant components of the Access to Nutrition Index (ATNI), with specific assessment criteria developed for food and nonalcoholic beverage manufacturers, supermarkets, and chain restaurants, based on international recommendations and evidence of best practices related to each sector. The process for implementing the BIA-Obesity tool involves independent civil society organisations selecting the most prominent food and beverage companies in each country, engaging with the companies to understand their policies and practices, and assessing each company's policies and practices across six domains. The domains include: "corporate strategy," "product formulation," "nutrition labelling," "product and brand promotion," "product accessibility," and "relationships with other organisations." Assessment of company policies is based on their level of transparency, comprehensiveness, and specificity, with reference to best practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  10. Tee ES
    Biomed Environ Sci, 2001 Jun;14(1-2):87-91.
    PMID: 11594485
    A workshop on National Plans of Action for Nutrition: Constraints, Key Elements for Success, and Future Plans was convened and organized by the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific in collaboration with the Institute for Medical Research Malaysia and co-sponsored with FAO and UNICEF from 25-29 October 1999. It was attended by representatives of 25 countries in the region and resource persons, representatives from WHO and other international agencies. The objectives of the workshop were to review the progress of countries in developing, implementing and monitoring national plans of action for nutrition (NPANs) in the Western Pacific Region and to identify constraints and key elements of success in these efforts. Most of the countries have NPANs, either approved and implemented or awaiting official endorsement. The Plan formulation is usually multisectotal, involving several government ministries, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies. Often official adoption or endorsement of the Plan comes from the head of state and cabinet or the minister of health, one to six years from the start of its formulation. The NPAN has stimulated support for the development and implementation of nutrition projects and activities, with comparatively greater involvement of and more support from government ministries, UN agencies and non-governmental agencies compared to local communities, bilateral and private sectors and research and academic institutions. Monitoring and evaluation are important components of NPANs. They are, however, not given high priority and often not built into the plan. The role of an intersectoral coordinating body is considered crucial to a country's nutrition program. Most countries have an intersectoral structure or coordinating body to ensure the proper implementation, monitoring and evaluation of their NPANs. The workshop identified the constraints and key elements of success in each of the four stages of the NPAN process: development, operationalization, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Constraints to the NPAN process relate to the political and socioeconomic environment, resource scarcity, control and management processes, and factors related to sustainability. The group's review of NPAN identified successful NPANs as those based on recent, adequate and good quality information on the nutritional situation of the country, and on the selection of strategies, priorities and interventions that are relevant to the country and backed up by adequate resources. Continued high level political commitment, a multisectoral approach, and adequate participation of local communities are other key elements for success. The participants agreed on future actions and support needed from various sources for the further development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of their NPANs. The recommendations for future actions were categorized into actions pertaining to countries with working NPAN, actions for countries without working NPAN and actions relevant to all countries. There was also a set of suggested actions at the regional level, such as holding of regular regional NPAN evaluation meetings, inclusion of NPAN on the agenda of regional fora by the regional organizations, and strengthening of regional nutrition networks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  11. MyJurnal
    This paper is interested in exploring the interrelatedness of some accompanying policy changes and
    initiatives in the selected Asian countries as well as reviewing the Malaysian National Food Security Policy. Actions taken in response to the food crisis in the selected Asian countries have worked out well and produced promising outcomes from a combination of availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability aspects in food security. Malaysia weighted more on availability aspect in food security by introducing more short- and longterm policy measures for boosting paddy and rice production, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak under the National Food Security Policy. However, much of the unhappiness and disequilibrium in the local paddy and rice market were created due to irrational extensive intervention of the Miller Subsidy and Beras Nasional programmes in the nation. Many of the policy measures targeted at area expansion and productivity but it was suggested that the dominant path to achieve the targeted self-sufficiency level is through research and development at specialized and committed paddy and rice research centre. Trade oriented self-reliance approach that strategized with multiple and diversified sources of rice import was tipped to be superior of current selfsufficiency approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy
  12. Awin N
    Malays J Nutr, 2002 Mar;8(1):99-107.
    PMID: 22692442 MyJurnal
    Public Health emphasizes the plurality of the determinants of health of individuals, families and communities. Nutrition, as a major determinant of health, is itself influenced by a multitude of determinants that are under the purview of several agencies. Thus, inter-sectoral collaboration among the relevant agencies is imperative for promoting optimal health and nutrition such a partnership is manifested in the development and implementation of the National Plan of Nutrition (NPAN) of Malaysia pursuant to the International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) held in 1992. While the overall coordination of NPAN is at the Family Development Division in the Ministry of Health, the body that sees to the coordination is again a multi-agency group in the form of the National Coordinating Committee for Food and Nutrition (NCCFN). The NCCFN has representation for the nine thrust areas of NPAN that cut across various sectors including health, agriculture, education, community development and economic planning. Capacity building is a central strategy in the NPAN through the creation of positions and special budgetary allocations, and the implementation of activities including research, training, development of dietary guidelines and the National Nutrition Policy. This policy will be a major driving force for strengthening and building of capacity for nutrition-related activities, and more importantly it will facilitate a coordinated and coherent approach to capacity building, including sharing of resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy
  13. Ng S, Sacks G, Kelly B, Yeatman H, Robinson E, Swinburn B, et al.
    Global Health, 2020 04 17;16(1):35.
    PMID: 32303243 DOI: 10.1186/s12992-020-00560-9
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the commitments of food companies in Malaysia to improving population nutrition using the Business Impact Assessment on population nutrition and obesity (BIA-Obesity) tool and process, and proposing recommendations for industry action in line with government priorities and international norms.

