Background: Early intervention will help children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to attain early learning reinforcement. This study focuses on exploring the ability of preschool teachers to identify children with ASD and their referral decision-making process. Method: This is a mixed-method study (qualitative and quantitative methods) involving 20 respondents. The qualitative study is based on an open question case study, while the quantitative study consists of questionnaire with demographic variables to identify the effect of the demographic variables on the preschool teachers' ability to identify children with ASD. Sample: The sample was selected via convenience sampling among mainstream preschool teachers. The data was analyzed using SPSS software and thematic analysis. Results: The findings show that preschool teachers did not have skills at identifying children with ASD, and the majority of them labelled children with ASD as spoilt or hyperactive children. They also viewed children with ASD as having other disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or communication disorders such as introversion. Moreover, preschool teachers expressed that the reason for the child's behaviour could be due to the parents' inability to properly educate their child. Additionally, the demographic variables of the preschool teachers, such as age, education level and teaching experience, were found not to affect their ASD identification skills. Conclusion: Preschool teachers need to improve their skills in identifying ASD among children via training.
Whilst much attention has focused on project-based approaches to teaching Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects, little has been reported on the views of South-East Asian science teachers on project-based STEM approaches. Such knowledge could provide relevant information for education training institutions on how to influence innovative teaching of STEM subjects in schools. This article reports on a study that investigated the perceptions of 25 pre-service and 21 in-service Malaysian science teachers in adopting an interdisciplinary project-based STEM approach to teaching science. The teachers undertook an eight hour workshop which exposed them to different science-based STEM projects suitable for presenting science content in the Malaysian high school science syllabus. Data on teachers' perceptions were captured through surveys, interviews, open-ended questions and classroom discussion before and at the end of the workshop. Study findings showed that STEM professional development workshops can provide insights into the support required for teachers to adopt innovative, effective, project-based STEM approaches to teaching science in their schools.
In order to accomplish a wide range of duties and responsibilities that may be done under unpleasant working con- ditions, prolonged standing posture is common with school teachers. Nevertheless, standing upright for a long time or otherwise regarded as prolonged standing frequently contributes to body pain and discomfort, muscle fatigue and even health problems such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The aim of this paper is to review MSDs arising from prolonged standing and spread information on existing ergonomic and non-ergonomic interventions to alleviate prolonged standing discomfort. Systematic review on prolonged standing school teachers with specific keywords were recognized to discover the appropriate studies and information in a systematic search. The informations in this review may be helpful to guide teacher, school management and researchers to implement the suitable interventions in order to minimise the health issue due to MSDs among school teachers.
A survey was carried out among primary school teachers in the district of Kota Bharu, Malaysia to assess the level of knowledge on asthma and its management. Our findings revealed that primary school teachers were less informed about the management and treatment of asthma. They were relatively more knowledgeable about the causes and symptomatology of asthma. The majority of respondents had misunderstanding regarding the effect of rain, smoking and cold weather on asthma. It is important that teachers should be able to recognise symptoms of an asthmatic attack or take the necessary precautions to avoid such an attack. Many teachers agreed on the need to have an asthma education programme in their teaching curriculum.
Background: In Malaysia, preschool teachers have long been utilised as oral health educators. However their level of oral health knowledge and effectiveness of the training they received are seldom investigated. This study aims to evaluate the of oral health education seminar (OHE) held for public preschool teachers (KEMAS) in terms of the improvement of their knowledge, practices and attitudes.
Methods: This was a one arm interventional study (before and after survey following OHE seminar intervention). All KEMAS preschool teachers (n=107) in Hulu Terengganu were invited to attend OHE seminar which consisted of 1 hour lecture and 40 minutes OHE demonstration. Pretest questionnaire was collected before the seminar started and post-test questionnaire was collected two weeks later. A self-administered questionnaire used in this study was adapted from “preschool teachers’ knowledge, practices and attitudes towards oral health”, National Oral Health Survey of Preschool Children, 2005. Data were analysed using descriptive and McNemar test, SPSS version 15.0.
Results: Of 107 subjects, only 61 teachers responded yielding to 57% response rate. All subjects were female with mean age of 46 years (SD: 6.03). Overall, there was an improvement of teachers’ oral health knowledge, practices and attitudes after the seminar. Several items seem to have be improved significantly after the seminar, for example knowledge item on factors causing periodontal disease (p=0.03). In terms of practice, all teachers reported they brushed teeth at least twice daily using fluoridated toothpaste and use of dental floss was increased significantly after the seminar (p<0.001). Majority of teachers have positive perceptions on their roles in oral health education.
