Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 157 in total

  1. Lim MY, Chen HC, Omar MA
    J Vet Med Educ, 2014;41(2):197-203.
    PMID: 24589865 DOI: 10.3138/jvme.0713-099R1
    The ability to assess and control pain is listed as one of the desired Day One competencies among veterinary graduates. As such, a study was conducted to examine the current status and effectiveness of a video-based training module on the attitude toward and knowledge of pain assessment in cats among fourth- and final-year veterinary students of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) in January of 2013. A total of 92 students participated in this study, resulting in a response rate of 60.1%. Upon completion of a pre-training survey, the respondents undertook an interactive video-based presentation, followed by a post-training survey. The majority of the students (96.7%) agreed on the importance of pain management. Before the training, many (76.1%) disagreed that they had received adequate training, while 53.3% were not confident in their pain-recognition skills. After training, their knowledge and confidence in pain assessment increased. Responses to the survey were not associated with differences in gender, level of study, or field of interest. Students were found to have mistaken some physiologic parameters as good pain indicators after ovariohysterectomy. Their assessment of three standardized video cases revealed that they could recognize prominent signs of pain but failed to identify changes in behavior that were more subtle. Refinement to the training module is required to address the above deficiencies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/methods*; Pain Measurement/veterinary
  2. Yam MF, Por LY, Peh KK, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ, Ang LF, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(5):5058-70.
    PMID: 22163890 DOI: 10.3390/s110505058
    Behavioural assessment of experimental pain is an essential method for analysing and measuring pain levels. Rodent models, which are widely used in behavioural tests, are often subject to external forces and stressful manipulations that cause variability of the parameters measured during the experiment. Therefore, these parameters may be inappropriate as indicators of pain. In this article, a stepping-force analgesimeter was designed to investigate the variations in the stepping force of rats in response to pain induction. The proposed apparatus incorporates new features, namely an infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a data acquisition system. The camera was able to capture the locomotion of the rats and synchronise the stepping force concurrently so that each step could be identified. Inter-day and intra-day precision and accuracy of each channel (there were a total of eight channels in the analgesimeter and each channel was connected to one load cell and one amplifier) were studied using different standard load weights. The validation studies for each channel also showed convincing results whereby intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 1% and accuracy was 99.36-100.36%. Consequently, an in vivo test was carried out using 16 rats (eight females and eight males). The rats were allowed to randomly walk across the sensor tunnel (the area that contained eight channels) and the stepping force and locomotion were recorded. A non-expert, but from a related research domain, was asked to differentiate the peaks of the front and hind paw, respectively. The results showed that of the total movement generated by the rats, 50.27 ± 3.90% in the case of the male rats and 62.20 ± 6.12% in that of the female rats had more than two peaks, a finding which does not substantiate the assumptions made in previous studies. This study also showed that there was a need to use the video display frame to distinguish between the front and hind paws in the case of 48.80 ± 4.01% of the male rats and 66.76 ± 5.35% of the female rats. Evidently the assumption held by current researchers regarding stepping force measurement is not realistic in terms of application, and as this study has shown, the use of a video display frame is essential for the identification of the front and hind paws through the peak signals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/instrumentation*; Pain Measurement/methods
  3. Mohan V, Paungmali A, Sitilerpisan P, Hashim UF, Mazlan MB, Nasuha TN
    Nurs Health Sci, 2018 Jun;20(2):224-230.
    PMID: 29421851 DOI: 10.1111/nhs.12406
    Non-specific low back pain (NS-LBP) is known to cause respiratory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated alterations in breathing, respiratory strength and endurance, core stability, diaphragm mobility, and chest expansion among patients with NS-LBP and healthy individuals. The specific aim of the study was to correlate between respiratory function and other variables among NS-LBP patients. Thirty four patients with NS-LBP were matched with 34 healthy participants before undergoing total faulty breathing scale, spirometer, respiratory pressure meter, chest expansion, ultrasound, and pressure biofeedback measurements. There were signs of faulty breathing in the NS-LBP patients when compared to the healthy participants. Diaphragmatic mobility and respiratory muscle endurance were lower in the NS-LBP group. Chest expansion exhibited a significant decrease at the level of the fourth intercostal space in the NS-LBP group, but respiratory muscle strength and core stability were not significant between the two groups. Positive correlations were found to be fairly significant regarding respiratory muscle strength. The findings of this study indicated altered respiratory characteristics in the NS-LBP patients, and suggested that they would improve through respiratory exercises.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/methods; Pain Measurement/psychology
  4. Sulaiman MR, Mohd Padzil A, Shaari K, Khalid S, Shaik Mossadeq WM, Mohamad AS, et al.
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2010;2010:937642.
    PMID: 21274262 DOI: 10.1155/2010/937642
    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/drug effects*; Pain Measurement/methods
  5. Shariat A, Lam ET, Kargarfard M, Tamrin SB, Danaee M
    Work, 2017;56(3):421-428.
    PMID: 28269804 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-172508
    BACKGROUND: Previous research support the claim that people who work in offices and sit for a long time are particularly prone to musculoskeletal disorders.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this paper is to introduce an exercise training program designed to decrease muscle stiffness and pain that can be performed in the office setting.