    METHODS: BIA-Obesity good practice indicators for food industry commitments across a range of domains (n = 6) were adapted to the Malaysian context. Euromonitor market share data was used to identify major food and non-alcoholic beverage manufacturers (n = 22), quick service restaurants (5), and retailers (6) for inclusion in the assessment. Evidence of commitments, including from national and international entities, were compiled from publicly available information for each company published between 2014 and 2017. Companies were invited to review their gathered evidence and provide further information wherever available. A qualified Expert Panel (≥5 members for each domain) assessed commitments and disclosures collected against the BIA-Obesity scoring criteria. Weighted scores across domains were added and the derived percentage was used to rank companies. A Review Panel, comprising of the Expert Panel and additional government officials (n = 13), then formulated recommendations.

    RESULTS: Of the 33 selected companies, 6 participating companies agreed to provide more information. The median overall BIA-Obesity score was 11% across food industry sectors with only 8/33 companies achieving a score of > 25%. Participating (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy/legislation & jurisprudence*; Nutrition Policy/trends
  14. Fisinin VI, Papazyan TT, Surai PF
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2009;29(1):18-28.
    PMID: 19514900 DOI: 10.1080/07388550802658030
    The role of selenium (Se) in human health and diseases has been discussed in detail in several recent reviews, with the main conclusion being that selenium deficiency is recognised as a global problem which urgently needs resolution. Since selenium content in plant-based food depends on its availability from soil, the level of this element in food and feeds varies among regions. In general, eggs and meat are considered to be good sources of selenium in human diet. When considering ways to improve human selenium intake, there are several potential options. These include direct supplementation, soil fertilisation and supplementation of food staples such as flour, and production of functional foods. Analysing recent publications related to functional food production, it is evident that selenium-enriched eggs can be used as an important delivery system of this trace mineral for humans. In particular, developments and commercialisation of organic forms of selenium have initiated a new era in the availability of selenium-enriched products. It has been shown that egg selenium content can easily be manipulated to give increased levels, especially when organic selenium is included in hens' diet at levels that provide 0.3-0.5 mg/kg selenium in the feed. As a result, technology for the production of eggs delivering approximately 50% (30-35 microg) of the human selenium RDA have been developed and successfully tested. Currently companies all over the world market selenium-enriched eggs including the UK, Ireland, Mexico, Columbia, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia, Turkey, Russia and the Ukraine. Prices for enriched eggs vary from country to country, typically being similar to free-range eggs. Selenium-enriched chicken, pork and beef can also be produced when using organic selenium in the diet of poultry and farm animals. The scientific, technological and other advantages and limitations of producing designer/modified eggs as functional foods are discussed in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy
  15. Vlassopoulos A, Masset G, Charles VR, Hoover C, Chesneau-Guillemont C, Leroy F, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Apr;56(3):1105-1122.
    PMID: 26879847 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1161-9
    PURPOSE: To describe the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) developed to guide the reformulation of Nestlé products, and the results of its application in the USA and France.

    DESIGN: The NNPS is a category-specific system that calculates nutrient targets per serving as consumed, based on age-adjusted dietary guidelines. Products are aggregated into 32 food categories. The NNPS ensures that excessive amounts of nutrients to limit cannot be compensated for by adding nutrients to encourage. A study was conducted to measure changes in nutrient profiles of the most widely purchased Nestlé products from eight food categories (n = 99) in the USA and France. A comparison was made between the 2009-2010 and 2014-2015 products.

    RESULTS: The application of the NNPS between 2009-2010 and 2014-2015 was associated with an overall downwards trend for all nutrients to limit. Sodium and total sugars contents were reduced by up to 22 and 31 %, respectively. Saturated Fatty Acids and total fat reductions were less homogeneous across categories, with children products having larger reductions. Energy per serving was reduced by <10 % in most categories, while serving sizes remained unchanged.

