Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 146 in total

  1. Chin JH, Ratnavelu K
    PLoS One, 2016;11(5):e0155320.
    PMID: 27176470 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155320
    Community structure is considered one of the most interesting features in complex networks. Many real-world complex systems exhibit community structure, where individuals with similar properties form a community. The identification of communities in a network is important for understanding the structure of said network, in a specific perspective. Thus, community detection in complex networks gained immense interest over the last decade. A lot of community detection methods were proposed, and one of them is the label propagation algorithm (LPA). The simplicity and time efficiency of the LPA make it a popular community detection method. However, the LPA suffers from instability detection due to randomness that is induced in the algorithm. The focus of this paper is to improve the stability and accuracy of the LPA, while retaining its simplicity. Our proposed algorithm will first detect the main communities in a network by using the number of mutual neighbouring nodes. Subsequently, nodes are added into communities by using a constrained LPA. Those constraints are then gradually relaxed until all nodes are assigned into groups. In order to refine the quality of the detected communities, nodes in communities can be switched to another community or removed from their current communities at various stages of the algorithm. We evaluated our algorithm on three types of benchmark networks, namely the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR), Relaxed Caveman (RC) and Girvan-Newman (GN) benchmarks. We also apply the present algorithm to some real-world networks of various sizes. The current results show some promising potential, of the proposed algorithm, in terms of detecting communities accurately. Furthermore, our constrained LPA has a robustness and stability that are significantly better than the simple LPA as it is able to yield deterministic results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics*
  2. Lilford RJ, Oyebode O, Satterthwaite D, Melendez-Torres GJ, Chen YF, Mberu B, et al.
    Lancet, 2017 02 04;389(10068):559-570.
    PMID: 27760702 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31848-7
    In the first paper in this Series we assessed theoretical and empirical evidence and concluded that the health of people living in slums is a function not only of poverty but of intimately shared physical and social environments. In this paper we extend the theory of so-called neighbourhood effects. Slums offer high returns on investment because beneficial effects are shared across many people in densely populated neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood effects also help explain how and why the benefits of interventions vary between slum and non-slum spaces and between slums. We build on this spatial concept of slums to argue that, in all low-income and-middle-income countries, census tracts should henceforth be designated slum or non-slum both to inform local policy and as the basis for research surveys that build on censuses. We argue that slum health should be promoted as a topic of enquiry alongside poverty and health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics*
  3. A Samad NS, Abdul-Rahim AS, Mohd Yusof MJ, Tanaka K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Apr;27(10):10367-10390.
    PMID: 31939016 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-07593-7
    This study assessed the economic value of public urban green spaces (UGSs) in Kuala Lumpur (KL) city by using the hedonic price method (HPM). It involves 1269 house units from eight sub-districts in KL city. Based on the hedonic price method, this study formulates a global and local model. The global model and local model are analyzed using ordinary least square (OLS) regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR). By using the hedonic price method, the house price serves as a proxy for public urban green spaces' economic value. The house price is regressed against the set of three variables which are structural characteristics, neighborhood attributes, and environmental attributes. Measurements of interest in this study are environmental characteristics, including distance to public UGSs and size of public UGSs. The results of the OLS regression illustrated that Taman Rimba Kiara and Taman Tasik Titiwangsa provide the maximum economic value. On average, reducing the distance of the house location to Taman Rimba Kiara by 10 m increased the house price by RM1700. Similarly, increasing the size of the Taman Tasik Titiwangsa by 1000 m2 increases the house price by RM60,000. The advantage of the GWR result is the economic value of public UGSs which can be analyzed by the specific location according to sub-district. From this study, the GWR result exposed that the economic values of Taman Rimba Bukit Kiara and Taman Tasik Titiwangsa were not significant in each of the sub-district within KL city. Taman Rimba Bukit Kiara was negatively significant at all sub-districts except Setapak and certain house locations located at the sub-district of KL. In contrast, Taman Tasik Titiwangsa was positively significant at all sub-districts except certain house locations at the sub-districts of Batu, KL, Setapak, and KL city center. In conclusion, results show that the house price is influenced by the environmental attribute. However, even though both of these public UGSs generate the highest economic value based on distance and size, its significant values with an expected sign are only obtained based on the specific house location as verified by the local model. In terms of model comparison, the local model was better compared with the global model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics*
  4. Ancrenaz M, Dabek L, O'Neil S
    PLoS Biol., 2007 Oct 23;5(11):e289.
