The allosteric pocket of the Dengue virus (DENV2) NS2B/NS3 protease, which is proximal to its catalytic triad, represents a promising drug target (Othman et al., 2008). We have explored this binding site through large-scale virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations followed by calculations of binding free energy. We propose two mechanisms for enzyme inhibition. A ligand may either destabilize electronic density or create steric effects relating to the catalytic triad residues NS3-HIS51, NS3-ASP75, and NS3-SER135. A ligand may also disrupt movement of the C-terminal of NS2B required for inter-conversion between the "open" and "closed" conformations. We found that chalcone and adenosine derivatives had the top potential for drug discovery hits, acting through both inhibitory mechanisms. Studying the molecular mechanisms of these compounds might be helpful in further investigations of the allosteric pocket and its potential for drug discovery.
A sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of darunavir, ritonavir and tenofovir in human plasma. Sample preparation involved a simple liquid-liquid extraction using 200 μL of human plasma extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether for three analytes and internal standard. The separation was accomplished on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) analytical column using gradient elution of acetonitrile/methanol (80:20, v/v) and 5.0 mM ammonium acetate containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The linearity of the method ranged between 20.0 and 12 000 ng/mL for darunavir, 2.0 and 2280 ng/mL for ritonavir, and 14.0 and 1600 ng/mL for tenofovir using 200 μL of plasma. The method was completely validated for its selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, stability, and dilution integrity. The extraction recoveries were consistent and ranged between 79.91 and 90.04% for all three analytes and internal standard. The method exhibited good intra-day and inter-day precision between 1.78 and 6.27%. Finally the method was successfully applied for human pharmacokinetic study in eight healthy male volunteers after the oral administration of 600 mg darunavir along with 100 mg ritonavir and 100 mg tenofovir as boosters.
Matched MeSH terms: HIV Protease Inhibitors/blood*; HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics
A group of flavanones and their chalcones, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda L., were previously reported to show varying degrees of noncompetitive inhibitory activities toward Dengue virus type 2 (Den2) protease. Results obtained from automated docking studies are in agreement with experimental data in which the ligands were shown to bind to sites other than the active site of the protease. The calculated K(i) values are very small, indicating that the ligands bind quite well to the allosteric binding site. Greater inhibition by pinostrobin, compared to the other compounds, can be explained by H-bonding interaction with the backbone carbonyl of Lys74, which is bonded to Asp75 (one of the catalytic triad residues). In addition, structure-activity relationship analysis yields structural information that may be useful for designing more effective therapeutic drugs against dengue virus infections.
Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) cyclohexenyl chalcone derivatives, 4-hydroxypanduratin A and panduratin A, showed good competitive inhibitory activities towards dengue 2 virus NS3 protease with the Ki values of 21 and 25 microM, respectively, whilst those of pinostrobin and cardamonin were observed to be non-competitive. NMR and GCMS spectroscopic data formed the basis of assignment of structures of the six compounds isolated.
Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Screening large numbers of medicinal plants for anti-dengue activities is an alternative strategy in order to find the potent therapeutic compounds. Therefore, this study was designed to identify anti-dengue activities in nineteen medicinal plant extracts that are used in traditional medicine. Local medicinal plants Vernonia cinerea, Hemigraphis reptans, Hedyotis auricularia, Laurentia longiflora, Tridax procumbers and Senna angustifolia were used in this study. The highest inhibitory activates against dengue NS2B-NS3pro was observed in ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves, methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems. These findings were further verified by in vitro viral inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves, ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems and at less extent ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves were able to maintain the normal morphology of DENV2-infected Vero cells without causing much cytopathic effects (CPE). The percentage of viral inhibition of V. cinerea and T. procumbens extracts were significantly higher than S. angustifolia extract as measured by plaque formation assay and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, The outcome of this study showed that the methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems possessed high inhibitory activates against dengue virus that worth more investigation.
