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  1. Mulimani PS
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2017 Jul;152(1):1-8.
    PMID: 28651753 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.03.020
    Organized evidence-based practice is said to have started in the medical field in the late 20th century. Its principles and usage eventually spread to other health sciences, including orthodontics. Although the conceptual foundations and basic tenets of evidence-based orthodontics are based on the classical approach of testing medical interventions, differences unravel as we encounter the ground realities in orthodontics, which are unique due to the length, complexity, and diversity involved in orthodontic treatment and research. How has this led to the evolution of evidence-based orthodontics and changes in its applications? Is it being translated to better clinical answers, treatment strategies, patient satisfaction, and information for orthodontists? What more needs to be done, considering the rapidly changing orthodontic scenario? This article aims to explore these questions to evaluate how evidence-based orthodontics has played itself out so far, so that it can continue to grow strong and stand up to the challenges of 21st century orthodontics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics/methods; Orthodontics/standards*
  2. Wan Nurazreena WH, Rashidah B., Mohd Zambri M.M., Maria J.G.
    Ann Dent, 2018;25(1):0-0.
    MyJurnal
    To determine the number of cases that are at risk of poor stability in terms of arch width changes following fixed appliances treatment at the Orthodontic Unit, Klinik Pergigian Cahaya Suria, Kuala Lumpur. In a retrospective audit, 101 pre- and post-treatment lower study casts were selected from cases completed in the year 2015 at the Orthodontic Unit, Klinik Pergigian Cahaya Suria, Kuala Lumpur. Samples were measured using a universal caliper by a single calibrated operator. Samples was categorised as extraction or non-extraction types. Arch width changes was determined using paired T-test. The recommended limit was 0mm for inter-canine width, 2 mm for inter-first premolar width and 3mm for inter-second premolar and inter-molar width. Differences were considered “within limits”, if the changes were within the recommended limit ±0.25mm (for possible marginal measurement error) and “expanded”, if above the range for within limits. 42.6% were non-extraction while 57.4% were extraction cases. In the non-extraction group, 52.2% cases had expanded inter-canine widths, followed by inter-first and second premolars (27.9%) and interfirst molar (20.9%) widths. Arch width changes for the inter-first and second premolars and inter-molars widths were statistically significantly different (p<0.05) but bot clinically significant. In the extraction group, 67.2% had expanded inter-canine widths, followed by inter-first premolar (64.3%), inter-second premolar (9.1%) and inter-first molar (5.2%) widths. The inter-canine (M=1.43; SD=2.71, p<0.05) and inter-first premolar (M=2.87; SD=2.61, p<0.05) widths statistically and clinically significant expansion but the inter-second premolar and molar were significantly contracted (p<0.05). The number of cases with expanded arch widths was high regardless of the extraction type.
    Keywords: Arch width expansion, stability
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics
  3. Zainal Ariffin SH, Yamamoto Z, Zainol Abidin IZ, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Zainal Ariffin Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2011;11:1788-803.
    PMID: 22125437 DOI: 10.1100/2011/761768
    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts), tension region (involving osteoclasts), dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption), inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics*
  4. Chong JA, Mohamed AMFS, Pau A
    J Oral Biosci, 2020 09;62(3):249-259.
    PMID: 32619633 DOI: 10.1016/j.job.2020.06.003
    BACKGROUND: Palatal rugae are asymmetric ridges of connective tissue located behind the incisive papilla over the anterior hard palate. They serve as stable superimposition landmarks to assess tooth movement in orthodontics and as identification aids in forensic odontology. However, the stability of palatal rugae remains controversial. This review aimed to describe the genetic, growth, and environmental factors that may influence the palatal rugae patterns. A broad search of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was conducted. A total of 193 articles were identified, of which 73 met the selection criteria. Data were extracted into a table that presented the details of the study, sample description, and changes in the palatal rugae patterns.

    HIGHLIGHT: There were conflicting results regarding sexual dimorphism and population characterization of the palatal rugae patterns. All rugae showed positional changes, increased lengths, and lower numbers, but no significant shape changes with growth. The lengths, numbers, and positions of the rugae were affected by orthodontic treatment, especially their lateral points, but their individual characteristics did not change.

    CONCLUSION: The diversity in rugae patterns and their potential for sex discrimination among different populations showed differing results due to individual variations and the complex influence of genetic, growth, and environmental factors on their morphology.

    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics*
  5. Abohabib AM, Fayed MM, Labib AH
    J Orthod, 2018 09;45(3):149-156.
    PMID: 29874972 DOI: 10.1080/14653125.2018.1481710
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-intensity laser therapy on mini-implant stability using resonance frequency analysis during canine retraction with fixed appliances.

    DESIGN: A split-mouth randomised clinical trial.