    PMID: 17958473
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics*
  5. Chan NW
    Disasters, 1995 Dec;19(4):287-307.
    PMID: 8564454
    In Peninsular Malaysia 'structural' factors are found to influence strongly people's persistent occupation of floodplains. Thus, despite a high level of flood hazard awareness, a high level of pessimism and a high level of expectation of future floods, poorer individuals seldom attempt to leave for more advantageous locations but are instead trapped in their present locations by structural factors such as poverty, low residential and occupational mobility, low educational attainment, traditional land inheritance, government aid, and government disaster preparedness, relief and rehabilitation programmes. These forces exert a strong influence upon individuals and largely control their choice of residential location in response to flood hazards, thereby reinforcing the persistent occupation of floodplains. Structural factors such as landlessness, rural-urban migration, floodplain encroachment and squatting are also highly influential in leading people to move. Even for those who move, structural factors have largely confined their choice of residential location to urban floodplains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics*
  6. Aziz, N.A., Ramymond, A.A.
    Medicine & Health, 2008;3(1):1-6.
    Stroke is becoming a major public health issue in our country due to the fact that there isan increasing life span of our population. Due to advancement of acute management of stroke, three out of four people will survive beyond the acute phase of stroke. Stroke careproviders are still debating regarding the exact period of the terminology ‘longer-term stroke’; however many agreed that long-term of stroke refers to the period of one year and thereafter as this period is the determinant for longer-term survival. Management beyond the first year of stroke is complex, encompasses all aspects of patient’s life; physical, psychological and integration into community. Rehabilitation being the cornerstone of longer-term stroke management should now focused on more evidence-based approach as to be effective and relevant to the stroke patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  7. Wan Maznah Wan Omar
    Algal communities possess many attributes as biological indicators of spatial and temporal environmental changes. Algal parameters, especially the community structural and functional variables that have been used in biological monitoring programs, are highlighted in this document. Biological indicators like algae have only recently been included in water quality assessments in some areas of Malaysia. The use of algal parameters in identifying various types of water degradation is essential and complementary to other environmental indicators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  8. Abraham, Martin
    ASM Science Journal, 2012;6(1):67-70.
    The pursuit, initiation and establishment of multi-stakeholder partnerships, including with the private sector, is often a critical component of attaining and achieving the success and sustainability of many projects the world over. However, the soliciting and securing of socially, economically and environmentally constructive engagements between the private sector on the one hand, and the NGOs, CBOs and local communities on the other hand, is in reality much easier said than done. Notably, since most private sector corporations undoubtedly tend to leave behind various "ecological footprints", differing only in their size and depth, stemming from their respective forms and functions, and their ensuing impacts and implications. The interplay between the civil society and the private sector, especially for resource mobilization. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  9. Khalil, A.L., Hanafiah, M.S., Idris, M.N., Khadijah, S., Suraiyah, H., Siti Sapor, B., et al.
    This is an intervention study utilising Community Counsellors ( CC) for social change. Each CC is allocated to problematic families and is asked to do Outreach Family Intervention (OFI) in the form of family diagnosis, counselling and therapy for a period of six utonths. The findings revealed that the outreach activities are moderately successful. With only minimal efforts; 33.3% ofthe total Family»Counsellors Contacts (FCC) and 56.6% ofthe total Duration of Visits (DV), CCs are capable of bringing almost 40% ofthe expected. change, understanding 57% ofthe family problems and taking action on 44% ofthe problems. This study has proven that OFI utilising CCs is quite a useful tool to bring change in the society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  10. Fung T, Chisholm RA, Anderson-Teixeira K, Bourg N, Brockelman WY, Bunyavejchewin S, et al.