    METHODS: Forty healthy office workers (age: 28±5.3 years old; body mass: 87.2±10.2 kg; height: 1.79±0.15 m) apart from suffering from any sub-clinical symptoms of muscle and joint stiffness, and who had at least two years of experience in office work were chosen and randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). The experimental group performed the exercise training program three times a week for 11 weeks. The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire was used to measure the pain levels in the neck, shoulders, and lower back areas. The Borg CR-10 Scale was used to measure their perceived exertion when doing the exercises, and a goniometer was used to measure the changes in range of motion (ROM) of the neck, hips, knees, and shoulders.

    RESULTS: The overall results indicated that the exercise program could significantly (p pains of the participants in the exercise group while those in the control group showed no improvement in those pains. There were significant (p pains, but also can improve the ROM or flexibility of the office workers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/instrumentation; Pain Measurement/methods
  6. Cardosa MS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):139-41.
    PMID: 16898301
    Pain remains as one of the most common reasons for visits to a doctor. The paper by Zalinawati et all published in this issue of the Journal confirmed this in two primary care settings, showing that a complaint of pain was recorded in almost a third of patients, similar to the prevalence reported in European studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement
  7. Wong, C.C., Loke, W.P.
    Malays Orthop J, 2007;1(1):1-4.
    Percutaneous endoscopic spinal surgery performed in the awake state offers a new paradigm for treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc prolapse. We report the outcome of 23 patients who underwent this procedure. Visual analogue scale for pain improved from 7.3 to 2.1; 19 of the 23 patients achieved good to excellent results according to the MacNab criteria. Patient acceptance of the procedure was 91.3%. All but one patient were discharged from hospital within 24 hours. One patient developed foot drop post-operatively. There was no incidence of dural tear, post-operative infection or worsening of symptoms. We conclude that this is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement
  8. Che Badariah, A.A., Shamsul Kamalrujan, H.
    Pain is infl uenced by multiple factors including personal experience, psychological, sociocultural and situational factors. Failure to recognise pain will lead to poor patient management and deleterious effect on the patients wellbeing. Assessing pain in paediatric and cognitively compromised patients remains a challenge. Pain assessment in these groups of patients depends on the observers assessment and studies have shown the discrepancy between the observers assessment and patients verbal report. A specifi c and accurate tool is required to assist in the pain assessment. Although there are assessment tools available using behaviour scoring system and physiological indicators, none of the tool demonstrates its superiority than the others. Biochemical indicators such as stress hormones are frequently measured and used in con-junction with verbal reports; however they are non specifi c to pain and are increased in infl ammation, haemodynamic and emotional changes. The association between immunological indicators e.g. IL-1 , IL-6, IL- 8 and clinical pain has been shown, however; the defi nite correlation of the changes in the indicators and the level of pain is still unclear and may require further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement
  9. Pridmore S, Erger S, May T
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 May;26(3):102-109.
    PMID: 31303854 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.3.8
    Background: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is effective in major depressive episodes (MDE). However, MDE may follow a chronic, relapsing course, and some individuals may not satisfactorily respond to a first course of TMS.

    Objective: To investigate the outcome of second courses of TMS.

