Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 115 in total

  1. Razak, A.A.A., Harrison, A., Alani, A.A.
    Ann Dent, 1996;3(1):-.
    The effect of filler content and storage conditions such as drying, storing in water and thermal cycling on linear dimensional changes were investigated and evaluated. The dimensional accuracy studies were performed using a specific designed mould and a coordinate measuring machine. The findings gave support to the view that tiller content is an important factor influencing the physical and mechanical properties of the composite inlay material. The higher tiller content gave less polymerization shrinkage. The greatest linear shrinkage recorded was 0.79 %. The average linear shrinkage (in air, water and thermal cycling) for 79 % filler Prisma AP.H was 0.33 %, for 65 % tiller Prisma AP.H was 0.35 % and for 50 % filler Prisma AP.H was 0.42 %. Generally, dimensional changes was greatest when stored dry. This was followed by materials which were thermal cycled. The least dimensional change recorded was when the materials were stored in water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  2. Mohamad, D., Young, R.J., Mann, A.B., Watts, D.C.
    The aim of the study was to evaluate post-polymerization of resin composite by measuring NanoHardness (H), Young’s Modulus (E) and Degree of Conversion (DC) using nanoindentation and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. For this purpose a computer-controlled NanoIndenter™ and a Renishaw 1000 Raman Spectrometer fitted with an Olympus microscope attachment, operated at 638 nm, were used. A light-activated resin composite was used in this study, (Z250, 3MESPE). Sub-groups (n=3) of specimens were irradiated for 20, 30, 40 s. All samples for nanoindentation were polished metallographically and typically 50 nanoindentations were performed per specimen. After curing and polishing, half of the samples were tested immediately (Group 1); the others after being stored dry at 37 °C for 7 days (Group 2) to allow scope for postpolymerization. H values ranged from 1.08 to 1.40 GPa for Group 1, and from 1.64 to1.71 GPa for Group 2. E values in Group 1 ranged from 19.60 to 19.94 GPa and for Group 2, from 21.42 to 22.05 GPa. DC values ranged from 55 to 66.39%, and 60.90 to 66.47% for Group 1 and Group 2 respectively. All values obtained shown significant different between Groups 1 and 2 (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  3. Nor Azah Yusof, Beyan, Appri, Md. Haron Jelas, Nor Azowa Ibrahim
    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), with the ability to bind Pb(II) ion, was prepared using the non-covalent molecular imprinting methods and evaluated as a sorbent for the Pb(II) ion uptake. 4-vinylbenzoic acid was chosen as the complexing monomer. The imprinted polymer was synthesized by radical polymerization. The template (Pb(II) ions) was removed using 0.1 M HCl. As a result, the efficient adsorption was found to occur at pH 7. The result also showed the applicability of the Langmuir model for the sorption, with the maximum sorption capacity of 204.08 μg/mg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  4. Seah MQ, Lau WJ, Goh PS, Tseng HH, Wahab RA, Ismail AF
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Nov 27;12(12).
    PMID: 33261079 DOI: 10.3390/polym12122817
    In this paper, we review various novel/modified interfacial polymerization (IP) techniques for the fabrication of polyamide (PA) thin film composite (TFC)/thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes in both pressure-driven and osmotically driven separation processes. Although conventional IP technique is the dominant technology for the fabrication of commercial nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, it is plagued with issues of low membrane permeability, relatively thick PA layer and susceptibility to fouling, which limit the performance. Over the past decade, we have seen a significant growth in scientific publications related to the novel/modified IP techniques used in fabricating advanced PA-TFC/TFN membranes for various water applications. Novel/modified IP lab-scale studies have consistently, so far, yielded promising results compared to membranes made by conventional IP technique, in terms of better filtration efficiency (increased permeability without compensating solute rejection), improved chemical properties (crosslinking degree), reduced surface roughness and the perfect embedment of nanomaterials within selective layers. Furthermore, several new IP techniques can precisely control the thickness of the PA layer at sub-10 nm and significantly reduce the usage of chemicals. Despite the substantial improvements, these novel IP approaches have downsides that hinder their extensive implementation both at the lab-scale and in manufacturing environments. Herein, this review offers valuable insights into the development of effective IP techniques in the fabrication of TFC/TFN membrane for enhanced water separation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  5. Rosli NA, Ahmad I, Abdullah I, Anuar FH, Mohamed F
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Jul 10;125:69-75.