Conclusion: Oral health education seminar appeared to be effective at influencing certain aspects of teachers’ oral health knowledge, practices and attitudes.
Keywords: attitudes, knowledge, oral health promotion, practice, preschool teachers
Nowadays, the issue of teachers' psychological well-being causes serious concern, especially in Malaysia. Many studies related to psychological well-being have focused on students rather than on the health and well-being of teachers. Thus, the current study investigated the determinants of psychological well-being (depression, anxiety and stress) from the psychosocial work environment (job control, job demands and social support), and examined the moderating role of job control and social support in the relationship between job demands and psychological well-being among teachers. The design of this study was quantitative research through a survey questionnaire. The sample consisted of 335 high school teachers (23.3%-male; 76.7%-female) who responded to measuring scales of job demands, job control, social support, depression, anxiety and stress, and socio-demographic profile. The data were analyzed using two statistical methods, namely descriptive and inferential statistics. The hierarchical linear regression model was used to analyze the data by assisting the statistical software, i.e., SPSS-23. The results showed that job demands, job control and social support significantly predicted teachers' psychological well-being. Furthermore, the effect of job demands on teachers' depression and anxiety was partially moderated by job control and social support. In conclusion, this study has successfully identified the significant predictors of teachers' psychological well-being and the role of job control and social support as a moderating variable to teachers' psychological well-being in Malaysia. The result provides insights and contributes to the literature of teachers' psychological well-being determinants and involves Malaysian respondents with a collectivistic eastern culture.
Background : Safety and health is one of major concerns in public health issues. There are lots of injuries or accidents reported in the news which include school accidents and injuries.
Methodology : This survey was conducted among head of primary schools in Kota Bharu from May to June 2004. The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness about safety and health status among school’s head using a questionnaire.
Result : The study showed that knowledge on safety and health among the school’s heads were relatively low (7.7%). Forty-two percent of the schools did not implement any safety and health programme while more than 50 % did not have safety policies in their school.
Conclusions : It is necessary to have specific safety programmes in school in order to improve the safety and health awareness among teachers, staff, students and community.
Four hundred and forty three teachers from eight ran-domly selected primary schools were enrolled in this study which was aimed at determining the knowledge regarding child abuse and neglect among primary school teachers in Kuala Lumpur. The areas that were examined included characteristics of child abusers and abused children. The results showed that the marital status of the teachers did not influence their level of knowledge and there was no significant difference between novice and senior teachers. The most impor-tant finding here was that knowledge regarding sexual and physical abuse was lacking in the teachers surveyed.
Principals are school leaders who experienced stress while leading their schools towards excellence. However, principals stress experiences are always ignored and least studied. This mixed-methods study investigates primary principals' stress experiences and their Islamic coping strategies used in incapacitating the stress experiences. A total of 216 Muslim primary principals across different gender, types of schools and years of experiences as school leaders responded to the administrative stress and the Islamic coping strategies items. In addition, seven primary principals were purposefully selected and interviewed in exploring their reasons of using Islamic coping strategies for their relieving process. Results discovered that primary principals experienced fairly stress level and they perceived managing students' academic achievement was the most stressor followed by managing teachers' capabilities. Although findings revealed that no significant differences in terms primary principals' demographics; male primary principals, and experienced between 6 and 10 years and positioned in schools with least students (SLS) category have slightly higher level of stress. In terms of Islamic coping strategies used by primary principals, saying dhua to Allah, performing dhikir and reciting the Yassen are selected coping approaches employed in handling their stress. From interviews, primary principals also revealed that they used Islamic religious approaches as part of meaningful activities not just to overcoming their stress but also as part of religious approaches in remembering Allah, thinking back their past mistakes as part of the Muhasabah process. Therefore, we believed that religious approaches should be taken into consideration in principals' training as it provides peaceful and treatment in managing principals' stress issue.
