McIntyre was the first to suggest ranked set sampling (RSS) method for estimating the population mean. In this paper, we modify RSS to come up with new sampling method, namely, two stage ranked set sampling (TSRSS) for samples of size m=3k (k=1,2,..). The TSRSS is suggested for estimating the population median in order to increase the efficiency of the estimators. The TSRSS was compared to the simple random sampling (SRS), ranked set sampling (RSS), extreme ranked set sampling (ERSS), median ranked set sampling (MRSS) and balance groups ranked set sampling (BGRSS) methods. It is found that, TSRSS gives an unbiased estimator of the population median of symmetric distributions and it is more efficient than SRS. Also, it is more efficient than RSS, ERSS, MRSS and BGRSS based on the same number of measured units. For asymmetric distributions considered in this study, TSRSS has a small bias and smaller variance than SRS, RSS, ERSS, MRSS and BGRSS methods.
It is commonly held that in vivo biological experimental models are concrete and non-fictional. This belief is primarily supported by the fact that in vivo studies involve biological models which are alive, and what is alive cannot be fictional. However, I argue that this is not always the case. The design of an experimental model could still render an in vivo model fictional because fictional elements and processes can be built into these in vivo experimental models. These fictional elements are essential parts of a credentialed fiction because the designs of in vivo experimental models are constrained by imaginability, conceivability, and credit-worthiness. Therefore, despite its fictionality, it is credible for an in vivo experimental model to stand in for the phenomenon of interest.
Bapa tunggal merupakan satu golongan yang kurang dititikberatkan oleh masyarakat termasuk agensi-agensi dan NGO yang memfokuskan kepada kebajikan masyarakat berbanding dengan ibu tunggal. Hal ini kerana kebanyakan masyarakat merasakan bahawa golongan ini memiliki kekuatan fizikal dan mental yang tinggi memandangkan bapa tunggal adalah kaum lelaki. Namun, tidak dinafikan bahawa golongan bapa tunggal ini juga mengalami tekanan serius kerana kehilangan satu semangat atau sokongan tanpa pasangan hidupnya. Mereka terpaksa menyandang pelbagai tugas dalam rumah tangga dan membesarkan anak-anak. Kajian terdahulu lebih memfokuskan kepada ibu tunggal yang mendapat sokongan sosial daripada pelbagai agensi. Maka tekanan dan sokongan sosial penting dalam permasalahan bapa tunggal terutama dalam pengurusan rumah tangga dan pekerjaan harian. Objektif utama kajian ini ialah meneroka tekanan dan sokongan sosial dalam kalangan bapa tunggal. Kajian ini dijalankan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif berpandukan kajian kes. Teknik pengumpulan data kajian adalah melalui temu bual berstruktur. Tujuh orang informan telah dipilih bagi kajian ini dengan menggunakan teknik persampelan bertujuan (purposive sampling). Lokasi kajian yang dipilih ialah daerah Kuala Selangor, Selangor. Data temu bual berstruktur dianalisis secara tematik dan hasil kajian mendapati terdapat tiga faktor utama yang mempengaruhi tekanan terhadap bapa tunggal iaitu emosi, pengurusan rumah tangga dan pekerjaan yang ditemukan menerusi transkrip informan kajian. Manakala sokongan sosial yang diperlukan oleh golongan bapa tunggal ialah kewangan, sokongan moral dan tempat bersembang. Implikasi kajian ini diharapkan dapat mencadangkan program advokasi yang sesuai kepada pekerja sosial dalam mengendalikan kes bapa tunggal dalam komuniti dan institusi.
Research implementation methodology is an important element in any study. Good data
are obtained from the study that is carefully planned based on an appropriate design, as well as the
approach that is used in the process of obtaining the data. The main objective of the proposed study is
to identify criteria for sustainable construction. Therefore, the right selection of study design and
implementation methodology is very important to ensure that the objectives are successfully achieved.
This manuscript writing presents the description of the design and implementation methodology used
in this study, namely content analysis, to meet the objective. Justification for the selected method to
achieve the objectives of the study is also discussed.
Many sampling methods have been suggested for estimating the population median. In the situation when the sampling units in a study can be easily ranked than quantified, the ranked set sampling methods are found to be more efficient and cost effective as compared to the simple random sampling. In this paper, the superiority of several ranked set sampling methods over the simple random sampling are illustrated through some simulation study. In addition, some new research topics under ranked set sampling are suggested.