    PMID: 25857961 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.03.002
    Graft copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto Agave angustifolia was conducted with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the redox initiator. The maximum grafting efficiency was observed at CAN and MMA concentrations of 0.91 × 10(-3) and 5.63 × 10(-2)M, respectively, at 45°C for 3h reaction time. Four characteristic peaks at 2995, 1738, 1440, and 845 cm(-1), attributed to PMMA, were found in the IR spectrum of grafted cellulose. The crystallinity index dropped from 0.74 to 0.46, while the thermal stability improved upon grafting. The water contact angle increased with grafting yield, indicating increased hydrophobicity of cellulose. SEM images showed the grafted cellulose to be enlarged and rougher. The changes in the physical nature of PMMA-grafted cellulose can be attributed to the PMMA grafting in the amorphous regions of cellulose, causing it to expand at the expense of the crystalline component.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization*
  6. Anis SNS, Mohd Annuar MS, Simarani K
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2018 Nov;65(6):784-796.
    PMID: 29806235 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1666
    Biosynthesis and in vivo depolymerization of intracellular medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 grown on lauric acid were studied. Highest mcl-PHA fraction (>50 % of total biomass) and cell concentration (8 g L-1 ) were obtained at carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio 20, starting cell concentration 1 g L-1 , and 48 H fermentation. The mcl-PHA comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (C6 ), 3-hydroxyoctanote (C8 ), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 ), and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12 ) monomers. In vivo action was studied in a mineral liquid medium without carbon source, and in different buffer solutions with varied pH, molarity, ionic strength, and temperature. The monomer liberation rate reflected the mol percentage distribution of the initial polymer subunit composition. Rate and percentage of in vivo depolymerization were highest in 0.2 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9, strength = 0.2 M, 30 °C) at 0.21 g L-1  H-1 and 98.6 ± 1.3 wt%, respectively. There is a congruity vis-à-vis to specific buffer type, molarity, pH, ionic strength, and temperature values for superior in vivo depolymerization activities. Direct products from in vivo depolymerization matched the individual monomeric composition of native mcl-PHA. It points to exo-type reaction for the in vivo process, and potential biological route to chiral molecules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization*
  7. Zakaria ND, Yusof NA, Haron J, Abdullah AH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2009 Jan;10(1):354-65.
    PMID: 19333450 DOI: 10.3390/ijms10010354
    Molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) are considered one of the most promising selective and novel separation methods for removal phenolic compound in wastewater treatment. MIP are crosslinked polymeric materials that exhibit high binding capacity and selectivity towards a target molecule (template), purposely present during the synthesis process. In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. An adsorption process for removal of nitrophenol using the fabricated MIP was evaluated under various pH and time conditions. The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was found effective at pH 6.0. A kinetics study showed that nitrophenol adsorption follows a second order adsorption rate and the adsorption isotherm data is explained well by the Langmuir model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  8. Mohd Hamzah Harun, Elias Saion, Noorhana Yahya, Anuar Kassim, Hussain, Muhammad Yousuf, Iskandar Shahrim Mustafa, et al.
    The composite polymer films of polyvinyl alcohol/polypyrrole/chloral hydrate (PVA-PPy-CH) had been prepared. Effects of γ-rays on the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films had been investigated by using Inductance Capacitance Resistance meter (LCR) meter at a frequency ranging from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. With the incorporation of chloral hydrate in the polymer sample, the conductivity increased indicates that it is capable to be used as dopant for polymerizing conjugated polymer. The electrical conductivity obtained increased as the dose increased, which is in the order of 10-5 Scm-1 indicates that γ-rays is capable to enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films. The parameter of s is in the range of 0.31 d s d 0.49 and obeyed simple power law dispersion ωs. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal the formation of polypyrrole globules in polyvinyl alcohol matrix which increased as the irradiation dose was increased.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  9. Mohd Hamzah Harun, Elias Saion, Noorhana Yahya, Anuar Kassim, Ekramul Mahmud, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain, et al.