    Method: A naturalistic investigation-we prospectively studied 30 MDE in-patients and routinely collected information, including pre- and post-treatment with Six-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD6), a six-item Visual Analogue Scale (VAS6) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S). Two categories of patients were considered: i) those who had remitted with a first course, but relapsed, and ii) those who had not remitted with the first course.

    Results: Thirty individuals received a second TMS course. The mean time to the second course was 27.5 weeks. Based on the HAMD6, 26 (87%) achieved remission after the first course, and 22 (73%) achieved remission after the second course. Furthermore, based on the HAMD6 results, of the four patients who did not achieve remission with a first course, three (75%) did so with a second course.

    Conclusion: In MDE, a second course of TMS is likely to help those who remitted to a first course and then relapsed, as well as those who did not achieve remission with a first course.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement
  10. Nazari R, Pahlevan Sharif S, Allen KA, Sharif Nia H, Yee BL, Yaghoobzadeh A
    J Caring Sci, 2018 Dec;7(4):197-203.
    PMID: 30607360 DOI: 10.15171/jcs.2018.030
    A consistent approach to pain assessment for patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) is a major difficulty for health practitioners due to some patients' inability, to express their pain verbally. This study aimed to assess pain behaviors (PBs) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients at different levels of consciousness.
    This study used a repeated-measure, within-subject design with 35 patients admitted to an ICU. The data were collected through observations of nociceptive and non-nociceptive procedures, which were recorded through a 47-item behavior-rating checklist. The analyses were performed by SPSS ver.13 software.
    The most frequently observed PBs during nociceptive procedures were facial expression levator contractions (65.7%), sudden eye openings (34.3%), frowning (31.4%), lip changes (31.4%), clear movement of extremities (57.1%), neck stiffness (42.9%), sighing (31.4%), and moaning (31.4%). The number of PBs exhibited by participants during nociceptive procedures was significantly higher than those observed before and 15 minutes after the procedures. Also, the number of exhibited PBs in patients during nociceptive procedures was significantly greater than that of exhibited PBs during the non-nociceptive procedure. The results showed a significant difference between different levels of consciousness and also between the numbers of exhibited PBs in participants with different levels of traumatic brain injury severity.
    The present study showed that most of the behaviors that have been observed during painful stimulation in patients with traumatic brain injury included facial expressions, sudden eye opening, frowning, lip changes, clear movements of extremities, neck stiffness, and sighing or moaning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement
  11. Genesan P, Haspani MSM, Noor SRM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Sep;25(5):59-67.
    PMID: 30914863 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.5.6
    Background: Many different conventional approaches such as the frontal and pterional approaches are used to access anterior circulation aneurysms. Recently, the supraorbital approach has been widely applied to the treatment of anterior circulation aneurysms. This study was done to evaluate which approach (pterional or supraorbital) has better outcomes in terms of residual neck post-clipping, cosmetic satisfaction, scar tenderness, complications and functional outcomes.

    Methodology: A total of 123 patients were recruited into this study, comprising 82 patients who underwent a pterional approach and 41 patients who underwent a supraorbital approach. Computed tomography angiograms, the modified Rankin Scale, and the visual analogue scale were administered at 6 months to look for residual aneurysm, functional outcomes, scar tenderness, and cosmetic satisfaction. Complication data were collected from patients' case notes.

    Results: The mean operating time for the pterional group was 226 min, compared to supraorbital group, which was 192 min (P = 0.07). Cosmetic satisfaction was significantly higher (P = 0.001) in the supraorbital group. There was no significant difference between the supraorbital and pterional groups' scar tenderness (P = 0.719), residual aneurysm (P = 0.719), or functional outcomes (P = 0.137), and there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of intra-operative and post-operative complications.

    Conclusions: The supraorbital group had better cosmetic outcomes and shorter operating times compared to the pterional group.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement
  12. Shafie AA, Ng CH, Thanimalai S, Haron N, Manocha AB
    J Diabetes Metab Disord, 2018 Dec;17(2):269-275.
    PMID: 30918862 DOI: 10.1007/s40200-018-0369-z
    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to estimate the health utility values for hypoglycaemia events according to their severity and frequency. The secondary objective was to compare the health utilities between those with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the general population.