    SETTING: Subjects were recruited and treated in the outpatient clinic, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University.

    PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen subjects with mean age 20.9 (±3.4) years who required extraction of maxillary first premolar teeth and mini-implant-supported canine retraction.

    METHODS: Thirty orthodontic mini-implants were inserted bilaterally in the maxillary arches of recruited subjects following alignment and levelling. Mini-implants were immediately loaded with a force of 150 g using nickel titanium coil springs with split-mouth randomisation to a low-intensity laser-treated side and control side. The experimental sides were exposed to low-intensity laser therapy from a diode laser with a wavelength of 940 nm at (0, 7, 14, 21 days) after mini-implant placement. Mini-implant stability was measured using resonance frequency analysis at (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks) after implant placement.

    RESULTS: A total sample of 28 mini-implants were investigated with 14 in each group. Clinically, both mini-implant groups had the same overall success rate of 78.5%. There were no significant differences in resonance frequency scores between low-intensity laser and control sides from baseline to week 2. However, from week 3 to 10, the low-intensity laser sides showed significantly increased mean resonance frequency values compared to control (P > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence of some significant differences in resonance frequency between mini-implants exposed to low-intensity laser light over a 10 weeks period there were no differences in mini-implant stability. Low-intensity laser light cannot be recommended as a clinically useful adjunct to promoting mini-implant stability during canine retraction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics*; Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures*
  6. Purmal K, Alam MK, Sukumaran P
    Dent Res J (Isfahan), 2013 Jan;10(1):81-6.
    PMID: 23878568 DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.111805
    Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics
  7. Thirunavukkarasu VN, Ramachandra SS, Dicksit DD, Gundavarapu KC
    Contemp Clin Dent, 2016 Jan-Mar;7(1):41-4.
    PMID: 27041899 DOI: 10.4103/0976-237X.177092
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Various extraction protocols have been followed for successful orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extraction protocols in patients who had previously undergone orthodontic treatment and also who had reported for continuing orthodontic treatment from other clinics.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty eight patients who registered for orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry were divided into 10 extraction protocols based on the Orthodontic treatment protocol given by Janson et al. and were evaluated for statistical significance.
    RESULTS: The descriptive statistics of the study revealed a total of 40 (29%) patients in protocol 1, 43 (31.2%) in protocol 2, 18 (13%) in protocol 3, 16 (11.6%) in protocol 5, and 12 (8.7%) in Type 3 category of protocol 9. The Type 3 category in protocol 9 was statistically significant compared to other studies. Midline shift and collapse of the arch form were noticed in these individuals.
    CONCLUSION: Extraction of permanent teeth such as canine and lateral incisors without rational reasons could have devastating consequences on the entire occlusion. The percentage of cases wherein extraction of permanent teeth in the crowded region was adopted as a treatment option instead of orthodontic treatment is still prevalent in dental practice. The shortage of orthodontists in Malaysia, the long waiting period, and lack of subjective need for orthodontic treatment at an earlier age group were the reasons for the patient's to choose extraction of the mal-aligned teeth such as the maxillary canine or maxillary lateral incisors.
    KEYWORDS: Extraction protocol; Malaysia; irrational extraction; orthodontic treatment
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics, Corrective
  8. Yasny M
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1969 Oct;9(2):22-5.
    PMID: 5264314
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics, Corrective
  9. Alstadt WR
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1970 May;10(1):11-4.
    PMID: 5271010
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics
  10. Samson RS, Varghese E, Uma E, Chandrappa PR
    Contemp Clin Dent, 2018 3 31;9(1):10-14.
    PMID: 29599576 DOI: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_632_17
    Background: Fixed orthodontic retainers must be well retained on the tooth surfaces, allow physiologic movement of teeth and exert minimal forces on the teeth to be retained. Previous studies analyzed the bond strength and amount of deflection caused due to the debonding force but not the magnitude of force needed for unit deformation.

    Aims: This study aims to evaluate and compare the bond strength and load deflection rate (LDR) of three different fixed retainer wires.

    Materials and Methods: The wires were divided into three Groups: A - three-stranded twisted ligature wire, B - Bond-A-Braid (Reliance Orthodontics), and C - three-stranded twisted lingual retainer wire (3M Unitek). Twenty models were prepared for each group with a passive 15 mm long lingual retainer wire bonded to two lower incisors. An occlusogingival force was applied to the wire until it debonded. For LDR, three-point bending test was done at 0.5 mm deflection. These forces were measured using a Universal Instron Testing Machine.

    Statistical Analysis: Mean bond strength/LDR and pairwise comparisons were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's honest significant differencepost hoctest, respectively.

    Results: Group C exhibited the highest mean bond strength and LDR of 101.17N and 1.84N, respectively. The intergroup comparisons were all statistically significant.