In this paper, we report about chemically interaction between Pt Subnano-Clusters on Graphene Nano Sheets (GNS). The aim of this research is to clarify the size effect of Pt clusters on Pt 1-7 wt.%/GNS. This research is an experimental laboratory research. GNS was synthesized by using modified Hummer's method and 1-7 wt.% Pt/GNS were prepared with impregnation method. Then, they were analyzed with TG/DTA, XRD, TEM and XPS, respectively. The results show that Pt clusters are well deposited on GNS (TG/DTA and TEM data). Those data also are consistent with XRD data. The weak and broad peaks appear at 2θ = 39°, indicating Pt metal exists on GNS. The state of Pt is confirmed by using XPS. The appearance of Pt 4f. peaks proves that Pt metal is chemical interaction on GNS. The size of Pt clusters may affect the chemically properties of Pt/GNS catalysts.
Case reports can provide early information about new, unusual or rare disease(s), newer treatment strategies, improved therapeutic benefits and adverse effects of interventions or medications. This paper describes the process that led to the development of the Preferred Reporting Items for Case reports in Endodontics (PRICE) 2020 guidelines through a consensus-based methodology. A steering committee was formed with eight members (PD, VN, BC, PM, PS, EP, JJ and SP), including the project leaders (PD, VN). The steering committee developed an initial checklist by combining and modifying the items from the Case Report (CARE) guidelines and Clinical and Laboratory Images in Publications (CLIP) principles. A PRICE Delphi Group (PDG) and PRICE Face-to-Face Meeting Group (PFMG) were then formed. The members of the PDG were invited to participate in an online Delphi process to achieve consensus on the wording and utility of the checklist items and the accompanying flow chart that was created to complement the PRICE 2020 guidelines. The revised PRICE checklist and flow chart developed by the online Delphi process was discussed by the PFMG at a meeting held during the 19th European Society of Endodontology (ESE) Biennial Congress in Vienna, Austria, in September 2019. Following the meeting, the steering committee created a final version of the guidelines, which were piloted by several authors during the writing of a case report. In order to help improve the clarity, completeness and quality of case reports in Endodontics, we encourage authors to use the PRICE 2020 guidelines.
There has been progress towards malaria elimination in the last decade. In response, WHO launched the Global Technical Strategy (GTS), in which vector surveillance and control play important roles. Country experiences in the Eliminating Malaria Case Study Series were reviewed to identify success factors on the road to elimination using a cross-case study analytic approach.
Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments.
One of the most widely-used techniques for ligand-based virtual screening is similarity searching. This study adopted the concepts of quantum mechanics to present as state-of-the-art similarity method of molecules inspired from quantum theory. The representation of molecular compounds in mathematical quantum space plays a vital role in the development of quantum-based similarity approach. One of the key concepts of quantum theory is the use of complex numbers. Hence, this study proposed three various techniques to embed and to re-represent the molecular compounds to correspond with complex numbers format. The quantum-based similarity method that developed in this study depending on complex pure Hilbert space of molecules called Standard Quantum-Based (SQB). The recall of retrieved active molecules were at top 1% and top 5%, and significant test is used to evaluate our proposed methods. The MDL drug data report (MDDR), maximum unbiased validation (MUV) and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiment show that the effectiveness of SQB method was significantly increased due to the role of representational power of molecular compounds in complex numbers forms compared to Tanimoto benchmark similarity measure.
A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach.
Combinatorial test design is a plan of test that aims to reduce the amount of test cases systematically by choosing a subset of the test cases based on the combination of input variables. The subset covers all possible combinations of a given strength and hence tries to match the effectiveness of the exhaustive set. This mechanism of reduction has been used successfully in software testing research with t-way testing (where t indicates the interaction strength of combinations). Potentially, other systems may exhibit many similarities with this approach. Hence, it could form an emerging application in different areas of research due to its usefulness. To this end, more recently it has been applied in a few research areas successfully. In this paper, we explore the applicability of combinatorial test design technique for Fractional Order (FO), Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) parameter design controller, named as FOPID, for an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system. Throughout the paper, we justify this new application theoretically and practically through simulations. In addition, we report on first experiments indicating its practical use in this field. We design different algorithms and adapted other strategies to cover all the combinations with an optimum and effective test set. Our findings indicate that combinatorial test design can find the combinations that lead to optimum design. Besides this, we also found that by increasing the strength of combination, we can approach to the optimum design in a way that with only 4-way combinatorial set, we can get the effectiveness of an exhaustive test set. This significantly reduced the number of tests needed and thus leads to an approach that optimizes design of parameters quickly.
