METHODS AND RESULTS: The rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr), L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) and action potential duration (APD) were measured by whole cell patch-clamp. The expression of KCNH2 and cytotoxicity was determined by real-time PCR and Caspase activity measurements. After significant IKr suppression by Mitragynine (10 µM) was confirmed in hERG-HEK cells, we systematically examined the effects of Mitragynine and other chemical constituents in hiPSC-CMs. Mitragynine, Paynantheine, Speciogynine and Speciociliatine, dosage-dependently (0.1∼100 µM) suppressed IKr in hiPSC-CMs by 67%∼84% with IC50 ranged from 0.91 to 2.47 µM. Moreover, Mitragynine (10 µM) significantly prolonged APD at 50 and 90% repolarization (APD50 and APD90) (439.0±11.6 vs. 585.2±45.5 ms and 536.0±22.6 vs. 705.9±46.1 ms, respectively) and induced arrhythmia, without altering the L-type Ca2+ current. Neither the expression, and intracellular distribution of KCNH2/Kv11.1, nor the Caspase 3 activity were significantly affected by Mitragynine.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that Mitragynine and its analogues may potentiate Torsade de Pointes through inhibition of IKr in human cardiomyocytes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The composition of L. rhinocerotis TM02 cultivar was analyzed. Organ bath experiment was employed to study the bronchodilator effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis cold water extract (CWE) on rat isolated airways. Trachea and bronchus were removed from male Sprague-Dawley rats, cut into rings of 2 mm, pre-contracted with carbachol before adding CWE into the bath in increasing concentrations. To investigate the influence of incubation time, tissues were exposed to intervals of 5, 15 and 30 min between CWE concentrations after pre-contraction with carbachol in subsequent protocol. Next, tissues were pre-incubated with CWE before the addition of different contractile agents, carbachol and 5-hydroxytrptamine (5-HT). The bronchodilator effect of CWE was compared with salmeterol and ipratropium. In order to uncover the mechanism of action of CWE, the role of beta-adrenoceptor, potassium and calcium channels was investigated.
RESULTS: Composition analysis of TM02 cultivar revealed the presence of β-glucans and derivatives of adenosine. The extract fully relaxed the trachea at 3.75 mg/ml (p potassium channel in CWE-mediated airway relaxation is ruled out, but the bronchodilator effect was unequivocally affected by influx of calcium.
CONCLUSIONS: The bronchodilator effect of L. rhinocerotis on airways is mediated by calcium signalling pathway downstream of Gαq-coupled protein receptors. The airway relaxation effect is both concentration- and incubation time-dependent. Our findings provide unequivocal evidence to support its traditional use to relieve asthma and cough.