    Ecol. Lett., 2020 Jan;23(1):160-171.
    PMID: 31698546 DOI: 10.1111/ele.13412
    Among the local processes that determine species diversity in ecological communities, fluctuation-dependent mechanisms that are mediated by temporal variability in the abundances of species populations have received significant attention. Higher temporal variability in the abundances of species populations can increase the strength of temporal niche partitioning but can also increase the risk of species extinctions, such that the net effect on species coexistence is not clear. We quantified this temporal population variability for tree species in 21 large forest plots and found much greater variability for higher latitude plots with fewer tree species. A fitted mechanistic model showed that among the forest plots, the net effect of temporal population variability on tree species coexistence was usually negative, but sometimes positive or negligible. Therefore, our results suggest that temporal variability in the abundances of species populations has no clear negative or positive contribution to the latitudinal gradient in tree species richness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  11. Lore W
    East Afr Med J, 1994 Dec;71(12):762-7.
    PMID: 7705242
    Between 1978 and 1987, Kenyan authors contributed an average of 47% of papers published in the East African Medical Journal (EAMJ), in comparison to 24% originating from Nigeria and 29% from other countries, mainly those in the eastern and central African region. From January 1988 to December 1993, 44.1% of the papers published in EAMJ originated from Kenyan authors as compared to 26.7% from Nigerian authors and 29.2% from authors in other countries. During this six year period, there has been a steady increase in authorship from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania, whereas authorship from Uganda and Zambia has declined. Many authors from Saudi Arabia are individuals originally from Nigeria now working in Saudi Arabia. These data indicate that Kenyan authorship has dropped by 3% over the last six years compared to the 1978-1987 period, while that of Nigeria has increased by at least 3% over the same period. During the period under review, EAMJ has attracted papers from as far as China, Turkey, Malaysia, Canada, USA, France, Sweden and Hungary. Similarly, papers have been received from other African countries not previously contributing to the journal; these include: Gabon, Mozambique, RSA, Burkina Faso, Botswana, Burundi, Namibia, Liberia, Egypt, Somalia and Zaire. Possible factors influencing authorship in the EAMJ are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Cerin E, Conway TL, Barnett A, Smith M, Veitch J, Cain KL, et al.
    Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2019 12 03;16(1):122.
    PMID: 31796075 DOI: 10.1186/s12966-019-0890-6
    BACKGROUND: The IPEN International Physical Activity and Environment Network Adolescent project was conducted using common study protocols to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with adolescents' physical activity and overweight/obesity using data from 15 countries. Countries did not use identical versions of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y) to measure perceived neighborhood environment attributes. Therefore, this study derived a measurement model for NEWS-Y items common to all IPEN Adolescent countries and developed a scoring protocol for the IPEN Adolescent version of the NEWS-Y (NEWS-Y-IPEN) that maximizes between-country comparability of responses. Additionally, this study examined between- and within-country variability, and construct validity of the NEWS-Y-IPEN subscales in relation to neighborhood-level socio-economic status and walkability.

    METHODS: Adolescents and one of their parents (N = 5714 dyads) were recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socio-economic status. To measure perceived neighborhood environment, 14 countries administered the NEWS-Y to parents and one country to adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to derive comparable country-specific measurement models of the NEWS-Y-IPEN. Country-specific standard deviations quantified within-country variability in the NEWS-Y-IPEN subscales, while linear mixed models determined the percentage of subscale variance due to between-country differences. To examine the construct validity of NEWS-Y-IPEN subscales, we estimated their associations with the categorical measures of area-level walkability and socio-economic status.

    RESULTS: Final country-specific measurement models of the factor-analyzable NEWS-Y-IPEN items provided acceptable levels of fit to the data and shared the same factorial structure with five latent factors (Accessibility and walking facilities; Traffic safety; Pedestrian infrastructure and safety; Safety from crime; and Aesthetics). All subscales showed sufficient levels of within-country variability. Residential density had the highest level of between-country variability. Associations between NEWS-Y-IPEN subscales and area-level walkability and socio-economic status provided strong evidence of construct validity.