    The composite polymer films of polyvinyl alcohol/polypyrrole/chloral hydrate (PVA-PPy-CH) had been prepared. Effects of J-rays on the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films had
    been investigated by using Inductance Capacitance Resistance meter (LCR) meter at a frequency
    ranging from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. With the incorporation of chloral hydrate in the polymer sample, the conductivity increased indicates that it is capable to be used as dopant for polymerizing conjugated polymer. The electrical conductivity obtained increased as the dose increased, which is in the order of 10-5Scm-1 indicates that J-rays is capable to enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films. The parameter of s is in the range of 0.31 d s d 0.49 and obeyed simple power law dispersion Zs. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal the formation of polypyrrole globules in polyvinyl alcohol matrix which increased as the irradiation dose was increased.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  10. Jamari SKM, Nordin NA, Ubaidillah, Aziz SAA, Nazmi N, Mazlan SA
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Nov 24;13(23).
    PMID: 33255343 DOI: 10.3390/ma13235317
    Magnetorheological (MR) material is a type of magneto-sensitive smart materials which consists of magnetizable particles dispersed in a carrier medium. Throughout the years, coating on the surface of the magnetic particles has been developed by researchers to enhance the performance of MR materials, which include the improvement of sedimentation stability, enhancement of the interaction between the particles and matrix mediums, and improving rheological properties as well as providing extra protection against oxidative environments. There are a few coating methods that have been employed to graft the coating layer on the surface of the magnetic particles, such as atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), chemical oxidative polymerization, and dispersion polymerization. This paper investigates the role of particle coating in MR materials with the effects gained from grafting the magnetic particles. This paper also discusses the coating methods employed in some of the works that have been established by researchers in the particle coating of MR materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  11. Ong CC, Sundera Murthe S, Mohamed NM, Perumal V, Mohamed Saheed MS
    ACS Omega, 2018 Nov 30;3(11):15907-15915.
    PMID: 31458235 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b01566
    This article demonstrates a novel nanoscale surface modification method to enhance the selectivity of porous poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) in removing oil from water. The surface modification method is simple and low cost by using sugar as a sacrificial template for temporal adhering of carbon nanotubes (CNT) before addition of PDMS prepolymer to encapsulate the CNT on its surface once polymerized. The PDMS-CNT demonstrated a tremendous increase in absorption capacity up to 3-fold compared to previously reported absorbents composed solely of PDMS. Besides showcasing excellent absorption capacity, the PDMS-CNT also shows a faster absorption rate (25 s) as compared to that of pure PDMS (40 s). The enhanced absorption rate is due to the incorporation of CNT, which roughens the surface of the polymer at the nanoscale and lowers the surface energy of porous PDMS while at the same time increasing the absorbent hydrophobicity and oleophilicity. This property makes the absorbent unique in absorbing only oil but repelling water at the same time. The PDMS-CNT is an excellent absorbent material with outstanding recyclability and selectivity for removing oil from water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  12. Jakir Hossain Khan M, Azlan Hussain M, Mujtaba IM
    Polymers (Basel), 2016 Jun 14;8(6).
    PMID: 30979325 DOI: 10.3390/polym8060220
    In this study, a novel multiphasic model for the calculation of the polypropylene production in a complicated hydrodynamic and the physiochemical environments has been formulated, confirmed and validated. This is a first research attempt that describes the development of the dual-phasic phenomena, the impact of the optimal process conditions on the production rate of polypropylene and the fluidized bed dynamic details which could be concurrently obtained after solving the model coupled with the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model, the basic mathematical model and the moment equations. Furthermore, we have established the quantitative relationship between the operational condition and the dynamic gas⁻solid behavior in actual reaction environments. Our results state that the proposed model could be applied for generalizing the production rate of the polymer from a chemical procedure to pilot-scale chemical reaction engineering. However, it was assumed that the solids present in the bubble phase and the reactant gas present in the emulsion phase improved the multiphasic model, thus taking into account that the polymerization took place mutually in the emulsion besides the bubble phase. It was observed that with respect to the experimental extent of the superficial gas velocity and the Ziegler-Natta feed rate, the ratio of the polymer produced as compared to the overall rate of production was approximately in the range of 9%⁻11%. This is a significant amount and it should not be ignored. We also carried out the simulation studies for comparing the data of the CFD-dependent dual-phasic model, the emulsion phase model, the dynamic bubble model and the experimental results. It was noted that the improved dual-phasic model and the CFD model were able to predict more constricted and safer windows at similar conditions as compared to the experimental results. Our work is unique, as the integrated developed model is able to offer clearer ideas related to the dynamic bed parameters for the separate phases and is also capable of computing the chemical reaction rate for every phase in the reaction. Our improved mutiphasic model revealed similar dynamic behaviour as the conventional model in the initial stages of the polymerization reaction; however, it diverged as time progressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  13. Lim SP, Pandikumar A, Lim YS, Huang NM, Lim HN
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:5305.