The well-known geostatistics method (variance-reduction method) is commonly used to determine the optimal rain gauge network. The main problem in geostatistics method to determine the best semivariogram model in order to be used in estimating the variance. An optimal choice of the semivariogram model is an important point for a good data evaluation process. Three different semivariogram models which are Spherical, Gaussian and Exponential are used and their performances are compared in this study. Cross validation technique is applied to compute the errors of the semivariograms. Rain-fall data for the period of 1975 – 2008 from the existing 84 rain gauge stations covering the state of Johor are used in this study. The result shows that the exponential model is the best semivariogram model and chosen to determine the optimal number and location of rain gauge station.
MXene based nanomaterial is an uprising two-dimensional material gaining tremendous scientific attentions due to its versatile properties for the applications in electronic devices, power generation, sensors, drug delivery, and biomedicine. However, the cytotoxic effects of MXene still remained a huge concern. Therefore, stringent analysis of biocompatibility of MXene is an essential requirement before introduction to human physiological system. Several in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies have been reported to investigate the interactions between MXenes with living organisms such as microbes, mammalian cells and animal models. The biological response and cytotoxicity reported were dependent on the physicochemical properties of MXene. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MXene were dependent on size, dose, and surface coating. This review demystifies the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies associated with MXene. Various methods proposed to mitigate the cytotoxicity of MXene for in vivo applications were revealed. The machine learning methods were developed to predict the cytotoxicity of experimentally synthesized MXene compounds. Finally, we also discussed the current research gaps of applying MXenes in biomedical interventions.
This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters.
The regulated use of animals in endodontic research is often necessary to investigate the biological mechanisms of endodontic diseases and to measure the preclinical efficacy, biocompatibility, toxicology and safety of new treatments, biomaterials, sealers, drugs, disinfectants, irrigants, devices and instruments. Animal testing is most crucial in situations when research on humans is not ethical, practical or has unknown health risks. Currently, there is a wide variability in the quality of manuscripts that report the results of animal studies. Towards the goal of improving the quality of publications, guidelines for preventing disability, pain, and suffering to animals, and enhanced reporting requirements for animal research have been developed. These guidelines are referred to as Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE). Henceforth, causing any form of animal suffering for research purposes is not acceptable and cannot be justified under any circumstances. The present report describes a protocol for the development of welfare and reporting guidelines for animal studies conducted in the specialty of Endodontology: the Preferred Reporting Items for Animal Studies in Endodontology (PRIASE) guidelines. The PRIASE guidelines will be developed by adapting and modifying the ARRIVE guidelines and the Clinical and Laboratory Images in Publication (CLIP) principles. The development of the new PRIASE guidelines will include a five-step consensus process. An initial draft of the PRIASE guidelines will be developed by a steering committee. Each item in the draft guidelines will then be evaluated by members of a PRIASE Delphi Group (PDG) for its clarity using a dichotomous scale (yes or no) and suitability for its inclusion using a 9-point Likert scale. The online surveys will continue until each item achieves this standard, and a set of items are agreed for further analysis by a PRIASE Face-to-face Consensus Meeting Group (PFCMG). Following the consensus meeting, the steering committee will finalize and confirm the PRIASE guidelines taking into account the responses and comments of the PFCMG. The PRIASE guidelines will be published and disseminated internationally and updated periodically based on feedback from stakeholders.
Reverse micellar extraction (RME) has emerged as a versatile and efficient tool for downstream processing (DSP) of various biomolecules, including structural proteins and enzymes, due to the substantial advantages over conventional DSP methods. However, the RME system is a complex dependency of several parameters that influences the overall selectivity and performance of the RME system, hence this justifies the need for optimization to obtain higher possible extraction results. For the last two decades, many experimental design strategies for screening and optimization of RME have been described in literature. The objective of this article is to review the use of different experimental designs and response surface methodologies that are currently used to screen and optimize the RME system for various types of biomolecules. Overall, this review provides the rationale for the selection of appropriate screening or optimization techniques for the parameters associated with both forward and backward extraction during the RME of biomolecules.