In this work, a temporal monitoring work for heavy metals from an effluent discharge point in
the Juru Industrial Estate was carried out using the protease extracted from garlic (Allium
sativum) as the principal bioassay system. casein-Coomassie-dye binding assay method has
utilized this purpose. The periodic sampling results for one day of a location in the Juru
Industrial Estate showed temporal variation of copper concentration coinciding with garlic
protease inhibition with the highest concentrations of copper occurring between 12.00 and 16.00
hours of between 3 and 3.5 mg/L copper. The crude proteases extracted from Allium sativum
successfully detect temporal variation of copper form this location. In conclusion, this assay
method has the potential to be a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the largescale
biomonitoring works for the heavy metal copper from this area.
Dengue virus Type 2 (DENV-2) is predominant serotype causing major dengue epidemics. There are a number of studies carried out to find its effective antiviral, however to date, there is still no molecule either from peptide or small molecules released as a drug. The present study aims to identify small molecules inhibitor from National Cancer Institute database through virtual screening. One of the hits, D0713 (IC50 = 62 μM) bearing thioguanine scaffold was derivatised into 21 compounds and evaluated for DENV-2 NS2B/NS3 protease inhibitory activity. Compounds 18 and 21 demonstrated the most potent activity with IC50 of 0.38 μM and 16 μM, respectively. Molecular dynamics and MM/PBSA free energy of binding calculation were conducted to study the interaction mechanism of these compounds with the protease. The free energy of binding of 18 calculated by MM/PBSA is -16.10 kcal/mol compared to the known inhibitor, panduratin A (-11.27 kcal/mol), which corroborates well with the experimental observation. Results from molecular dynamics simulations also showed that both 18 and 21 bind in the active site and stabilised by the formation of hydrogen bonds with Asn174.
Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Since instrumental methods are expensive and need skilled technician, a simple and fast method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, an inhibitive enzyme assay for heavy metals has been developed using crude proteases from Coriandrum sativum. In this assay, casein was used as a substrate and Coomassie dye was used to denote the completion of casein hydrolysis. In the absence of inhibitors, casein was hydrolysed and the solution became brown, while in the presence of metal ions such as Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution remained blue. Both Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ exhibited one-phase binding curve with IC₅₀ values of 3.217 mg/L and 0.727 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for Hg were 0.241 and 0.802 mg/L, respectively, while the LOD and LOQ for Zn were 0.228 and 0.761 mg/L, respectively. The enzyme exhibited broad pH ranges for activity. The crude proteases extracted from Coriandrum sativum showed good potential for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the biomonitoring of Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ in the aquatic environments.
Although there have been considerable advances in the study of dengue virus, no vaccines or anti-dengue drugs are currently available for humans. Therefore, new approaches are necessary for the development of potent anti-dengue drugs. Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with potent antiviral activities are potential hits-to-leads for antiviral drug discovery. We performed this study to identify and characterise the inhibitory potential of the latarcin peptide (Ltc 1, SMWSGMWRRKLKKLRNALKKKLKGE) against dengue virus replication in infected cells.
Some novel hydrazone derivatives 6a-o were synthesized from the key intermediate 4-Chloro-N-(2-hydrazinocarbonyl-phenyl)-benzamide 5 and characterized using IR, ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The inhibitory potential against two secretory phospholipase A₂ (sPLA₂), three protease enzymes and eleven bacterial strains were evaluated. The results revealed that all compounds showed preferential inhibition towards hGIIA isoform of sPLA₂ rather than DrG-IB with compounds 6l and 6e being the most active. The tested compounds exhibited excellent antiprotease activity against proteinase K and protease from Bacillus sp. with compound 6l being the most active against both enzymes. Furthermore, the maximum zones of inhibition against bacterial growth were exhibited by compounds; 6a, 6m, and 6o against P. aeruginosa; 6a, 6b, 6d, 6f, 6l, 6m, 6n, and 6o against Serratia; 6k against S. mutans; and compounds 6a, 6d, 6e, 6m, and 6n against E. feacalis. The docking simulations of hydrazones 6a-o with GIIA sPLA₂, proteinase K and hydrazones 6a-e with glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase were performed to obtain information regarding the mechanism of action.