    CONCLUSIONS: The NNPS sets feasible and yet challenging targets for public health-oriented reformulation of a varied product portfolio; its application was associated with improved nutrient density in eight major food categories in the USA and France. Confirmatory analyses are needed in other countries and food categories; the impact of such a large-scale reformulation on dietary intake and health remains to be investigated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy
  16. Amin Faiz Nohan, Siti Nur ‘Asyura Adznam, Rosita Jamaluddin, Camilla Wahida Norazman
    Introduction: Diet quality is an essential factor in determining the adherence towards dietary guidelines. This study aims to assess the diet quality among community-dwelling older adults and identify the factors associated with the diet quality. Method: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted among 138 community-dwelling older adults living in PPR flats, Kuala Lumpur. Subjects were randomly recruited in this study. Diet Quality Index (DQI) was used to identify diet quality index of elderly. The Chi-square Test of Independence and Pearson’s correlation test were used to determine the association between tested covariates with DQI. Results: Majority of the respondents were report- ed with good diet quality (74.6%), whereas quarter of them (25.6%) had poor diet quality. Significant difference between the diet quality and the adherence on the food groups were observed for all food groups (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy
  17. Fontas M, Poulain JP, Souquet PJ, Laville M, Giboreau A, Bensafi M, et al.
    Bull Cancer, 2014 Mar;101(3):258-65.
    PMID: 24691190 DOI: 10.1684/bdc.2014.1905
    The diet of the cancer patient is a major focus of prevention and treatment strategy of the recent plans that fight against cancer. It is sometimes reduced to a rapid series of more or less general advice, often interfered by other sources of information, more or less conventional. In this pathological situation where the nutritional status of the patient is paramount, it seems crucial to understand the different modalities of how the food behavior is implemented. This article describes the construction modalities of the cancer eater decisions. The goal of the socio-anthropological analysis proposed in this article is to initiate a reflection on the under nutrition problem by focusing on the approach of the eater diagnosed with cancer. The aim is to help identify ways of action to fight against under nutrition and improve the quality of life of the patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  18. Chen LW, Low YL, Fok D, Han WM, Chong YS, Gluckman P, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2014 Sep;17(9):1930-8.
    PMID: 23806144 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980013001730
    OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in food consumption during pregnancy and the postpartum period in women of major Asian ethnic groups.

    DESIGN: Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed changes in food consumption during pregnancy (26-28 weeks' gestation) and the postpartum period (3 weeks after delivery) as compared with the usual pre-pregnancy diet.

    SETTING: Singapore.

    SUBJECTS: Pregnant women (n 1027) of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity (mean age 30·4 (SD 5·2) years) who participated in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study.

    RESULTS: During pregnancy, participants tended to increase their consumption of milk, fruit and vegetables and decrease their consumption of tea, coffee, soft drinks and seafood (all P < 0·001). Most participants reported adherence to traditional restrictions ('confinement') during the early postpartum period (Chinese: 94·8 %, Malay: 91·6 %, Indian: 79·6 %). During the postpartum period, participants tended to increase their consumption of fish and milk-based drinks and decrease their consumption of noodles, seafood, and chocolates and sweets (all P < 0·001). Ethnic differences in food consumption were pronounced during the postpartum period. For example, most Chinese participants (87·2 %) increased their ginger consumption during the postpartum period as compared with smaller percentages of Malays (31·8 %) and Indians (40·8 %; P for ethnic difference <0·001). Similar ethnic differences were observed for cooking wine/alcohol, herbs and spices, and herbal tea consumption.

    CONCLUSIONS: Marked changes in food consumption that reflect both modern dietary recommendations and the persistence of traditional beliefs were observed in Singaporean women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Traditional beliefs should be considered in interventions to improve dietary intakes during these periods.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
  19. Sokol E, Clark D, Aguayo VM
    Food Nutr Bull, 2008 Sep;29(3):159-62.
    PMID: 18947028
    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes out of concern that inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes was contributing to the alarming decline in breastfeeding worldwide and the increase in child malnutrition and mortality, particularly in developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy/legislation & jurisprudence*
  20. Ng S, Swinburn B, Kelly B, Vandevijvere S, Yeatman H, Ismail MN, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 12;21(18):3395-3406.
    PMID: 30277185 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018002379
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of food environment policies that have been implemented and supported by the Malaysian Government, in comparison to international best practice, and to establish prioritised recommendations for the government based on the identified implementation gaps.

    DESIGN: The Healthy Food-Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) comprises forty-seven indicators of government policy practice. Local evidence of each indicator was compiled from government institutions and verified by related government stakeholders. The extent of implementation of the policies was rated by experts against international best practices. Rating results were used to identify and propose policy actions which were subsequently prioritised by the experts based on 'importance' and 'achievability' criteria. The policy actions with relatively higher 'achievability' and 'importance' were set as priority recommendations for government action.

    SETTING: Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Twenty-six local experts.

    RESULTS: Majority (62 %) of indicators was rated 'low' implementation with no indicator rated as either 'high' or 'very little, if any' in terms of implementation. The top five recommendations were (i) restrict unhealthy food marketing in children's settings and (ii) on broadcast media; (iii) mandatory nutrition labelling for added sugars; (iv) designation of priority research areas related to obesity prevention and diet-related non-communicable diseases; and (v) introduce energy labelling on menu boards for fast-food outlets.

    CONCLUSIONS: This first policy study conducted in Malaysia identified a number of gaps in implementation of key policies to promote healthy food environments, compared with international best practices. Study findings could strengthen civil society advocacies for government accountability to create a healthier food environment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nutrition Policy*
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