    Method: The health utilities of hypoglycaemia event were measured using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Time Trade-Off (TTO) methods among conveniently sampled consenting adults (>18 years and literate in either English or Malay language), which were then divided into two groups: those in the general population (GP) and those with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Each respondent was required to value 13 different health states, including frequencies of daytime hypoglycaemia and nocturnal hypoglycaemia, each depending on its severity (non-severe or severe).

    Results: 256 respondents from the GP and 99 respondents with T2DM completed the survey. The T2DM group gave higher VAS-values compared to the GP group. The highest mean VAS-utility value for non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurring once monthly was 0.543 (SD 0.161), and for severe daytime hypoglycaemia occurring once quarterly was 0.293 (SD 0.162) which was the lowest utility value compared to other health states. However, non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurring once quarterly was 0.537 (SD 0.284) and has the highest TTO-utility value. Severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurring once quarterly has the lowest utility value which was -0.104 (SD 0.380). Daytime hypoglycaemia has lower utility value compared to nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Severe hypoglycaemia has a greater disutility compared with the non-severe hypoglycaemia in both studied groups.

    Conclusion: The findings show that as a health utility, hypoglycaemia has a substantial impact on utility with severe hypoglycaemia having a greater negative impact compared to non-severe events across the board. This highlights the importance of preventing development of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at any time of the day.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement
  13. Chen CK, Teo SC, Phui VE, Saman MA
    Agri, 2015;27(4):210-4.
    PMID: 26860495 DOI: 10.5505/agri.2015.66487
    The application of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in paediatric population is gaining popularity among anaesthetists. We present a case series of ultrasound-guided TAP block in ten neonate and infants undergoing colostomy and reversal of stoma. Classical TAP as described by Hebbard was carried out and a maximum dosage of 1ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine was injected. Pain score was assessed using Neonatal Infant Pain Scale for 24 hours. In all patients, the block was successful with minimal hemodynamic changes intraoperatively and no additional systemic analgesia was needed intraoperative and immediate postoperatively. Ultrasound-guided TAP block has an important role in providing safe and effective analgesia for colostomy creation and reversal of stoma surgeries in paediatric population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/methods
  14. Ismail AK, Abdul Ghafar MA, Shamsuddin NS, Roslan NA, Kaharuddin H, Nik Muhamad NA
    J Emerg Med, 2015 Sep;49(3):287-93.
    PMID: 26022936 DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2015.02.043
    Prehospital care (PHC) pain evaluation is an essential patient assessment to be performed by paramedics. Pain intensity is frequently assessed using Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS) or Visual Analog Scale (VAS).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/methods*
  15. Juliana N, Shahar S, Chelliah KK, Ghazali AR, Osman F, Sahar MA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(14):5759-65.
    PMID: 25081698
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a potential supplement for mammogram screening. This study aimed to evaluate and feasibility of EIT as opposed to mammography and to determine pain perception with both imaging methods. Women undergoing screening mammography at the Radiology Department of National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were randomly selected for EIT imaging. All women were requested to give a pain score after each imaging session. Two independent raters were chosen to define the image findings of EIT. A total of 164 women in the age range from 40 to 65-year-old participated and were divided into two groups; normal and abnormal. EIT sensitivity and specificity for rater 1 were 69.4% and 63.3, whereas for rater 2 they were 55.3% and 57.0% respectively. The reliability for each rater ranged between good to very good (p<0.05). Quantitative values of EIT showed there were significant differences in all values between groups (ANCOVA, p<0.05). Interestingly, EIT scored a median pain score of 1.51±0.75 whereas mammography scored 4.15±0.87 (Mann Whitney U test, p<0.05). From these quantitative values, EIT has the potential as a health discriminating index. Its ability to replace image findings from mammography needs further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement*
  16. Devi BCR, Tang TS
    Oncology, 2008;74 Suppl 1:35-9.
    PMID: 18758195 DOI: 10.1159/000143216
    BACKGROUND: Monitoring acute postoperative pain as the fifth vital sign is currently practiced in many developed countries. In Sarawak, pain is an important symptom as 70% of cancer patients present with advanced disease. As the existing validated pain assessment tools were found to be difficult to use, we studied the feasibility of modifying the use of a pain assessment tool, consisting of the short form of the Brief Pain Inventory and the Wong-Baker Faces Scale.
    METHOD: This tool was used to document pain in all 169 patients who were admitted for pain control to the oncology ward between July 2000 and June 2001. Nurses were trained in the use of the modified scale before the start of the study.
    RESULTS: The method was easy to use, and the mean number of days to reduce pain was found to be 3.1 days (SD: 2.9; median: 2 days; range: 1-31 days). At discharge, none in the group with initially mild pain had pain, and the severity of pain for 98% of patients with moderate pain and 61% with severe pain was downgraded to mild pain.
    CONCLUSION: The staff found that the tool allowed continuous pain assessment in an objective manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/methods*
  17. Aisyaturridha A, Naing L, Nizar AJ
    J Pain Symptom Manage, 2006 Jan;31(1):13-21.
    PMID: 16442478
    The original version of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was translated into a Malay version by the standard procedure and was then evaluated for its psychometric properties. Of 119 eligible patients, a total of 113 (95%) agreed to participate in this study. Ages ranged from 18 to 76 years and interviews were conducted between August, 2004 and November, 2004. The pain intensity items demonstrated high loading with one factor, whereas the pain interference items were loaded on another factor. Two factors explained 62% of the variance. Compared to the Karnofsky Performance Scale, the pain intensity scales had a moderate negative (Pearson's) correlation (-0.520, P < 0.001) and the pain interference scales had a high negative correlation (-0.732, P < 0.001), showing good concurrent validity. The coefficient alpha of both subscales demonstrated good internal consistency of the items. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest stability was 0.61 for the pain intensity scale and 0.88 for the pain interference scale. The Malay version of the BPI is a reliable and valid instrument for cancer pain assessment and is comparable with the original version of the BPI in terms of structure and psychometric properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/methods*
  18. Abdul Kadir A, Mohd Arif MF, Ishak A, Hassan II, Mohd Noor N
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:4329751.
    PMID: 29955601 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4329751
    Objective: To adapt and validate the Malay version of Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life (OAKHQOL) questionnaire.