    PMID: 24930387 DOI: 10.1038/srep05305
    This paper reports a rapid and in-situ electrochemical polymerization method for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PPy) nanocomposites on a ITO conducting glass and its application as a counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The scanning electron microscopic images show the uniform distribution of PPy nanoparticles with diameter ranges between 20 and 30 nm on the rGO sheets. The electrochemical studies reveal that the rGO@PPy has smaller charge transfer resistance and similar electrocatalytic activity as that of the standard Pt counter electrode for the I₃(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC with the rGO@PPy counter electrode is 2.21%, which is merely equal to the efficiency of DSSC with sputtered Pt counter electrode (2.19%). The excellent photovoltaic performance, rapid and simple fabrication method and low-cost of the rGO@PPy can be potentially exploited as a alternative counter electrode to the expensive Pt in DSSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  14. Yusof NA, Zakaria ND, Maamor NA, Abdullah AH, Haron MJ
    Int J Mol Sci, 2013;14(2):3993-4004.
    PMID: 23429189 DOI: 10.3390/ijms14023993
    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared by bulk polymerization in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide, as the template, functional monomer, cross-linker, and initiator, respectively. The MIP membrane was prepared by hybridization of MIP particles with cellulose acetate (CA) and polystyrene (PS) after being ground and sieved. The prepared MIP membrane was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The parameters studied for the removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol included the effect of pH, sorption kinetics, and the selectivity of the MIP membrane. Maximum sorption of 2,4-nitrophenol by the fabricated CA membrane with MIP (CA-MIP) and the PS membrane with MIP (PS-MIP) was observed at pH 7.0 and pH 5.0, respectively. The sorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by CA-MIP and PS-MIP followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. For a selectivity study, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, and phenol were selected as potential interferences. The sorption capability of CA-MIP and PS-MIP towards 2,4-dinitrophenol was observed to be higher than that of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, or phenol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  15. Haron MJ, Wan Md ZW, Desa MZ, Kassim A
    Talanta, 1994 May;41(5):805-7.
    PMID: 18966002
    Poly(hydroxamic acid) chelating ion-exchange resin was prepared from crosslinked poly(methacrylate) beads. The starting polymer was prepared by a suspension polymerization of methacrylate and divinyl benzene. Conversion of the ester groups into the hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine in an alkaline solution. Hydroxamic acid capacity of the product was 2.71 mmol/g. The resin exhibited high affinity towards Fe(III) and Pb ions and its capacities for Fe(III), Pb, Cu, Ni and Co ions were pH dependent. The ability of the resin to carry out the separation of Fe(III)CuCo/Ni and PbNi ions is also reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  16. Sulaiman, E., Yeo, Y.M., Chong, Y.T.
    Ann Dent, 2007;14(1):39-45.
    Purpose of the study: The objective of this study was to investigate the flexural strengths of five commercially available tooth-coloured restorative materials – Alpha-Dent (composite resin, Dental Technologies Inc.), Solare Anterior (composite resin, GC), F2000 (polyacid-modified composite resin, 3M), Beautifil (giomer, Shofu) and Fuji II LC (resin- modified glass ionomer cement, GC] using the ISO 4049 specifications. Materials and Method: Ten specimens of (25±0.2)mm x (2±0.1)mm x (2±0.1)mm from each material were prepared at 22-23ºC using a customized metal mould. After light polymerization, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours. The specimens were subsequently blotted dry, measured and subjected to flexural testing using an Instron Universal Testing Machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. The flexural strengths were calculated from the maximum load exerted on the specimens. Data were analysed using one way ANOVA and scheffe’s post-hoc multiple comparison tests at a significance level of 0.05.Results: The results showed that the mean flexural strengths of Beautifil, Solare Anterior and Alpha-Dent were above 80 MPa and those of F2000 and Fuji II LC were below 80 MPa. The results of one-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s post-host tests demonstrated that Beautifil had significantly higher mean flexural strength compared to Fuji II LC, F2000 and Alpha-Dent (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  17. Tajau, R., Wan Yunus, W.M.Z., Mohd Dahlan, K.Z., Mahmood, M.H., Hashim, K., Ismail, M., et al.