Various works have been carried out in developing therapeutics against dengue. However, to date, no effective vaccine or anti-dengue agent has yet been discovered. The development of protease inhibitors is considered as a promising option, but most previous works have involved competitive inhibition. In this study, we focused on rational discovery of potential anti-dengue agents based on non-competitive inhibition of DEN-2 NS2B/NS3 protease. A homology model of the DEN-2 NS2B/NS3 protease (using West Nile Virus NS2B/NS3 protease complex, 2FP7, as the template) was used as the target, and pinostrobin, a flavanone, was used as the standard ligand. Virtual screening was performed involving a total of 13 341 small compounds, with the backbone structures of chalcone, flavanone, and flavone, available in the ZINC database. Ranking of the resulting compounds yielded compounds with higher binding affinities compared with the standard ligand. Inhibition assay of the selected top-ranking compounds against DEN-2 NS2B/NS3 proteolytic activity resulted in significantly better inhibition compared with the standard and correlated well with in silico results. In conclusion, via this rational discovery technique, better inhibitors were identified. This method can be used in further work to discover lead compounds for anti-dengue agents.
After a median of 115.9 months of follow-up, 90% of 206 HIV-1-infected children in a cohort in Asia who initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) with mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were alive and had comparable immunological and virological outcomes as compared to the 1,915 children who had started with highly active antiretroviral regimens. However, these children had higher rates of treatment-related adverse events, opportunistic infections, and cumulative mortality, and were more likely to require protease inhibitor-containing regimens or other more novel ART-based regimens.
This study determined the association between nutritional status and the use of protease inhibitors (PI)
containing regimen among HIV-infected children receiving treatment at the referral centres in Klang
Valley. A total of 95 children currently on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, aged one to eighteen years, were recruited using purposive sampling. Demographic data, anthropometric measurements, medical history, were collected using a structured questionnaire. Serum micronutrients levels and lipid profile were also examined using blood samples. Mean age was 8.8 3.9 years and 44.2% were on PI. Age ( 2 = 10.351, p = .006), weight-for-age ( 2 = 6.567, p = .010), serum selenium ( 2 = 4.225, p = .040) and HDL-C ( 2 = 7.539, p = .006) were significantly associated with the use of PI. Fewer children on PI were deficient in selenium as compared to those not on PI. On the contrary, more children on PI were underweight and had low HDL-C. The use of PI was found to have both positive and negative effects with better selenium level but poorer HDL-C level and weight status.
Dengue is a potentially deadly disease with no effective drug. An in silico molecular docking was performed using Autodock
4.2.6 to investigate the molecular interactions between protease inhibitors, comprising antibiotic derivatives namely
doxycycline (3), rolitetracycline (5) and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), meclofenamic acid (4), against
the NS2B-NS3 protease from dengue virus-2 (DENV-2). The non-competitive inhibitor (3) showed lower binding energy
(-5.15 kcal/mol) than the predicted competitive inhibitors 4 and 5 (-3.64 and -3.21 kcal/mol, respectively). Structural
analyses showed compound 3 that bound to a specific allosteric site, interacted with Lys74, a significant amino acid
residue bonded to one of the catalytic triad, Asp75. Compounds 4 and 5 showed direct binding with two of the catalytic
triad, His51 and Ser135, hence, predicted to be competitive inhibitors.
