In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C(16:0) content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.
This study describes the hydrothermal synthesis of a novel carbon/palmitic acid (PA) microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM). The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images confirm that spherical capsules of uniform size were formed with a mean diameter of 6.42 μm. The melting and freezing temperature were found to be slightly lower than those of pure PA with little undercooling. The composite retained 75% of the latent heat of pure PA. Thermal stability of the MEPCM was found to be better than that of pure PA. The thermal conductivity of MEPCM was increased by as much as 41% at 30°C. Due to its good thermal properties and chemical and mechanical stability, the carbon/PA MEPCM displays a good potential for thermal energy storage systems.
The environmental impacts of palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been a concern due to the water pollution and greenhouse gases emissions. Thus, this study was conducted to recover the value-added products from POME source before being discharged. The samples, before (X) and after (Y) the pre-recovery system in the clarification tank were sampled and analysed and proximate analysis indicated that both samples are energy rich source of food due to high contents of fats and carbohydrates. GCMS analysis showed that the oil extracts contain predominantly palmitic, oleic, linoleic and stearic acids. Regiospecific analysis of oil extracts by quantitative 13C-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that both oil extracts contain similar degree of saturation of fatty acids at sn-2 and sn-1,3 positions. The samples are rich in various phytonutrients, pro-vitamin A, vitamin E, squalene and phytosterols, thus contributing to exceptionally high total flavonoid contents and moderate antioxidant activities. Overall, samples X and Y are good alternative food sources, besides reducing the environmental impact of POME.
BACKGROUND: The Jatropha curcas plant or locally known as "Pokok Jarak" has been widely used in traditional medical applications. This plant is used to treat various conditions such as arthritis, gout, jaundice, wound and inflammation. However, the nature of compounds involved has not been well documented. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of different parts of J. curcas plant and to identify the active compounds involved.
METHODS: In this study, methanol (80%) extraction of four different parts (leaves, fruits, stem and root) of J. curcas plant was carried out. Phenolic content of each part was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as the phenol standard. Each plant part was screened for anti-inflammatory activity using cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The active plant part was then partitioned with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. Each partition was again screened for anti-inflammatory activity. The active partition was then fractionated using an open column chromatography system. Single spots isolated from column chromatography were assayed for anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities. Spots that showed activity were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis for identification of active metabolites.
RESULTS: The hexane partition from root extract showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. However, it also showed high cytotoxicity towards RAW 264.7 cells at 1 mg/mL. Fractionation process using column chromatography showed five spots. Two spots labeled as H-4 and H-5 possessed anti-inflammatory activity, without cytotoxicity activity. Analysis of both spots by GC-MS showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid.
CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the J. curcas root extract.
Matched MeSH terms: Palmitic Acid/analysis; Palmitic Acid/pharmacology*; Palmitic Acid/therapeutic use
The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of the frying media and storage time on the fatty acid composition (FAC) and iodine value (IV) of deep-fat fried potato chips. The frying experiment was conducted at 180ºC for five consecutive days. Six frying media were considered as the main treatments: refined, bleached, deodorized (RBD) palm olein (A), canola oil (C), RBD palm olein/sesame oil (AB, 1:1 w/w), RBD palm olein/canola oil (AC, 1:1, w/w), sesame oil/canola oil (BC, 1:1, w/w), and RBD palm olein/sesame oil/canola oil (ABC, 1:1:1, w/w/w). The initial degrees of unsaturation of the consumed oils, A, C, AB, AC, BC, and ABC, were 58.6, 94.0, 68.0, 72.2, 87.7, and 75.8 (g/100 g), respectively. The fatty acid analysis showed that there was a decrease in both the linolenic acid (C18:3) and linoleic acid (C18:2) contents, whereas the palmitic acid (C16:0) increased with a prolonged frying time. The chemical analysis showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in terms of the IV for each frying oil during the five consecutive days of frying (day 0 to 5). Oil C had the least stability in terms of deep-fat frying due to a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, oil AC had the best stability due to the smallest reduction of the C18:2/C16:0 ratio and the IV.
The study was conducted to investigate fatty acid composition, rheological properties and crystal formation of rambutan fat and cocoa butter. The results showed that lauric acid, palmitic acid, and stearic fatty acid in rambutan fat were less than cocoa butter, but oleic acid found almost the same. The crystal formation of cocoa butter was not complex at 25oC, while rambutan fat and their mixture shown complicated network of crystal form. The Newton, Bingham and Casson plastic rheological models was used to describe fat flow in this experiment and the result showed that rambutan fat had higher viscosity than cocoa fat. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture proportion up to 30% rambutan seed fat can be used as a cocoa butter substitute whereas higher proportion completely alters original cocoa butter properties. Therefore, there is feasibility of using the rambutan fat to substitute cocoa butter and the mixtures of the two fats in suitable proportion in chocolate manufacturing.