    This study demonstrated the utilization of radiation-induced initiator methods for the formation of
    nanoparticles of Acrylated Palm Oil (APO) using aqueous Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) microemulsion
    system. This microemulsion system was subjected to gamma irradiation to form the crosslinked APO
    nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and
    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the size and the chemical structure
    of the nanoparticles. As a result, the size of the APO nanoparticle was decreased when the irradiation
    dose increased. The decrease in size might be due to the effects of intermolecular crosslinking and
    intramolecular crosslinking reactions of the APO nanoparticles during irradiation process. The size of the
    nanoparticle is in the range of 98 to 200 nanometer (nm) after irradiation using gamma irradiator. This radiation-induced method provides a free initiator
    induced and easy to control process as compared
    to the classical or chemical initiator process. The
    study has shown that radiation-induced initiator
    methods, namely, polymerization and crosslinking
    in the microemulsion, were promising for the
    synthesis of nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  18. Liu J, Tan CSY, Yu Z, Li N, Abell C, Scherman OA
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2017 Jun;29(22).
    PMID: 28370560 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605325
    Recent progress on highly tough and stretchable polymer networks has highlighted the potential of wearable electronic devices and structural biomaterials such as cartilage. For some given applications, a combination of desirable mechanical properties including stiffness, strength, toughness, damping, fatigue resistance, and self-healing ability is required. However, integrating such a rigorous set of requirements imposes substantial complexity and difficulty in the design and fabrication of these polymer networks, and has rarely been realized. Here, we describe the construction of supramolecular polymer networks through an in situ copolymerization of acrylamide and functional monomers, which are dynamically complexed with the host molecule cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]). High molecular weight, thus sufficient chain entanglement, combined with a small-amount dynamic CB[8]-mediated non-covalent crosslinking (2.5 mol%), yields extremely stretchable and tough supramolecular polymer networks, exhibiting remarkable self-healing capability at room temperature. These supramolecular polymer networks can be stretched more than 100× their original length and are able to lift objects 2000× their weight. The reversible association/dissociation of the host-guest complexes bestows the networks with remarkable energy dissipation capability, but also facile complete self-healing at room temperature. In addition to their outstanding mechanical properties, the networks are ionically conductive and transparent. The CB[8]-based supramolecular networks are synthetically accessible in large scale and exhibit outstanding mechanical properties. They could readily lead to the promising use as wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors and structural biomaterials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  19. Lui, J.L., Chan, C.L., Yap, K.T.
    Ann Dent, 2006;13(1):6-11.
    The aim of the study was to determine the depth of cure of a new nanocomposite when exposed to different curing times and also when different shades were polymerized. The nanocomposite, Filtek Supreme (3M ESPE), was packed into 96 plastic cylindrical moulds measuring 4 mm in internal diameter and 8 mm in length and then polymerized using a conventional quartz-tungsten-halogen light curing unit. The first part of the study involved curing 16 samples each of A2 shade of the nanocomposite at exposure times of 20s, 40s, 60s and 120s. For the second part, a similar number of samples of the dentinal opacity shades of A2, B3 and A4 of the nanocomposite were polymerized at a constant exposure time of 40s. The depth of polymerization of the nanocomposite in each sample was measured using a digimatic indicator. Curing depths were found to increase significantly (P < 0.05) with longer exposure time (20s < 40s < 60s < 120s) and decrease significantly with darker shades (A2 > B3 > A4).
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
  20. Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Tajau, Rida, Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan, Mohd Hilmi Mahmood, Kamaruddin Hashim, Mohd Yusof Hamzah
    The use of microemulsion in the development of nanoparticle based on acrylated palm oil product is demonstrated. Acr ylated palm oil microemulsions were prepared using ionic surfactant. Combination methods of emulsion polymerization and radiation crosslinking were applied to the microemulsion system for synthesizing nanoparticle. The ionizing radiat ion technique was introduced to generate a crosslinking reaction in the development of nanoparticle. The nanoparticle was evaluated in terms of particle diameter, surface charge, pH and conductance. Their image was captured using Tra nsmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results show that the size, charge and shape of the particles are influenced by c oncentration of surfactants, monomer concentration, radiation dose and time of storage. The study showed a promising method to produced nanoparticle. This nano-sized product has the potential to be utilized as controlled-drug-release-carrier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerization
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