The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in hydroxyapatite (HA)-induced phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. The cells were incubated with HA particles at various incubation time and the levels of PKC activity were determined from the cell lysate. To determine the role of PKC, particles were incubated with the cells pretreated with the various concentrations of bisindolylmaleimide, a PKC inhibitor, and phagocytosis was then assessed at 60 min. Latex beads were used as a control. Our results showed that following incubation with HA particles, the levels of PKC activity in RAW264.7 cells was highest at 7 min and then decreased to reach the baseline levels of the controls at 30 min. Pretreatment of the cells with bisindolylmaleimide significantly reduced phagocytosis of HA particles in a dose-dependent pattern. The results of our present study suggest therefore that ingestion of HA by RAW264.7 cells may depend on PKC activity that may act in the early stages of phagocytosis.
Matched MeSH terms: Protein Kinase C/antagonists & inhibitors; Protein Kinase C/metabolism*; Protein Kinase C/physiology
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by compulsive binge alcohol intake, leading to various health and social harms. Protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a specific family of PKC isoenzyme, regulates binge alcohol intake, and potentiates alcohol-related cues. Alcohol via upstream kinases like the mammalian target to rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) or 2 (mTORC2), may affect the activities of PKCε or vice versa in AUD. mTORC2 phosphorylates PKCε at hydrophobic and turn motif, and was recently reported to be associated with alcohol-seeking behavior, suggesting the potential role of mTORC2-PKCε interactions in the pathophysiology of AUD. mTORC1 regulates translation of synaptic proteins involved in alcohol-induced plasticity. Hence, in this article, we aimed to review the molecular composition of mTORC1 and mTORC2, drugs targeting PKCε, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in AUD, upstream regulation of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in AUD and downstream cellular mechanisms of mTORCs in the pathogenesis of AUD.
The locus coeruleus (LC) as a target of addictive drugs receives a dense projection of orexinergic fibres from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and is accordingly a candidate site for the expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Recently it has been shown that the inhibitory synaptic currents of LC neurons decrease partly through orexin type 1 receptors in the context of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal; however, its cellular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of LC neurons in brainstem slices were used to investigate the impact of protein kinase C (PKC) on GABAergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in the context of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. Male Wistar rats (P14-P21) received morphine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 7 consecutive days to induce morphine dependency. Our results showed that the application of PKC inhibitor (Go 6983; 1 µM) alone did not decrease the probability of GABA release in the LC neurons of the morphine-treated rats in the presence of naloxone. Although, Go 6983 reversed the reduction of the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) and spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) frequency induced by orexin-A but did not change the sIPSCs amplitude. These results indicate that the suppressive effect of orexin-A on IPSCs is probably reversed by PKC inhibitor in the LC neurons of morphine-treated rats in the context of naloxone withdrawal.
Matched MeSH terms: Protein Kinase C/antagonists & inhibitors; Protein Kinase C/metabolism*
Fungi are important natural product sources that have enormous potential for the production of novel compounds for use in pharmacology, agricultural applications and industry. Compared with other natural sources such as plants, fungi are highly diverse but understudied. However, research on Cladosporium cladosporioides revealed the existence of bioactive products such as p-methylbenzoic acid, ergosterol peroxide (EP) and calphostin C as well as enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG) and chlorpyrifos hydrolase. p-Methylbenzoic acid has ability to synthesise 1,5-benzodiazepine and its derivatives, polyethylene terephthalate and eicosapentaenoic acid. EP has anticancer, antiangiogenic, antibacterial, anti-oxidative and immunosuppressive properties. Calphostin C inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) by inactivating both PKC-epsilon and PKC-alpha. In addition, calphostin C stimulates apoptosis in WEHI-231 cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Based on the stimulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in some types of cancer, calphostin C has also been evaluated as a potential photodynamic therapeutic agent. Methylesterase (PME) and PG have garnered attention because of their usage in the food processing industry and significant physiological function in plants. Chlorpyrifos, a human, animal and plant toxin, can be degraded and eliminated by chlorpyrifos hydrolase.