Matched MeSH terms: School Teachers/psychology*; School Teachers/statistics & numerical data
Learning using the Internet or training through E-Learning is growing rapidly and is increasingly favored over the traditional methods of learning and teaching. This radical shift is directly linked to the revolution in digital computer technology. The revolution propelled by innovation in computer technology has widened the scope of E-Learning and teaching, whereby the process of exchanging information has been made simple, transparent, and effective. The E-Learning system depends on different success factors from diverse points of view such as system, support from the institution, instructor, and student. Thus, the effect of critical success factors (CSFs) on the E-Learning system must be critically analyzed to make it more effective and successful. This current paper employed the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with group decision-making (GDM) and Fuzzy AHP (FAHP) to study the diversified factors from different dimensions of the web-based E-Learning system. The present paper quantified the CSFs along with its dimensions. Five different dimensions and 25 factors associated with the web-based E-Learning system were revealed through the literature review and were analyzed further. Furthermore, the influence of each factor was derived successfully. Knowing the impact of each E-Learning factor will help stakeholders to construct education policies, manage the E-Learning system, perform asset management, and keep pace with global changes in knowledge acquisition and management.
Matched MeSH terms: School Teachers/organization & administration; School Teachers/standards
Low back pain (LBP) is prevalent among workers both in developed and developing countries. School teachers represent a high proportion of the working population in Malaysia. However, there is a lack of longitudinal study on predictors and course of LBP among teachers. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the predictors and course of LBP among secondary school teachers. Longitudinal data of 701 teachers in Selangor, Malaysia were collected from May 2015 to October 2016. Associations between predictors and LBP were analysed using logistic regression and reported as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). At 12-month of follow-up, 44% (95%CI: 40.6%, 48.0%) of the participants reported having LBP. In the regression model that included all risk factors, only LBP at baseline (OR 10.43, 95%CI: 6.19, 17.58) was associated with LBP at 12-month follow-up. When LBP at baseline was removed from the model, anxiety symptom (OR 2.51, 95%CI: 1.19, 5.30) and lifting heavy weights (OR 4.16, 95%CI: 1.40, 12.30) were found to be significantly associated with LBP at 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, issues on anxiety and lifting heavy weights should be addressed to reduce the occurrence of LBP despite the presence of health condition itself (LBP at baseline).
Matched MeSH terms: School Teachers/psychology; School Teachers/statistics & numerical data*
This generic qualitative study explores the perspective of Malaysian teachers regarding the constraints of the current school-based sexual and reproductive health education in secondary schools of Klang-Valley Malaysia. For this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty eight science teachers of government schools. The majority of participants named the teaching strategy and capacity of teachers, the lack of co-operation from the school and parents, limited resources in teaching and students themselves as some of the challenges. We concluded that if sexual health education is to be effective, it needs to be provided by people who have some specialized training. The teachers should be trained to teach sexual reproductive health education classes at the basic level, and in-service training for teachers already in the field should be intensified. Local adaptation to culture, language, religion, and so forth is often necessary.
Teachers face one of the highest demands of any professional group to use their voices at work. Thus, they are at
higher risk of developing voice disorder than the general population. The consequences of voice disorder may have
impact on teacher’s social and professional life as well as their mental, physical and emotional state and their
ability to communicate. Objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of voice disorder and the
relationship between voice disorder with associated risk factors such as teaching activities and lifestyle factors
among primary school teachers in Bintulu, Sarawak. A cross sectional study was conducted based on random sample
of 4 primary schools in Bintulu, Sarawak between January-March 2014. A total of 100 full-time primary school
teachers were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire
addressing the prevalence of voice disorder and potential risk factors. Descriptive analysis and chi-square test was
used to measure the relationship between voice disorder and associated risk factors. The response rate for this study
was 78% (78/100). The study found that the prevalence of voice disorder among primary school teachers in Bintulu,
Sarawak was 13%. Chi-square test results revealed that factors significantly associated with voice disorder (p
Societal dynamics and increased public demands on education have produced adverse stressful classroom situation that have led to increase emotional and physical disabilities among teacher. The main objective of this descriptive study was to identify the causes of occupational stress amongst secondary school teachers. This study also conducted in order to determine the suitable ways and strategies at helping teachers to cope with the work related pressures that have increased during the past decade. The samples of this study were 100 teachers from four secondary schools in Dungun District, Terengganu. The data were descriptively analyzed based on the responds on a set of questionnaires, checklist and 20 interview sessions conducted for exploration of coping strategy with 20 out of 100 teachers. Based on the finding, it can be concluded that interpersonal relations, physical conditions and job interest contribute towards workrelated stress among teachers. Also discussed the 10 most frequently used coping strategies by teachers. Therefore, there are suggesting measures, which teachers may take to help them cope more effectively with potentially stressful situations at school.