Crotalaria pallida Aiton is an herbaceous legume from the family Fabaceae. In the present study, one new cyclopentyliene, crotolidene (1) and seven known compounds, i.e. hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), octacosane (3), trans-phytyl palmitate (4), linoleic acid (5), methyl oleate (6), ethyl palmitate (7), and palmitic acid (8) were isolated from the C. pallida collected from Perak, Malaysia. These compounds were isolated and characterized using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.
Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.
The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil.
Allium ampeloprasum L., commonly known as wild leek, is an edible vegetable that has been cultivated for centuries. However, no detailed studies have been undertaken to valorize A. ampeloprasum seed oil. This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of A. ampeloprasum seed oil. The seed oil content was found to be 18.20%. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that linoleic acid (71.65%) was the dominant acid, followed by oleic acid (14.11%) and palmitic acid (7.11%). A. ampeloprasum seed oil exhibited an oxidative stability of 5.22 h. Moreover, γ- and δ-tocotrienols were the major tocols present (79.56 and 52.08 mg/100 g oil, respectively). The total flavonoid content (16.64 µg CE /g oil) and total phenolic content (62.96 µg GAE /g oil) of the seed oil were also determined. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as evaluated using the ABTS assay (136.30 µM TEAC/g oil), was found to be significant. These findings indicate that A. ampeloprasum seeds can be regarded as a new source of edible oil having health benefits and nutritional properties.
In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea.
Partial hydrogenation of oil results in fats containing unusual isomeric fatty acids characterized by cis and trans configurations. Hydrogenated fats containing trans fatty acids increase plasma total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol while depressing HDL-cholesterol levels. Identifying the content of trans fatty acids by food labeling is overshadowed by a reluctance of health authorities to label saturates and trans fatty acids separately. Thus, it is pertinent to compare the effects of trans to saturated fatty acids using stable isotope methodology to establish if the mechanism of increase in TC and LDL-cholesterol is due to the increase in the rate of endogenous synthesis of cholesterol. Ten healthy normocholesterolemic female subjects consumed each of two diets containing approximately 30% of energy as fat for a fourweek period. One diet was high in palmitic acid (10.6% of energy) from palm olein and the other diet exchanged 5.6% of energy as partially hydrogenated fat for palmitic acid. This fat blend resulted in monounsaturated fatty acids decreasing by 4.9 % and polyunsaturated fats increasing by 2.7%. The hydrogenated fat diet treatment provided 3.1% of energy as elaidic acid. For each dietary treatment, the fractional synthesis rates for cholesterol were measured using deuterium-labeling procedures and blood samples were obtained for blood lipid and lipoprotein measurements. Subjects exhibited a higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol level when consuming the diet containing trans fatty acids while also depressing the HDL-cholesterol level. Consuming the partially hydrogenated fat diet treatment increased the fractional synthesis rate of free cholesterol. Consumption of hydrogenated fats containing trans fatty acids in comparison to a mixtur e of palmitic and oleic acids increase plasma cholesterol levels apparently by increasing endogenous synthesis of cholesterol.
Nine cynomolgus monkeys were rotated randomly through four dietary treatments with each treatment lasting 6 weeks. A wash-out period of 4 weeks was maintained between each dietary rotation. The animals were fed diets containing 32% energy fat derived from palm olein (POL), lauric-myristic-rich oil blend (LM), American Heart Association (AHA) rich oil blend and hydrogenated soybean oil blend (trans). Diets were fed with (phase 1) or without (phase 2) the addition of dietary cholesterol (0.1%). In phase 1, when animals were fed without dietary cholesterol, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly raised and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly depressed by the trans diets relative to all other dietary treatments. The resulting LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was also significantly increased. The LM diet increased TC significantly relative to the AHA diet while LDL-C was significantly increased compared to both POL and AHA. Apolipoprotein (apo) B was not affected significantly by these dietary treatments. Apo A1 was significantly increased by POL relative to all other dietary treatments. The trans diet reduced apo A1 and the resulting apo B/A1 ratio was increased significantly by trans relative to all other dietary treatments. Addition of 0.1% dietary cholesterol to these diets almost doubled the plasma TC and LDL-C in all dietary treatments. However, HDL-C was only marginally higher with the addition of dietary cholesterol. The LM + C (cholesterol added) diet resulted in the highest TC and LDL-C that was significant compared to all other dietary treatments. Trans + C increased TC compared to POL + C and AHA + C diets while increases in the LDL-C did not attain significance. The addition of dietary cholesterol did not affect HDL-C between treatments whereas plasma triglycerides were significantly increased by the trans + C diet relative to all other treatments. Both the trans + C and LM + C diets increased apo B and decreased apo A1 relative to the POL + C and AHA + C diets. The resulting apo B/A1 ratio was similarly altered. These results affirm that the lauric + myristic acid combination, along with trans fatty acids, increased lipoprotein-associated coronary heart disease risk factors compared to either POL or AHA.