    Conclusion: Compared to the other two wire types, Group C might be better retained on the teeth due to its higher bond strength. With its relatively higher LDR value, it may resist deformation from occlusal forces, thereby reducing inadvertent tooth movement and yet remain flexible enough to allow physiologic tooth movements.

    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics
  11. Naili Hayati Binti Abdul Mukti, Noviaranny, Indah Yuri, Venkiteswaran, Annapurny, Sarah Haniza Binti Abdul Ghani
    MyJurnal
    In this paper, we discussed the characteristic of bimaxillary protrusion in different population. We also incorporated about aetiology and management of bimaxillary protrusion. It is importance to understand the characteristics of skeletal and dental of bimaxillary protrusions in a specific population, in order to decide whether to treat by orthodontic camouflage only, or combination with orthognathic surgery and orthodontics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics
  12. Sinniah, Saraswathy D., Jones, Steven P., Georgiou, George, Cunningham, Susan J., Petrie, Aviva
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2016;3(1):17-24.
    MyJurnal
    used with bonded retainers. Setting: Department of Orthodontics, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, United Kingdom. Methods: Flowable composite resins (Transbond TM Supreme LV, StarFlowTM and Tetric EvoFlow®) and non -flowable control resin (TransbondTM LR) were made into cylinders prior to bonding to hydoxyapatite discs. They were then mounted into jigs and tested in the InstronTM Universal Testing Machine in both shear and tensile modes. Results: The highest mean shear bond strength was seen with StarFlow TM (14.09 MPa), which was significantly higher than both TransbondTM LR (9.48 MPa) and TransbondTM Supreme LV (8.20 MPa). The mean shear bond strength of Tetric EvoFlow® (11.86 MPa) was also significantly higher than TransbondTM Supreme LV. The highest mean tensile bond strength was seen with Tetric EvoFlow® (2.14 MPa), which was significantly higher than TransbondTM LR (1.15 MPa) and TransbondTM Supreme LV (0.61 MPa) but not significantly different to StarFlowTM (1.47 MPa). For shear loading, StarFlowTM had the highest 50th percentile survival estimate at 15.10 MPa, followed by Tetric EvoFlow® (13.00 MPa) and TransbondTM Supreme LV (7.50 MPa). TransbondTM LR had a 50th percentile estimate at 9.00 MPa. For tensile loading, Tetric EvoFlow® had the highest 50th percentile survival estimate at 2.50 MPa, followed by StarFlowTM (1.30 MPa) and TransbondTM Supreme LV (0.50 MPa). TransbondTM LR had a 50th percentile estimate at 1.00 MPa. Conclusions: Mean shear bond strengths for all of the resins were significantly higher than the mean tensile bond strengths. StarFlowTM and Tetric EvoFlow® could potentially be suitable clinical alternatives to TransbondTM LR due to its low viscosity flow characteristics and adequate shear and tensile bond strengths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics
  13. Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2007;28(1):32-33.
    MyJurnal
    Deviations from normal occlusion are known as malocclusion. Orthodontics treatment usually is the choice of management of irregularities and abnormalities of their relation to the surrounding structures i.e malocclusions. Patient or parent commonly seeks orthodontic treatment for aesthetic reasons rather than functional problems such as temporomandibular joint dysfunction. With greater demand for orthodontic treatment due to greater awareness of the people towards dental health, good orthodontic treatment outcome would be expected. Good orthodontic treatment outcome usually related to good clinical management of the patients. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics
  14. Khiang LS
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1967 Oct;7(2):25-31.
    PMID: 5247438
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics, Corrective
  15. Mohd Tahir N, Wan Hassan WN, Saub R
    Eur J Orthod, 2019 08 08;41(4):370-380.
    PMID: 30321319 DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjy063
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare vacuum-formed thermoplastic retainers (VFRs) constructed on stone models (VFR-CV) and those constructed on three-dimensional (3D) printed models (VFR-3D) based on patients' perspective and post-treatment stability.

    STUDY DESIGN: The research was designed as a crossover, randomized control trial.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects comprised patients receiving fixed appliances at a teaching institution and indicated for VFRs. Post-treatment stone models were scanned with a structured-light scanner. A fused deposition modelling machine was used to construct acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based replicas from the 3D scanned images. VFRs were fabricated on the original stone and printed models. Analysis comprised independent t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance.

    RANDOMIZATION: Subjects were allocated to two groups using Latin squares methods and simple randomization. A week after debond, subjects received either VFR-CV first (group A) or VFR-3D first (group B) for 3 months, then the interventions were crossed over for another 3 months.

    BLINDING: In this single-blinded study, subjects were assigned a blinding code for data entry; data were analysed by a third party.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measured was oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) based on Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Secondary outcome was post-treatment stability measured using Little's Irregularity Index (LII).