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a major component of extracellular matrix has been widely applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to its reported pharmacological properties. Various types of HA drug delivery system including nanoparticles, cryogel-based formulations, microneedle patches, and nano-emulsions were developed. There are studies reporting that several HA-based transdermal delivery systems exhibit excellent biocompatibility, enhanced permeability and efficient localized release of anti-psoriasis drugs and have shown to inhibit psoriasis-associated skin inflammation. Similarly HA is found in abundant at epidermis of atopic dermatitis (AD) suggesting its role in atopic AD pathology. Anti-allergenic effect of atopic eczema can be achieved through the inhibition of CD44 and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) interaction by HA. Herein, we aim to evaluate the current innovation on HA drug delivery system and the other potential applications of HA in inflammatory skin diseases, focusing on atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. HA is typically integrated into different delivery systems including nanoparticles, liposomes, ethosomes and microneedle patches in supporting drug penetration through the stratum corneum layer of the skin. For instance, ethosomes and microneedle delivery system such as curcumin-loaded HA-modified ethosomes were developed to enhance skin retention and delivery of curcumin to CD44-expressing psoriatic cells whereas methotrexate-loaded HA-based microneedle was shown to enhance skin penetration of methotrexate to alleviate psoriasis-like skin inflammation. HA-based nanoparticles and pluronic F-127 based dual responsive (pH/temperature) hydrogels had been described to enhance drug permeation through and into the intact skin for AD treatment.
DNA polymerase β is a 39kDa enzyme that is a major component of Base Excision Repair in human cells. The enzyme comprises two major domains, a 31kDa domain responsible for the polymerase activity and an 8kDa domain, which bind ssDNA and has a deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) lyase activity. DNA polymerase β was shown to be phosphorylated in vitro with protein kinase C (PKC) at serines 44 and 55 (S44 and S55), resulting in loss of its polymerase enzymic activity, but not its ability to bind ssDNA. In this study, we investigate the potential phosphorylation-induced structural changes for DNA polymerase β using molecular dynamics. The simulations show drastic conformational changes of the polymerase structure as a result of S44 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-induced conformational changes transform the closed (active) enzyme structure into an open one. Further analysis of the results points to a key hydrogen bond and newly formed salt bridges as potential drivers of these structural fluctuations. The changes observed with S44/55 and S55 phosphorylation were less dramatic than S44 and the integrity of the H-bond was not compromised. Thus the phosphorylation of S44 is likely the major contributor to structural fluctuations that lead to loss of enzymatic activity.
The growing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) will continue to be sight threatening factors. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is a widespread cause of visual impairment in the world and a range of hyperglycemia-linked pathways have been implicated in the initiation and progression of this condition. Despite understanding the polyol pathway flux, activation of protein kinase C (KPC) isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetes induced vision loss are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to review molecular mechanisms that regulate cell survival and apoptosis of retinal cells and discuss new and exciting therapeutic targets with comparison to the old and inefficient preventive strategies. This review highlights the recent advancements in understanding hyperglycemia-induced biochemical and molecular alterations, systemic metabolic factors, and aberrant activation of signaling cascades that ultimately lead to activation of a number of transcription factors causing functional and structural damage to retinal cells. It also reviews the established interventions and emerging molecular targets to avert diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors.
Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in carcinogenesis and displays variable expression profiles during cancer progression. Studies of dietary phytochemicals on cancer signalling pathway regulation have been conducted to search for potent signalling regulatory agents. The present study was designed to evaluate any suppressive effect of maslinic acid on PKC expression in human B-lymphoblastoid cells (Raji cells), and to identify the PKC isoforms expressed. Effects of maslinic acid on PKC activity were determined using a PepTag assay for non-radioactive detection of PKC. The highest expression in Raji cells was obtained at 20 nM PMA induced for 6 hours. Suppressive effects of maslinic acid were compared with those of four PKC inhibitors (H- 7, rottlerin, sphingosine, staurosporine) and two triterpenes (oleanolic acid and ursolic acid). The IC₅₀ values achieved for maslinic acid, staurosporine, H-7, sphingosine, rottlerin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were 11.52, 0.011, 0.767, 2.45, 5.46, 27.93 and 39.29 μM, respectively. Four PKC isoforms, PKC βI, βII, δ, and ζ, were identified in Raji cells via western blotting. Maslinic acid suppressed the expression of PKC βI, δ, and ζ in a concentration-dependent manner. These preliminary results suggest promising suppressive effects of maslinic acid on PKC activity in Raji cells. Maslinic acid could be a potent cancer chemopreventive agent that may be involved in regulating many downstream signalling pathways that are activated through PKC receptors.