    CONCLUSIONS: A robust measurement model and common scoring protocol of NEWS-Y for the IPEN Adolescent project (NEWS-Y-IPEN) were derived. The NEWS-Y-IPEN possesses good factorial and construct validity, and is able to capture between-country variability in perceived neighborhood environments. Future studies employing NEWS-Y-IPEN should use the proposed scoring protocol to facilitate cross-study comparisons and interpretation of findings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics/classification*
  13. Anuar Deen, M.K., Mohd Fairuz, A., Zuraidah, C.M., Nik Azlan, N.M.
    Medicine & Health, 2014;9(1):33-43.
    This study assessed the level of public awareness pertaining to risk factors, symptoms, treatment and source of information in relation to stroke and transient schaemic attack. Stroke risk profile of the respondents was correlated with their level of knowledge. Using a validated pre-tested questionnaire, 112 respondents were recruited during two separate community events. Respondents completed the questionnaire and underwent health screening. The data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Overall knowledge was poor. Only 35% of the respondents had satisfactory knowledge of the warning signs (p= 0.94) and 29% had satisfactory knowledge on the risk factors (p=0.46). When analysed according to risk groups, 26%, 30% and 41% of respondents had satisfactory awareness in the low, intermediate and high risk group, respectively. None of the respondents knew about the availability of treatment of acute stroke in the emergency department or the importance of rehabilitation as part of stroke management. Public awareness on stroke risk factors, symptoms and management is poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  14. Mani, Shani Ann
    The use of fluoride as a preventive measure for dental caries has been established more than 50 years ago. The recommendations for fluoride use has been modified over the years due to factors like decreased prevalence of caries, increased prevalence of dental fluorosis and the widespread availability of fluoride in various forms to the community. In recent years, the role of evidence-based recommendations has come to the forefront, in an attempt to ensure the most favorable treatment for the individual. This review has attempted to appraise the most recent evidence- based recommendations for different fluoride modalities put forth by various organizations worldwide, in order to appreciate the current status of fluoride in the early 21st century.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  15. Asra Hosseini
    From earliest cities to the present, spatial division into residential zones and neighbourhoods is the universal feature of urban areas. This study explored issue of measuring neighbourhoods through spatial autocorrelation method based on Moran’s I index in respect of achieving to best neighbourhoods’ model for forming cities smarter. The research carried out by selection of 35 neighbourhoods only within central part of traditional city of Kerman in Iran. The results illustrate, 75% of neighbourhoods’ area in the inner city of Kerman had clustered pattern, and it shows reduction in Moran’s index is associated with disproportional distribution of density and increasing in Moran’s I and Z-score have monotonic relation with more dense areas and clustered pattern. It may be more efficient for urban planner to focus on spatial autocorrelation to foster neighbourhood cohesion rather than emphasis on suburban area. It is recommended characteristics of historic neighbourhoods can be successfully linked to redevelopment plans toward making city smarter, and also people’s quality of life can be related to the way that neighbourhoods’ patterns are defined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  16. Gul Y, Sultan Z, Jokhio GA
    Heliyon, 2018 Aug;4(8):e00715.
    PMID: 30094383 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00715
    It has been reported in the literature that the perception of crime at the neighbourhood level inversely affects the walking behaviour of individuals. On the other hand, the gated neighbourhoods are considered safe from crime, however, there is a lack of research on the association of the perception of crime and walking in gated neighbourhoods. Therefore, the objectives of the study reported in this paper were to investigate the association between the perception of crime and walking in gated and non-gated neighbourhoods. A questionnaire was used to collect the data on walking and the perception of crime in 16 neighbourhoods of Karachi Pakistan, 8 out of which were gated. Independent sample t-test and gamma tests were used for the data analysis. The results show that although there is a lower perception of crime in the gated neighbourhoods, yet the inhabitants of gated neighbourhoods engage in less physical activity comprising of walking. In spite of a greater perception of crime in non-gated neighbourhoods, higher values of walking were reported by the residents of those neighbourhoods. Therefore, it has been concluded that there does not exist a definite relationship between the perception of crime and walking behaviour at the neighbourhood level and the perceived safety from crime claimed by the proponents of the gated neighbourhoods does not encourage walking among the residents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  17. Ziwary SR, Samad D, Johnson CD, Edwards RT
    BMC Palliat Care, 2017 Dec 12;16(1):72.