    RESULTS: A total of 30 subjects (15 in each group) were recruited but 3 dropped out. Analysis included 13 subjects from group A and 14 subjects from group B. Group A showed an increase in LII (P < 0.05) after wearing VFR-CV and VFR-3D, whereas group B had no significant increase in LII after wearing both VFRs. Both groups reported significant improvement in OHRQoL after the first intervention but no significant differences after the second intervention. LII changes and OHIP-14 scores at T2 and T3 between groups, and overall between the retainers were not significantly different. No harm was reported during the study.

    CONCLUSION: VFRs made on ABS-based 3D printed models showed no differences in terms of patients' OHRQoL and stability compared with conventionally made retainers.

    REGISTRATION: NCT02866617 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics, Corrective
  16. Sultana S, Hossain Z
    Dental Press J Orthod, 2019 Aug 01;24(3):44.e1-44.e9.
    PMID: 31390447 DOI: 10.1590/2177-6709.24.3.44.e1-9.onl
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of normative and perceived orthodontic treatment need in schoolchildren and adolescents, related risk factors, and children/parent's aesthetic perception, compared to orthodontist's opinion, in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    METHODS: A random sample of 800 schoolchildren aging 11-15 years was selected from different schools in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Dental Health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were assessed as normative treatment need. The Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index was used to record caries experience. Children were interviewed on the perception of orthodontic treatment need. Parents also completed a questionnaire on the perception of their child's orthodontic treatment need, assessed by AC/ IOTN.

    RESULTS: According to the DHC/IOTN, only 24.7% were in the category of definite need (grade 4-5) for orthodontic treatment. A significant difference was found between the clinician/children and clinician/parents perceived AC score of IOTN (p= 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression showed children with a higher DMFT were significantly more likely to need orthodontic treatment, according to the DHC of IOTN.

    CONCLUSION: A low proportion of schoolchildren needs normative orthodontic treatment in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Children with a higher DMFT score were significantly more likely to need orthodontic treatment, according to the DHC of IOTN.

    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics, Corrective
  17. Haque S, Alam MK, Arshad AI
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Jan-Feb;22(1):4-11.
    PMID: 25892945 MyJurnal
    In the contemporary era, the demand for orthodontic treatment is ever rising. Orthodontic treatment duration can range from a year to a few years. Our aim is to assess the available techniques of categorising treatment effectiveness in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and to study their effect on improvement of treatment outcomes. The electronic databases including Medline-PUBMED, Science Direct, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched from 1987 to 2013, and 40 311 relevant articles were found. Of these, we identified 22 articles including original articles as well as literature reviews. The different parameters and indices that are applied to speed-up orthodontic treatment outcomes in patients with CLP were identified as the GOSLON Yardstick, 5-year-old index, EUROCRAN index, Huddart Bodenham system, modified Huddart Bodenham system, GOAL Yardstick and, Bauru-Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Yardstick. This overview can create better awareness regarding the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of the different indices. It can enable better assessment and provide the impetus needed for a sustained upgrade in the standards of care for CLP in daily orthodontics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics
  18. Ellias MF, Zainal Ariffin SH, Karsani SA, Abdul Rahman M, Senafi S, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:647240.
    PMID: 22919344 DOI: 10.1100/2012/647240
    Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014'' Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 3-10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins-Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3-have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics*
  19. Wong ML, Che Fatimah Awang, Ng LK, Norlian D, Rashidah Dato Burhanudin, Gere MJ
    Singapore Dent J, 2004 Dec;26(1):10-4.
    PMID: 15736836
    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes and remove or suppress those that are unfavourable. Early interceptive orthodontics can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. It also improves self-esteem in the subjects and parental satisfaction. Early detection and appropriate referral of cases requiring interceptive orthodontics are important. However, lack of awareness among school children, parents and primary-care personnel (dental nurses and dental officers) may result in patients not being referred for timely interceptive intervention. This article presents a general view of the scope of interceptive orthodontics that can be carried out in early mixed dentition, i.e. when the permanent incisors and molars are erupting into the oral cavity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics, Interceptive*
  20. Woon KC, Thong YL
    J Ir Dent Assoc, 1991;37(1):15-7.
    PMID: 1885927
    This case report illustrates the successful management of a case of mutilated maxillary incisors in a 13 year old patient through a sequence of therapy designed to closely coordinate the various disciplines, endodontics, restorative dentistry and orthodontics, involved. Endodontics was directed towards the control of the infected pulp, restorative treatment was to reconstruct the broken down teeth in stages which were essential in the sequence of treatment, and orthodontics was involved in the achievement of functional occlusion and alignment. The comprehensive treatment approach combined to achieve satisfactory aesthetics and function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Orthodontics, Corrective*
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