Matched MeSH terms: Protein Kinase C/drug effects; Protein Kinase C/metabolism*
The aim of this study was to determine the role of intracellular proteins in phagocytosis of opsonized Porphyromonas gingivalis by RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line. This periodontopathogen was grown anaerobically and opsonized with an IgG2a murine monoclonal anti-P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide antibody. RAW264.7 cells were preincubated with protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (staurosporine and genistein), protein kinase C inhibitors (phorbol myristic acetate and bisindolylmaleimide), a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid), a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (worthmannin), phospholipase A2 inhibitors (bromophenacyl bromide and nordihydroguaiaretic acid), phospholipase C inhibitors (p-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate and neomycin sulfate), an actin-filament depolymerizer (cytochalasin D), and a microtubule disrupting agent (colchicine). Inhibitor-treated macrophages were then incubated with the opsonized P. gingivalis and the phagocytosed cells determined microscopically. The results showed the percentage of the phagocytosed organisms decreased when the cells were preincubated with protein tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, protein phosphatase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors. Of interest, preincubation with phorbol myristic acetate for 30 min increased the ability of RAW264.7 cells to phagocytose the opsonized organisms. Phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C inhibitors only slightly reduced the number of phagocytosed organisms. The results indicated that opsonophagocytosis of P. gingivalis by RAW264.7 cells might be determined by the activation of protein tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, protein phosphatases, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. Both phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C would appear to be involved to a lesser extent. The opsonophagocytosis of this periodontopathogen would also appear to be dependent upon actin and microtubule polymerization.
Matched MeSH terms: Protein Kinase C/antagonists & inhibitors; Protein Kinase C/physiology*
Choline kinase is the most upstream enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP and Mg2+ during the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. In humans, choline kinase (CK) is encoded by two separate genes, ckα and ckβ, which produce three isoforms, CKα1, CKα2, and CKβ. Previous studies have associated ckβ with muscle development; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the transcriptional regulation of ckβ has never been elucidated.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer is a major clinical problem in chemotherapy of cancer patients. We have noted inappropriate PKCδ hypomethylation and overexpression of genes in the PKCδ/AP-1 pathway in the human uterus sarcoma drug-resistant cell line, MES-SA/Dx5 cells, which also overexpress p-glycoprotein (ABCB1). Recent studies have indicated that FZD1 is overexpressed in both multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and in clinical tumor samples. These data have led us to hypothesize that the FZD1-mediated PKCδ signal-transduction pathway may play an important role in drug resistance in MES-SA/Dx5 cells. In this work, the PKCδ inhibitor Rottlerin was found to reduce ABCB1 expression and to inhibit the MDR drug pumping ability in the MES-SA/Dx5 cells when compared with the doxorubicin-sensitive parental cell line, MES-SA. PKCδ was up-regulated with concurrent up-regulation of the mRNA levels of the AP-1-related factors, c-JUN and c-FOS. Activation of AP-1 also correlated with up-regulation of the AP-1 downstream genes HGF and EGR1. Furthermore, AP-1 activities were reduced and the AP-1 downstream genes were down-regulated in Rottlerin-treated or PKCδ shRNA-transfected cells. MES-SA/Dx5 cells were resensitized to doxorubicin-induced toxicity by co-treatment with doxorubicin and Rottlerin or PKCδ shRNA. In addition, cell viability and drug pump-out ability were significantly reduced in the FZD1 inhibitor curcumin-treated and FZD1 shRNA-knockdown MES-SA/Dx5 cells, indicating involvement of PKCδ in FZD1-modulated ABCB1 expression pathway. Taken together, our data demonstrate that FZD1 regulates PKCδ, and the PKCδ/AP-1 signalling transduction pathway plays an important role in drug resistance in MES-SA/Dx5 cells.