    PMID: 29233123 DOI: 10.1186/s12904-017-0261-5
    BACKGROUND: Previous research in England showed that deprivation level of a person's place of residence affects the place of death and quality of care received at the end of life. People dying in their preferred place of death has also been shown to act as an indication for high quality of end of life care services and social equality. This study expands on current research to explore the effects of deprivation and place of residence on health related choices and place of death in Wales.

    METHODS: We used ten years combined mortality statistics from 2005 to 2014 and Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation rankings for each lower super output area. After accounting for the population's age, the number of deaths in Hospital, Hospice, Home, Care Home, Psychiatric Units, and Elsewhere were compared across deprivation quintiles.

    RESULTS: Distribution of place of death was found to be concentrated in three places - hospital (60%), home (21%) and care home (13%). Results from this study shows a high number of hospital deaths, especially for more deprived areas, despite being the least preferred place of death.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first Welsh study investigating place of death in relation to deprivation, which could be of major importance to academics, end of life care providers and policy makers interested in to reduce health care inequality in Wales.

    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics/classification*; Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data
  18. Abdul Kadir AB
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  19. Khalib Abdul Latiff
    Introduction : Despite the number of information generated by researchers, cardiovascular diseases problem has not clearly declined and perhaps in certain situation it is gradually increasing, affecting people who are previously at low risk. There is a tendency to believe that favourable outcomes can always be expected once intervention activities, like exercise promotion, are carried out, but practical experience gives rise to serious doubt.
    Methods : A greater understanding of the socialization mechanisms operating in the adoption of physical activity in CVD control and allow specific exercise prescriptions for communitybased prevention and control is important. This paper highlighted the author’s feeling about controlling chronic diseases by mean of community intervention.
    Results : This analysis has strongly believed that the important impetus of any community intervention approach should be oriented in the form of “from people to people”.
    Conclusion : More emphasis needs to be placed on effective management and parameters for assessment of its management success.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
  20. Rosnah, I., Rohani, J., Farina, Z.
    The Healthy City concept was taken by Malaysia in 1994 and Malacca State has initiated this project in late 1997 and launched in September 1998. The aim of the project is to had ways of achieving a better quality of urban life. The objective of this study was to assess the views and responses of Melaka Tengah community with regards to the existing facilities and services rendered in the district. The views will be incorporated into ideas for the policymakers and planners to develop Malacca into a healthy city. Three methods were used to collect the data. Questionnaires were given to the community of Melaka Tengah District. The respondents were selected by multistage sampling, Observation was carried out at selected public places to assess the community's practices and contribution, Ten focus group discussion were conducted consisting of health staff and public to discuss on environmental, social, physical and economic issues of Malacca. There were 3 sectors that had mean scores above 3.0 (the cut off level for being satisfed). They were health, housing and environment, ln terms of dissatisfaction, there were 4 sectors scoring below 3.0, These include domestic waste dnposal, road system, public transportation and recreational park. The community
    expected the services to be improved especially in terms of cleanliness, They agreed to contribute in their own ways in developing the sectors discussed except for public transportation, wet market and food premises which were beyond their control. Observation showed that some of the community members exhibit bad behaviours that can contribute to an unhealthy city. The Melaka
    Tengah community expected ejficient and quality services and they agreed to contribute in making Malacca into a Healthy City.
    Matched MeSH terms: Residence Characteristics
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