    Design: The OAKHQOL was adapted into Malay version using forward-backward translation methodology. It was then validated in a cross-sectional study of 191 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients completed the OAKHQOL and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Confirmatory analysis, reliability analysis, and Pearson correlation test were performed.

    Results: The new five-factor model of 28 items demonstrated an acceptable level of goodness of fit (comparative fit index = 0.915, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.905, incremental fit index = 0.916, chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.953, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.071), signifying a fit model. The Cronbach's alpha value and the composite reliability of each construct ranged from 0.865 to 0.933 and 0.819 to 0.921, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the OAKHQOL and the WOMAC showed adequate criterion validity. Known groups validity showed statistical difference in body mass index in physical activity, mental health, and pain construct. The pain domain was statistically different between the age groups.

    Conclusion: The Malay version OAKHQOL questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to assess health-related quality of life in knee OA patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement*
  19. Buhari S, Hashim K, Yong Meng G, Mustapha NM, Gan SH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:564939.
    PMID: 22778699 DOI: 10.1100/2012/564939
    Subcutaneous (SC) administration of tramadol was compared with intravenous (IV) administration to evaluate analgesia following canine ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Healthy female dogs (n = 12) between 1 and 3 years of age (1.95 ± 0.65 years), weighing between 10.5 and 17.1 kg (13.12 ± 1.95 kg), were used. Pain was assessed at baseline before surgery and then hourly for 8 hr after surgery. Tramadol was administered both SC and IV at a dose of 3 mg/kg and provided significant postoperative analgesia, as indicated by analgesiometry, β-endorphin levels, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. The respiratory rates and rectal temperatures remained normal and were not significantly different between or within the groups. A significant increase in heart rate was observed at 4 hr for dogs in both groups relative to the baseline, but there was no significant difference in heart rates between the groups at any time point. A significant decrease in mechanical pain threshold was observed within each group after surgery, but both groups responded similarly, suggesting that SC administration of tramadol is as effective as IV administration. Increased serum levels of both IL-6 and β-endorphin 3 hr postoperatively further indicate that both routes of administration achieve similar pain control. Thus, the relative analgesic efficacy of SC tramadol is comparable to that of IV administration and can be used to achieve similar effects for postsurgical pain management in dogs undergoing OHE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain Measurement/drug effects; Pain Measurement/veterinary
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