The isolation of therapeutic and functional protease inhibitors in vitro via combinatorial chemistry and phage display technology has been described previously. Here we report the construction of a combinatorial mouse-human chimeric antibody fragment (Fab) antibody library targeted against the protease of the tropical pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The resulting library was biopanned against the protease, and selected clones were analyzed for their ability to function as protease inhibitors. Three families of Fabs were identified by restriction fingerprinting, all of which demonstrated high specificity towards the protease of B. pseudomallei. Purified Fabs also demonstrated the capacity to inhibit B. pseudomallei protease activity in vitro, and this inhibitory property was exclusive to the pathogenic protease. Thus these recombinant antibodies are candidates for immunotherapy and tools to aid in further elucidation of the mechanism of action of the B. pseudomallei protease.
Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031) synthesizes different types of extracellular proteases. The objective of this study is to optimize polyethylene glycol (PEG)/citrate based on an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to purify protease from Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031). The effects of different PEG molecular weights (1500-10,000 g/mol), PEG concentration (9%-20%), concentrations of NaCl (0%-10%) and the citrate buffer (8%-16%) on protease were also studied. The best protease purification could be achieved under the conditions of 9.0% (w/w) PEG 8000, 5.2% NaCl, and 15.9% sodium citrate concentration, which resulted in a one-sided protease partitioning for the bottom phase with a partition coefficient of 0.2, a 6.8-fold protease purification factor, and a yield of 93%. The response surface models displayed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) response which was fit for the variables that were studied as well as a high coefficient of determination (R²). Similarly, the predicted and observed values displayed no significant (p > 0.05) differences. In addition, our enzyme characterization study revealed that Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031) produced a slight neutral protease with a molecular weight between 100 and 140 kDa. The optimal activity of the purified enzyme occurred at a pH of 6.0 and at a temperature of 50 °C. The stability between different pH and temperature ranges along with the effect of chemical metal ions and inhibitors were also studied. Our results reveal that the purified enzyme could be used in the dairy industry such as in accelerated cheese ripening.
Langat (LGT) virus, initially isolated in 1956 from ticks in Malaysia, is a naturally occurring nonpathogenic virus with a very close antigenicity to the highly pathogenic tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) Western subtype virus and TBE Far Eastern subtype virus. NS3, the second largest viral protein of LGT virus, is highly conserved among flaviviruses and contains a characteristic protease moiety (NS3 pro). NS3 pro represents an attractive target for anti-protease molecules against TBE virus. We report herein a purification method specially designed for NS3 pro of LGT using a strategy for proper refolding coupled with the enzymatic characterisation of the protein. Different p-nitroanilide substrates, defined on canonic sequences for their susceptibility to Ser-protease, were applied to the proteolytic assays of the protein. The highest values were obtained from substrates containing an Arg or Lys (amino acid) residue at the P1 position. This purification method will facilitate the future development of reliable testing procedures for anti-proteases directed to NS3 proteins.
Matched MeSH terms: Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
To compare changes over 48 weeks in bone mineral density (BMD) between participants randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + raltegravir (RAL) or LPV/r + 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTIs) as second line therapy.
Matched MeSH terms: HIV Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage; HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects*
The pathogenic dengue virus (DV) is a growing global threat, particularly in South East Asia, for which there is no specific treatment available. The virus possesses a two-component (NS2B/NS3) serine protease that cleaves the viral precursor proteins. Here, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the NS2B/NS3 protease complexes with six peptide substrates (capsid, intNS3, 2A/2B, 4B/5, 3/4A and 2B/3 containing the proteolytic site between P(1) and P(1)' subsites) of DV type 2 to compare the specificity of the protein-substrate binding recognition. Although all substrates were in the active conformation for cleavage reaction by NS2B/NS3 protease, their binding strength was somewhat different. The simulated results of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and decomposition energies suggested that among the ten substrate residues (P(5)-P(5)') the P(1) and P(2) subsites play a major role in the binding with the focused protease. The arginine residue at these two subsites was found to be specific preferential binding at the active site with a stabilization energy of intNS3>2A/2B>4B/5>3/4A>2B/3 in a relative correspondence with previous experimentally derived values.