Matched MeSH terms: Protein Kinase C-delta/biosynthesis*
The direct feeding of Jatropha meal containing phorbol esters (PEs) indicated mild to severe toxicity symptoms in various organs of different animals. However, limited information is available on cellular and molecular mechanism of toxicity caused by PEs present in Jatropha meal. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic and mode of action of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal using human hepatocyte (Chang) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell lines. The results showed that isolated PEs inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines with the CC(50) of 125.9 and 110.3 μg/mL, respectively. These values were compatible to that of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) values as positive control i.e., 124.5 and 106.3 μg/mL respectively. Microscopic examination, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation results confirmed cell death due to apoptosis upon treatment with PEs and PMA at CC(50) concentration for 24 h in both cell lines. The Western blot analysis revealed the overexpression of PKC-δ and activation of caspase-3 proteins which could be involved in the mechanism of action of PEs and PMA. Consequently, the PEs isolated form Jatropha meal caused toxicity and induced apoptosis-mediated proliferation inhibition toward Chang and Vero cell lines involving over-expression of PKC-δ and caspase-3 as their mode of actions.
Withdrawal from long-term ethanol consumption results in overexcitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which induces an anxiety-like syndrome. Most alcoholics that suffer from such symptoms frequently depend on habitual drinking as self-medication to alleviate their symptoms. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon have been reported to mediate acute and chronic effects of ethanol. This study explores the changes in mGlu5 and PKC epsilon in the amygdala following acute administration of ethanol during ethanol withdrawal (EW) induced anxiety. Male Wistar rats were fed a modified liquid diet containing low-fat cow milk, sucrose, and maltodextrin, with a gradual introduction of 2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2% ethanol for 20 days. Six hours into EW, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and ethanol (2.5 g/kg, 20% v/v), and exposed to open-field and elevated plus maze tests. Then, amygdala tissue was dissected from the rat brain for Western blot and gene expression studies. EW-induced anxiety was accompanied by a significant increase in mGlu5, total PKC epsilon, and phosphorylated PKC epsilon protein levels, and also of mRNA of mGlu5 (GRM5) in the amygdala. Acute administration of ethanol significantly attenuated EW-induced anxiety as well as an EW-induced increase in GRM5. The acute challenge of ethanol to EW rats had little effect on the phosphorylated and total protein levels of PKC epsilon in the amygdala. Our results demonstrate that amygdala PKC epsilon may not be directly involved in the development of anxiety following EW.
The perception of pain caused by inflammation serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. The generation and transmission of pain impulses involves various pathways and receptors. Cardamonin isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. has been reported to exert antinociceptive effects in thermal and mechanical pain models; however, the precise mechanism has yet to be examined. The present study investigated the possible mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive activity of cardamonin on protein kinase C, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors, l-arginine/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) mechanism, as well as the ATP-sensitive potassium (K+) channel. Cardamonin was administered to the animals intra-peritoneally. Present findings showed that cardamonin significantly inhibited pain elicited by intraplantar injection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator) with calculated mean ED50 of 2.0 mg/kg (0.9-4.5 mg/kg). The study presented that pre-treatment with MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist) and NBQX (non-NMDA receptor antagonist) significantly modulates the antinociceptive activity of cardamonin at 3 mg/kg when tested with glutamate-induced paw licking test. Pre-treatment with l-arginine (a nitric oxide precursor), ODQ (selective inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor) significantly enhanced the antinociception produced by cardamonin. In conclusion, the present findings showed that the antinociceptive activity of cardamonin might involve the modulation of PKC activity, NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors, l-arginine/nitric oxide/cGMP pathway and ATP-sensitive K+ channel.