Oil spills generally cause worldwide concern due to their detrimental effects on the environment and the economy. An assortment of commercial systems has been developed to control these spills, including the use of agricultural wastes as sorbents. This work deals with raw and modified mangrove barks (Rhizophora apiculata), an industrial lignocellulosic waste, as a low cost adsorbent for oil-product-spill cleanup in the aquatic environment. Mangrove bark was modified using fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitic acid) to improve its adsorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of the modified bark was studied and compared with that of the raw bark. Kinetic tests were conducted with a series of contact times. The influence of particle size, oil dosage, pH and temperature on oil sorption capacity was investigated. The results showed that oleic acid treated bark has a higher sorption capacity (2,860.00 ± 2.00 mg/g) than untreated bark for Tapis crude oil. A correlation between surface functional groups, morphology and surface area of the adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy images and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Isotherm study was conducted using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The result showed that adsorption of crude oil on treated mangrove bark could be best described by the Langmuir model.
In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-acyl chain SFA, namely palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG on obesity. Throughout the 15 weeks of the experimental period, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets fortified with cocoa butter, sal stearin (SAL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS). The sn-1, 3 positions were varied by 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1, whilst the sn-2 position was preserved with 18:1. The HOS-enriched diet was found to lead to the highest fat deposition. This was in accordance with our previous postulation. Upon normalisation of total fat deposited with food intake to obtain the fat:feed ratio, interestingly, mice fed the SAL-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral fat/feed and total fat/feed compared with those fed the PMF-enriched diet, despite their similarity in SFA-unsaturated fatty acid-SFA profile. That long-chain SFA at sn-1, 3 positions concomitantly with an unsaturated FA at the sn-2 position exert an obesity-reducing effect was further validated. The present study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that SFA of different chain lengths at sn-1, 3 positions exert profound effects on fat accretion.
Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinal plant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different parts of P. macrocarpa include Phalerin, gallic acid, Icaricide C, magniferin, mahkoside A, dodecanoic acid, palmitic acid, des-acetylflavicordin-A, flavicordin-A, flavicordin-D, flavicordin-A glucoside, ethyl stearate, lignans, alkaloids andsaponins. The present review is an up-to-date summary of occurrence, botanical description, ethnopharmacology, bioactivity and toxicological studies related to P. macrocarpa.
A single line flow injection analysis (FIA) method that incorporated a preconcentrator column packed with C(18) particles and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) was developed for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) in vegetable oils. The carrier stream was methanol/1.5 mM sodium acetate (pH 8) 80:20 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Calibration curve was well correlated (r(2)=0.9995) within the range of 1-200 mg L(-1) FFA (expressed as palmitic acid). Sampling rate of 40-60 h(-1) was achieved. Good agreement was found between the standard non-aqueous titrimetry method and the proposed method when applied to the determination of FFA in palm (crude, olein, and refined, bleached and deodorised) and other vegetable (soybean, rice bran, walnut, corn and olive) oils. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the official method, especially in terms of simplicity, high sampling rate, economy of solvents and sample, offering considerable promise as a low cost automated system that needs minimum human intervention over long periods of time.
Lipid biosynthesis and fatty acids composition of oleaginous zygomycetes, namely Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1, cultured in media with excess or limited nitrogen were quantitatively determined at different times of culture growth. Accumulation of lipids occurred even when the activity of NAD(+)-ICDH (β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-isocitrate dehydrogenase) was still detectable in both media. In C. bainieri 2A1, under nitrogen limitation, the ratio of lipids was around 35%, whereas in nitrogen excess medium (feeding media supplemented with ammonium tartarate), the lipid ratio decreased. The amount of this decrease depended on the level of ammonium tartarate in the media. The main findings in this paper were that C. bainieri 2A1 has the ability to accumulate lipid although nitrogen concentration detected inside the media and that NAD-ICDH was active in all culture periods. These results proved that the strain C. bainieri 2A1 has an alternative behavior in lipid biosynthesis that differs from yeast. According to the old hypotheses, yeasts could not accumulate lipid more than 10% when nitrogen was detected inside the media. Nitrogen-limited and excess media both contained the same fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid, olic acid, linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid), but at different concentrations. The C:N ratio was also studied and showed no effects on total lipid accumulation, but a significant effect on γ-linolenic acid concentration.
The seeds of Terminalia catappa from Malaysia were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. The following values were obtained: moisture 6.23 ± 0.09 %, ash 3.78 ± 0.04 %, lipid 54.68 ± 0.14 %, protein 17.66 ± 0.13 %, total dietary fibre 9.97 ± 0.08 %, carbohydrate 7.68 ± 0.06 %, reducing sugar 1.36 ± 0.16 %, starch 1.22 ± 0.15 %, caloric value 593.48 ± 0.24 %. Studies were also conducted on amino acid profile and free fatty acid composition of the seed oil. Results revealed that glutamic acid was the major essential amino acid while methionine and lysine were the limiting amino acids. The major saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid, while the main unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid followed by linoleic acid. In addition, the seed was rich in sucrose and had trace amount of glucose and fructose. Briefly, the seed was high in proteins and lipids which are beneficial to human.
Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 % N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition.