There is no unique or 'ideal' running pattern that is the most economical for all runners. Classifying the global running patterns of individuals into two categories (aerial and terrestrial) using the Volodalen® method could permit a better understanding of the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanics. The main purpose was to compare RE between aerial and terrestrial runners.
Biomechanical parameters are often analyzed independently, although running gait is a dynamic system wherein changes in one parameter are likely to affect another. Accordingly, the Volodalen® method provides a model for classifying running patterns into 2 categories, aerial and terrestrial, using a global subjective rating scoring system. We aimed to validate the Volodalen® method by verifying whether the aerial and terrestrial patterns, defined subjectively by a running coach, were associated with distinct objectively-measured biomechanical parameters. The running patterns of 91 individuals were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen® method by an expert running coach during a 10-min running warm-up. Biomechanical parameters were measured objectively using the OptojumpNext® during a 50-m run performed at 3.3, 4.2, and 5 m·s(-1) and were compared between aerial- and terrestrial-classified subjects. Longer contact times and greater leg compression were observed in the terrestrial compared to the aerial runners. The aerial runners exhibited longer flight time, greater center of mass displacement, maximum vertical force and leg stiffness than the terrestrial ones. The subjective categorization of running patterns was associated with distinct objectively-quantified biomechanical parameters. Our results suggest that a subjective holistic assessment of running patterns provides insight into the biomechanics of running gaits of individuals.
A possible injury risk factor is limb asymmetry, which may differ across maturation given the adult growth spurt. The aim of this study is to quantify the magnitude of asymmetry in a number of kinetic variables during a running task in male youth of different maturity status.
Multistage, ultra-endurance events in hot, humid conditions necessitate thermal adaptation, often achieved through short term heat acclimation (STHA), to improve performance by reducing thermoregulatory strain and perceptions of heat stress. This study investigated the physiological, perceptual and immunological responses to STHA prior to the Marathon des Sables. Eight athletes (age 42 ± 4 years and body mass 81.9 ± 15.0 kg) completed 4 days of controlled hyperthermia STHA (60 min·day‒1, 45°C and 30% relative humidity). Pre, during and post sessions, physiological and perceptual measures were recorded. Immunological measures were recorded pre-post sessions 1 and 4. STHA improved thermal comfort (P = 0.02), sensation (P = 0.03) and perceived exertion (P = 0.04). A dissociated relationship between perceptual fatigue and Tre was evident after STHA, with reductions in perceived Physical (P = 0.04) and General (P = 0.04) fatigue. Exercising Tre and HR did not change (P > 0.05) however, sweat rate increased 14% (P = 0.02). No changes were found in white blood cell counts or content (P > 0.05). Four days of STHA facilitates effective perceptual adaptations, without compromising immune status prior to an ultra-endurance race in heat stress. A greater physiological strain is required to confer optimal physiological adaptations.
Observation of the diphoton decay mode of the recently discovered Higgs boson and measurement of some of its properties are reported. The analysis uses the entire dataset collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions during the 2011 and 2012 LHC running periods. The data samples correspond to integrated luminosities of 5.1[Formula: see text]at [Formula: see text] and 19.7[Formula: see text]at 8[Formula: see text] . A clear signal is observed in the diphoton channel at a mass close to 125[Formula: see text] with a local significance of [Formula: see text], where a significance of [Formula: see text] is expected for the standard model Higgs boson. The mass is measured to be [Formula: see text] , and the best-fit signal strength relative to the standard model prediction is [Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]. Additional measurements include the signal strength modifiers associated with different production mechanisms, and hypothesis tests between spin-0 and spin-2 models.
In the mol-ecule of the title compound, C21H17N3O2, the 5,6-di-hydro-benzimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline moiety is disordered over two orientations about a pseudo-mirror plane, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.863 (2):0.137 (2). The dihedral angles formed by the benzimidazole ring system and the benzene ring of the quinazoline group are 14.28 (5) and 4.7 (3)° for the major and minor disorder components, respectively. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is present. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains running parallel to [10-1].
The title molecule, C(13)H(13)N(3)O(3).H(2)O, is in the form of a monohydrated zwitterion. The tetrahydropyridinium ring adopts an envelope conformation and is nearly coplanar with the plane of the imidazoline ring. The water solvate molecule plays an important role as a bridge between zwitterions, forming molecular chains running along the c direction, which are interconnected by N-H.O hydrogen bonds into molecular ribbons. The crystal packing is further stabilized by another N-H.O and one O-H.N hydrogen bond, which interconnect the molecular ribbons.
Link analysis algorithms for Web search engines determine the importance and relevance of Web pages. Among the link analysis algorithms, PageRank is the state of the art ranking mechanism that is used in Google search engine today. The PageRank algorithm is modeled as the behavior of a randomized Web surfer; this model can be seen as Markov chain to predict the behavior of a system that travels from one state to another state considering only the current condition. However, this model has the dangling node or hanging node problem because these nodes cannot be presented in a Markov chain model. This paper focuses on the application of Markov chain on PageRank algorithm and discussed a few methods to handle the dangling node problem. The Experiment is done running on WEBSPAM-UK2007 to show the rank results of the dangling nodes.
Introduction : Health management is a tool to ensure an effective running of health program and at the same time avoiding flaws to its components including patients, workers and the entire organization. Risk management is a new concept in health management where the determinants of the problems or the risks are put to minima. It’s strategies are oriented towards prevention as well as controlling to all its administrative system.
Methodology : This is a systematic review on various papers, studies and observations put forwards by risk management experts. It is also supported by feedbacks from many scholars who are involved in research and teaching.
Results : It is been observed that risk management activities have been on practiced in health care delivery system. It is not a new form, but rather a situational action based on certain issues. In fact, it happens in any organization – public or private. Close observation on this area has triggered development of various risk management models including some administrative standard and guidelines.
Conclusion: Risk management is a new approach that need to be practiced by all manager and leader. Its discipline involves interpretation of risk at all angles. It is not only confined to the explicit component, but should also be expended to others area as well. It needs a good sense and good attitude of the manager. The essence of risk management is to minimize the risk to patient, staff, public and the entire organization.
ntroduction: In the marking of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), checklist scoring and global rating are two commonly used scoring systems. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between checklist scores and global ratings for four OSCE stations of different station type. Method: Data for this study was obtained from the Final Year OSCE (n=185). Each station’s score sheet consisted of a detailed checklist of items examined. A global rating scale was also included for the examiner to indicate the global assessment for the station. Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients between checklist scores and global ratings were computed for four stations of different station type. For each station, correlations between checklist scores and global ratings were also checked across the three parallel circuits running concurrently and throughout the four rounds. Result: Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients (ρ) between checklist scores and global ratings for the four stations ranged between 0.62 to 0.88, at p
Events with no charged particles produced between the two leading jets are studied in proton-proton collisions at
. The jets were required to have transverse momentum
1.5 < |
| < 4.7
, and to have values of
with opposite signs. The data used for this study were collected with the CMS detector during low-luminosity running at the LHC, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 8
. Events with no charged particles with
in the interval
- 1 < η < 1
between the jets are observed in excess of calculations that assume no color-singlet exchange. The fraction of events with such a rapidity gap, amounting to 0.5-1% of the selected dijet sample, is measured as a function of the
of the second-leading jet and of the rapidity separation between the jets. The data are compared to previous measurements at the Tevatron, and to perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations based on the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov evolution equations, including different models of the non-perturbative gap survival probability.
The aim of this study was to determine the acute metabolic effects of different magnitudes of wearable resistance (WR) attached to the thigh during submaximal running. Twenty endurance-trained runners (40.8 ± 8.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.7 m, 75.4 ± 9.2 kg) completed six submaximal eight-minute running trials unloaded and with WRs of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% body mass (BM), in a random order. The use of a WR resulted in a 1.6 ± 0.6% increase in oxygen consumption (VO2) for every 1% BM of additional load. Inferential based analysis found that the loading of ≥3% BM was needed to elicit any substantial responses in VO2, with an increase that was likely to be moderate in scale (effect size (ES) ± 90% confidential interval (CI): 0.24 ± 0.07). Using heart rate data, a training load score was extrapolated to quantify the amount of internal stress. For every 1% BM of WR, there is an extra 0.17 ± 0.06 estimated increase in training load. A WR ≥3% of BM was needed to elicit substantial responses in lactate production, with an increase which was very likely to be large in scale (ES ± 90% CI: 0.41 ± 0.18). A thigh-positioned WR provides a running-specific overload with loads ≥3% BM, resulting in substantial changes in metabolic responses.
Treatment of chronic Rockwood's type V Acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation remains controversial. We describe a surgical technique to reduce and maintain AC joint using a combination of gracilis autograft with GraftMax™ button (Conmed Inc, Utica, NY). Graft was prepared using running whip stitch technique with No. 5 Hi-Fi high strength suture (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). Our technique reduces intraoperative clavicular and coracoid tunnel fracture and restores anatomical coracoclavicular ligament. At sixth week and third month postoperatively, the patient demonstrated good clinical and radiographic outcome.
This study investigated the influence of the intention to lean the body forward on spatiotemporal and ground reaction force variables during the acceleration phase of a sprint. Fourteen active adults performed two 50 m sprints (with and without the intention to lean), during which spatiotemporal variables and impulses were obtained using a long force platform system. Effect size (Cohen's d) was used to examine the differences between the two trials. We found that running speed and net anteroposterior impulse did not change by the intention for all steps. However, step frequency increased in the initial two steps through decreases in support time and flight time by the intention. Moreover, these shorter support and flight times were caused by a decrease in the vertical impulse. The propulsive impulse did not change during the initial part of acceleration phase, but the braking impulse decreased at the first step. This study demonstrates that an intention to lean the body forward leads to a smaller braking impulse and a higher step frequency through shorter support and flight times and a smaller vertical impulse during the initial part of the acceleration phase of a sprint.
In paddy cultivation, harvesting is the most important operation, which needs suitable machinery. Thus, this study was carried out to compare field performances and energy and environmental effect between the conventional 5 m cutting width NEW HOLLAND CLAYSON 8080, 82 kW@2500 rpm combine harvester running on a total net area of 42.78 ha of plots for two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation seasons and the new mid-size 2.7 m cutting width WORLD STAR WS7.0, 76 kW@2600 rpm combine harvester running on a total net area of 16.95 ha of plots for two rice cultivation seasons. The conventional combine as compared to mid-size combine showed 14.4% greater mean fuel consumptions (21.13 versus 18.46 l/ha), 31.1% greater mean effective field capacity (0.69 versus 0.53 ha/h), 5.23% greater cornering time (turning time) percentage of total time (8.28% versus 3.05%) and 1.41% greater reversing time percentage of total time (7.2% versus 5.79%) but 20.90% lesser mean operational speed (3.24 versus 4.10 km/h), 11.69% lesser effective time percentage of total time (60.0%versus 71.69%h/ha), 10.8% lesser mean field efficiency (64.3% versus 72.1%). In terms of total energy use the conventional combine showed 24.64% greater mean total energy use in the harvesting operation (1445.81 versus 1160.00 MJ/ha), 14.46% greater mean fuel energy (1010.014 versus 882.39 MJ/ha), 56.47% greater mean machinery energy (431.32 versus 275.65 MJ/ha) and 59.25% greater mean human energy (3.48 and 2.18 MJ/ha), this cause 26.12% greater mean total Green House Gas emission (GHG) than the mid-size combine. The results revealed that the mid-size combine is more suitable in conducting the harvest operation in rice field in Malaysia than the conventional combine.
The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.
Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen® method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen® method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h-1 while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen® method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen® items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen® method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.
Wearable technology has been viewed as one of the plausible alternatives to capture human motion in an unconstrained environment, especially during running. However, existing methods require kinematic and kinetic measurements of human body segments and can be complicated. This paper investigates the use of neural network model (NN) and accelerometer to estimate vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). An experimental study was conducted to collect sufficient samples for training, validation and testing. The estimated results were compared with VGRF measured using an instrumented treadmill. The estimates yielded an average root mean square error of less than 0.017 of the body weight (BW) and a cross-correlation coefficient greater than 0.99. The results also demonstrated that NN could estimate impact force and active force with average errors ranging between 0.10 and 0.18 of BW at different running speeds. Using NN and uniaxial accelerometer can (1) simplify the estimation of VGRF, (2) reduce the computational requirement and (3) reduce the necessity of multiple wearable sensors to obtain relevant parameters.
The comparability and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) devices during running protocols associated with team-sports was investigated. Fourteen moderately-trained males completed 690 m of straight-line movements, a 570 m change of direction (COD) course and a 642.5 m team-sport simulated circuit (TSSC); on two occasions. Participants wore a FieldWiz GPS device and a Catapult MinimaxX S4 10-Hz GPS device. Typical error of measurement (TE) and coefficient of variation (CV%) were calculated between GPS devices, for the variables of total distance and peak speed. Reliability comparisons were made within FieldWiz GPS devices, between sessions. Small TE were observed between FieldWiz and Catapult GPS devices for total distance and peak speed during straight-line (16.9 m [2%], 1.2 km·h-1 [4%]), COD (31.8 m [6%], 0.4 km·h-1 [2%]) and TSSC protocols (12.9 m [2%], 0.5 km·h-1 [2%]), respectively, with no significant mean bias (p > 0.05). Small TE were also observed for the FieldWiz GPS device between sessions (p > 0.05) for straight-line (9.6 m [1%], 0.2 km·h-1 [1%]), COD (12.8 m [2%], 0.2 km·h-1 [1%]) and TSSC protocols (6.9 m [1%], 0.6 km·h-1 [2%]), respectively. Data from the FieldWiz GPS device appears comparable to established devices and reliable across a range of movement patterns associated with team-sports.
A lower duty factor (DF) reflects a greater relative contribution of leg swing versus ground contact time during the running step. Increasing time on the ground has been reported in the scientific literature to both increase and decrease the energy cost (EC) of running, with DF reported to be highly variable in runners. As increasing running speed aligns running kinematics more closely with spring-mass model behaviours and re-use of elastic energy, we compared the centre of mass (COM) displacement and EC between runners with a low (DFlow) and high (DFhigh) duty factor at typical endurance running speeds. Forty well-trained runners were divided in two groups based on their mean DF measured across a range of speeds. EC was measured from 4 min treadmill runs at 10, 12 and 14 km h-1 using indirect calorimetry. Temporal characteristics and COM displacement data of the running step were recorded from 30 s treadmill runs at 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 km h-1 Across speeds, DFlow exhibited more symmetrical patterns between braking and propulsion phases in terms of time and vertical COM displacement than DFhigh DFhigh limited global vertical COM displacements in favour of horizontal progression during ground contact. Despite these running kinematics differences, no significant difference in EC was observed between groups. Therefore, both DF strategies seem energetically efficient at endurance running speeds.