The purpose of this study was to identify whether a novice teachers have a self-esteem while teaching physical education. This study access the level of self-esteem among novice teachers between gender and option teachers teach in physical education. This study is a quantitative research survey and this study design is selected using questionnaires based on Rosenberg self-esteem scale for collecting data. 30 novice physical education teachers have been selected from one of the schools in the district of Sepang, Selangor. 15 males and 15 female teachers were randomly selected from the target group. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 for frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation and independent sample t-test to measure the level of self-esteem of teachers with the dependent variable. The study found that there was no significant difference between the level of self-esteem between genders. While in terms of options, there are significant differences in the level of self-esteem for non-option physical education teachers. The self-esteem level among novice teachers are very important to enhance the quality of learning, especially in the subjects of physical education.
The purpose of this study was to study the association between selected demographic characters
and stress among primary school teachers. The respondents constituted of 60 male
and female school teachers who were chosen using stratified sampling technique. Study was
conducted in Jilin Province. Study design was cross sectional. SPSS was used to analyze
both descriptive and inferential statistics. The main results were as follows. Female teachers
experienced more stress compared to male teachers. Teachers below the age of 40 had more
stress probably, due to teaching experience, as this study revealed that teachers who had
more teaching experience had less stress. Marriage plays and important role in stress, unmarried
teachers experienced comparatively higher levels of stress compared to those married.
Furthermore, those living alone experienced more stress. Occupational stress is known
to cause burnout. It may be a good strategy to provide training in stress management techniques
Involvement of oral health educators among non-health professionals in oral health promotion is important in the prevention of oral diseases. This study was carried out to compare the level of oral health knowledge among pre-school teachers before and after oral health seminar. Pre-test data was collected by distributing questionnaire to pre-school teachers in Pasir Mas, who attended the seminar on "Oral Health" (n=33) and they were required to fill anonymously before the seminar started. The questions consisted of information on general background, perceived oral health status, oral health knowledge and the environment where they work. After two weeks, post-test data was collected using the same structured questionnaire and identification code was used to match the pre and post data. SPSS 11.5 was use for statistical analysis. Two out of 33 eligible preschool teachers were considered non-respondents due to absenteeism during the post-test data collection. The response rate was 94.0% (n = 31). The study shows a significant improvement in oral health knowledge among pre-school teachers in Pasir Mas, after seminar (p < 0.001) as compared to controls. Thus, we can conclude that the oral health programme (seminar) appeared effective at influencing oral health educator's knowledge towards oral health.
To ascertain the level of knowledge among primary school teachers towards the management of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in school and to determine the preference among teachers regarding the education tools that can be used to increase awareness and knowledge among them. A total of 150 teachers from primary schools in three different districts were included in the study and they were given self-administered questionnaires to be filled. The validated questionnaire was distributed randomly in the selected schools. The questionnaire included two scenarios comprising of tooth fracture and avulsion. Questions regarding awareness and management of these scenarios were asked. All 150 participants answered the questionnaire; of these 74% were females 26% were males. 64% of the participants had received tertiary education. Although 70% of teachers had obtained first aid training, only 9.3% of them had received training regrading dental injuries. About 53% of participants knew the correct answer for the appropriate response to fractured tooth and only 35.3% managed to correctly answer the question related to appropriate response to an avulsed tooth. Only 38.7% knew about appropriate rinsing solution and a mere 4.7% were familiar with proper storage media. Even though the teachers have poor knowledge regarding management of dental injuries, it is reassuring to know that 93% of them are keen on further training and awareness. More educational programmes need to be introduced to empower the teachers with the relevant knowledge required to deal with dental emergencies.
Empowering lay screeners, such as pre-school teachers, on vision screening is a cost-effective way to
ensure larger populations of children can be screened. Although the validity of lay screeners in conducting
vision screening were reported in several studies, none showed data concerning improvement of the level
of knowledge among lay screeners after completing vision screening training, which could indicate the
effectiveness of the training program. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge of pre-school
teachers before and after attending a training program. Sixty pre-school teachers from Tabika and Taska KEMAS
were randomly selected. The Study Group (n = 30) was given theory and practical training on vision screening,
whereas the Control Group (n = 30) was only given brief verbal instructions on how to conduct the screening. A
theory test containing 15 questions related to the training modules were administered to both groups, before
and after their training/briefing respectively. The findings showed that the level of knowledge among preschool
teachers in the Study Group (73.24 ± 11.73%) was significantly higher than the Control Group (56.22
± 13.11%) (p < 0.01). There was also a significant improvement in the level of knowledge among pre-school
teachers in the Study Group after the training (p