Microglial cells are the primary immune cell resident in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that microglial cells play a prominent role in alcohol-induced brain pathologies. However, alcohol-induced effects on microglial cells and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and evidence exists to support generation of oxidative stress due to NADPH oxidases (NOX_-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the role of the oxidative stress-sensitive Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential melastatin-related 2 (TRPM2) channel in ethanol (EtOH)-induced microglial cell death using BV2 microglial cells. Like H2O2, exposure to EtOH induced concentration-dependent cell death, assessed using a propidium iodide assay. H2O2/EtOH-induced cell death was inhibited by treatment with TRPM2 channel inhibitors and also treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, demonstrating the critical role of PARP and the TRPM2 channel in EtOH-induced cell death. Exposure to EtOH, as expected, led to an increase in ROS production, shown using imaging of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. Consistently, EtOH-induced microglial cell death was suppressed by inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) as well as inhibition of protein kinase C. Taken together, our results suggest that exposure to high doses of ethanol can induce microglial cell death via the NOX/ROS/PARP/TRPM2 signaling pathway, providing novel and potentially important insights into alcohol-induced brain pathologies.
Upon peripheral nerve injury (PNI), continuous proliferation of Schwann cells is critical for axon regeneration and tubular reconstruction for nerve regeneration. Melatonin is a hormone that is able to induce proliferation in various cell types. In the present study, the effects of melatonin on promoting Schwann cell proliferation and the molecular mechanism involved were investigated. The present results showed that melatonin enhanced the melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) expression in Schwann cells. Melatonin induced Schwann cell dedifferentiation into progenitor-like Schwann cells, as observed by immunofluorescence staining, which showed Sox2 marker expression. In addition, melatonin enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, mediated by the upregulation of glial cell-derived neurotropic factor (GNDF) and protein kinase C (PKC). Furthermore, the Ras/Raf/ERK and MAPK signaling pathways were also involved in Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation. In conclusion, melatonin induced Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation via the Ras/Raf/ERK, MAPK and GDNF/PKC pathways. The present results suggested that melatonin could be used to enhance the recovery of PNI.
Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved.
Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC₅₀ of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC₅₀ concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun). These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy.
Matched MeSH terms: Protein Kinase C-delta/metabolism*
Nitric oxide (NO) may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and, hence, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans surface-associated material (SAM) stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and NO production by the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Cells were stimulated with untreated or heat-treated A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM and with or without pre-treatment with L-N(6)-(1-Iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL) (an iNOS inhibitor), polymyxin B, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, genistein [a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor], bisindolylmaleimide [a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor], bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) [a phospholipase A(2) (PLA2) inhibitor] or wortmannin [phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor]. The iNOS activity and nitrite production in the cell cultures were determined. Untreated but not heat-treated A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM-stimulated both iNOS activity and nitrite production in RAW264.7 cells. L-NIL, IL-4, IL-10, genistein, bisindolylmaleimide, or BPB, suppressed but IFN-γ enhanced both iNOS activity and nitrite production by A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM-stimulated cells. Wortmannin and polymyxin B failed to alter both iNOS activity or nitrite production by A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM treated cells. Therefore, the present study suggests that a heat-sensitive protein constituent(s) of A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM stimulates both iNOS activity and nitrite production by RAW264.7 cells in a cytokine, PTK, PKC, and PLA(2) but not PI-3K-dependent fashion.
This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of zerumbone in chemical behavioural models of nociception in mice. Zerumbone given through intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced dose-related antinociception when assessed on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. In addition, the i.p. administration of zerumbone exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of capsaicin and bradykinin. Likewise, zerumbone given by i.p. route reduced the nociception produced by i.pl. injection of glutamate and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The antinociception caused by zerumbone in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with l-arginine (nitric oxide precursor) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor). However, the antinociception of zerumbone was enhanced by methylene blue (non-specific gyanylyl cyclase inhibitor). Together, these results indicate that zerumbone produces pronounced antinociception against chemical models of nociception in mice. It also strongly suggests that the l-arginine-nitric oxide-cGMP-PKC-K(+) ATP channel pathways, the TRPV1 and kinin B2 receptors play an important role in the zerumbone-induced antinociception.